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The  Imperial  Gazetteer  of  India. 

W.     W.     HUNTER,     C.S.I.,     CLE,     LL.D. 


PALI     TO     RATIA. 






TRUBNER     &     CO.,     LONDON,     iSS6. 







Pd;li.= — Town  in  Jodhpur  State,  Rajputana;  situated  in  lat.  25°  46'  n., 
and  long.  73°  25'  15"  e.,  on  the  route  from  Nasirabad  (Nusseerabad) 
to  Disa  (Deesa),  108  miles  south-west  of  the  former  cantonment.  An 
ancient  place,  acquired  by  the  Rahtors  of  Kanauj  in  1 156  a.d.  It  is  the 
chief  mart  of  Western  Rajputana,  being  placed  at  the  intersection  of  the 
great  commercial  road  from  Mandavi  in  Cutch  to  the  Northern  States, 
and  from  Mahva  to  Bahawalpur  and  Sind.  It  was  formerly  surrounded 
by  a  wall ;  'and  in  consequence,' whites  Thornton,  'its  possession  was 
frequently  contested  by  conflicting  parties  during  the  civil  wars  of 
Jodhpur,  until,  at  the  desire  of  the  inhabitants,  the  defences  were 
demolished ;  and  their  ruins  now  give  the  place  an  air  of  desolation, 
at  variance  with  its  actual  prosperity.'  Pali  was  visited  and  described 
by  Colonel  James  Tod  {A?inals  of  Rdjasthdii)  in  1819,  by  whom  its 
commercial  revenues  were  computed  at  ^^7500  per  annum  ;  they  now 
amount  to  about  ^10,000.  In  1836,  Pali  was  visited  by  a  disease 
locally  known  as  the  Pali  plague,  which  closely  resembled  the  Levan- 
tine plague.  In  June  1882,  Pali  was  connected  by  a  branch  line 
with  the  Rajputana-Malwa  State  Railway,  starting  from  Bitiira  station. 
Water-supply  abundant. 

Pali. — Pargand  in  Shahabdd  iahsil,  Hardoi  District,  Oudh.  Bounded 
/n  the  north  by  pargn?id  Pachhoha ;  on  the  east  by  the  Garra  river, 
separating  it  from  pargands  Shahabad  and  Saromannagar ;  on  the 
south  by  Barwan ;  and  on  the  west  and  south-west  by  the  Sendha  river. 
The  villages  skirting  the  Garra,  though  light  of  soil,  are  the  best  in  the 
pargand.  In  some  of  them  the  lands  remain  moist,  by  percolation 
from  the  river,  till  IsLarch  or  April,  so  that  irrigation  is  scarcely  required. 

VOL.  XI.  A 


In  others,  where  the  river  runs  between  higher  banks  and  with  a 
narrower  flood-basin,  fine  crops  of  opium,  tobacco,  and  vegetables  are 
raised  along  the  river  bank,  owing  to  the  ease  with  which  a  never- 
faiUng  supply  of  water  is  drawn  from  it.  West  of  these  villages,  a 
belt  of  high,  dry,  uneven,  unproductive  bhiir,  with  an  average  breadth 
of  about  3  miles,  runs  parallel  with  the  Garra.  All  the  villages  in  this 
tract  have  been  rated  in  the  third  or  fourth  class.  Here  rents  are  low 
and  wells  are  few.  In  some  of  the  villages  there  is  no  irrigation  at  all. 
To  the  west  of  this  tract,  and  up  to  the  boundary  stream  of  the  Sendha, 
breadths  of  d/idk  jungle  intersected  by  narrow  marshy  Jhils^  along 
whose  edges  cultivation  is  gradually  extending,  alternate  with  treeless 
ridges  of  thinly  cropped  bhur.  Many  of  the  jungle  villages  are  fairly 
productive,  with  average  soil  and  good  water-supply ;  but  in  some  the 
soil  is  cold,  stiff,  and  unproductive,  and  in  almost  all,  cultivators  are 
still  few,  rents  are  low,  and  much  mischief  is  done  by  wild  animals. 
In  the  extreme  west  of  the  pargand,  as  in  the  east  along  the  Garra,  a 
narrow  strip  of  moderately  good  land  fringes  the  Sendha.  There  is 
not  a  mile  of  metalled  road  in  the  pargand.  Cart-tracks  wind  deviously 
from  village  to  village.  Area,  73  square  miles,  of  which  46  are  under 
cultivation.  Population  (1881)  25,962,  naniely,  24,100  Hindus  and  1862 
^Muhammadans.  The  staple  products  are  bajfa  and  barley,  which 
occupy  three-fifths  of  the  cultivated  area.  Wheat,  arhar,  rice,  and 
gram,  make  up  the  greater  portion  of  the  remainder.  Government 
land  revenue,  ^3704,  falhng  at  the  rate  of  2s.  6d.  per  cultivated  acre, 
or  IS.  7d.  per  acre  of  total  area.  Of  the  92  villages  comprising  the 
pargand,  50  are  held  by  Sombansi  Rajputs,  and  22  by  Brahmans 
Tdlukddri  tenure  prevails  in  19  villages,  56  are  za/ninddri,  and  17 
imperfect  pattiddri. 

Pali. — Town  in  Shahabad  tahsil,  Hardoi  District,  Oudh,  and  head- 
quarters of  V 2X1  pargand  ;  situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Garra,  20 
miles  north-west  of  Hardoi  town.  Lat.  27^  31'  45"  x.,  long.  79°  53'  20" 
E.  A  flourishing  town  under  native  rule,  but  somewhat  decayed  of 
late  years,  especially  in  the  Muhammadan  quarters.  Population  (1881) 
3562.  Two  mosques  and  a  Hindu  temple;  Government  school. 
Market  twice  a  week.     Manufacture  of  coarse  cotton  cloth. 

Palia. — Pargand  in  Lakhimpur  tahsil,  Kheri  District,  Oudh  ;  lying 
between  the  Suhel  and  Sarda  rivers,  which  respectively  border  it  on  the 
north  and  south ;  the  eastern  boundary  is  formed  by  Shihjahanpur 
District  of  the  North  -  Western  Provinces;  and  the  western  by 
Nighasan  pargand.  Area,  139  square  miles,  of  which  37  are  under 
cultivation,  the  remainder  being  chiefly  taken  up  by  Government  forest- 
reserves.  A  jungle  pargajid  of  the  same  character  as  Khairigarh, 
the  Raja  of  which  is  also  its  proprietor.  Population  (1881)  18,277, 
namely,     15,770     Hindus,     2495    Muhammadans,    and     12    'others.' 


Land  revenue,  ^^1052.  Game  abounds  in  the  forests.  The  pargand 
is  unhealthy,  malarious  fevers  being  very  prevalent.  Principal  products, 
rice  and  turmeric. 

Palia. — Town  in  Lakhimpur  talisil,  Kheri  District,  Oudh,  and  head- 
quarters of  Palia  pargand  ;  situated  2  miles  north  of  the  Chauka  river, 
in  lat.  28°  26'  N.,  and  long.  80°  37'  e.  Population  (1881)  3802,  namely, 
Hindus  2984,  and  Muhammadans  818.  Two  Hindu  temples;  bi- 
weekly market. 

Paliganj.— Small  town  in  Patna  District,  Bengal ;  situated  near  the 
Son  (Soane)  river,  and  about  25  miles  from  Bankipur.     Police  station. 

Palitana. — Native  State  in  the  Gohelwar  division  of  Kathiawar, 
Bombay  Presidency;  lying  between  21°  23'  30"  and  21°  42'  30"  n.  lat., 
and  between  71°  31'  and  72°  o'  30"  e.  long.  Area,  288  square  miles. 
Population  (1872)  51,476;  (1881)  49,271,  namely,  25,702  males  and 
23J569  females,  dwelling  in  i  town  and  86  villages,  and  occupying 
10,483  houses.  Hindus  number  4*2.955  ;  Muhammadans,  3581  ;  and 
'others,'  2735.  Except  in  the  hills,  where  the  air  is  pleasant,  the 
climate  is  hot ;  and  fever  is  prevalent.  The  principal  agricultural  pro- 
ducts are  grain,  sugar-cane,  and  cotton. 

Palitana  ranks  as  a  '  second-class '  State  in  Kathiawar ;  the  ruler 
executed  the  usual  engagements  in  1807.  The  present  (1881-82)  chief, 
Thakur  Sahib  Sursinghji,  is  thirty-nine  years  old.  He  is  descended 
from  Sarangji,  second  son  of  Sejakji,  as  the  Bhaunagar  Thakur  is  from 
the  eldest  son,  and  Lathi  from  the  third. 

The  present  chief  of  Palitana  has  been  engaged  in  a  long  contest 
to  reassert  his  rights  over  his  own  Bhayad  or  brethren  on  the  one 
hand,  and  over  the  Sarawaks  or  Jain  traders  who  are  interested  in 
the  holy  mountain  of  Satrunjaya  on  the  other.  This  hill,  which  rises 
above  the  town  of  Palitana,  is  covered  with  Jain  temples,  and  is  the 
resort  of  innumerable  pilgrims.  Centuries  before  the  Gohel  chiefs 
established  themselves  in  Surashtra,  the  Jains  worshipped  in  Satrunjaya. 
They  produce  an  imposing  array  of  deeds  from  Mughal  emperors  and 
viceroys,  ending  with  one  from  Prince  Murad  Baksh  (1650),  which 
confers  the  whole  District  of  Palitana  on  Santi  Das,  the  jeweller,  and 
his  heirs.  The  firm  of  Santi  Das  supplied  Murad  Baksh  with  money 
for  the  war  when  he  went  with  Aurangzeb  (1658)  to  fight  Dara  at 
Agra  and  assume  the  throne.  But  the  Mughal  power  has  long  passed 
away  from  Kathiawar,  and,  on  its  downfall,  the  jurisdiction  of  Palitana 
fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Gohel  chief,  a  tributary  of  the  Gaekwar. 
While,  therefore,  the  whole  mountain  is  rightly  regarded  as  a  religious 
trust,  it  is  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  chief,  for  whose  protection  the 
Sarawaks  have  long  paid  a  yearly  subsidy.  Lender  a  decision  of  ^Lajor 
Keatinge  in  1863,  the  representatives  of  the  Jain  community  had  to 
pay  a  lump  sum  of  Rs.   10,000  (^1000)  per  annum  for  ten  years  to 


the  chief,  in  Heii  of  his  levying  a  direct  tax  of  4s.  a  head  on  all  pilgrims 
visiting  the  shrines,  with  the  proviso  that  a  scrutiny  lasting  two  years,  or 
longer  if  necessary,  might  be  demanded  by  either  side  at  the  termina- 
tion of  that  period,  with  a  view  of  ascertaining  whether  the  yearly  sum 
of  Rs.  10,000  was  more  or  less  than  the  right  amount.  The  chief 
demanded  such  a  scrutiny  in  1879,  and  due  arrangements  having  been 
made,  the  count  of  pilgrims  commenced  on  the  23rd  April  1880.  The 
result  of  the  collections  derived  from  the  pilgrims  during  the  year 
1882-83  showed  that  the  sum  formerly  paid  by  the  Jain  community  to 
the  chief  in  lieu  of  all  demands  was  not  sufficient,  and  justified  the 
procedure  ordered  by  the  Government.  No  final  decision,  however, 
to  the  future  amount  to  be  paid  by  the  Jain  priests  to  the  Palitana  chief 
had  been  arrived  at  up  to  1883,  A  decision  of  the  British  Government, 
given  in  March  1877,  while  it  upholds  the  chiefs  legitimate  authority, 
secures  to  the  sect  its  long-established  possessions,  and  maintains  the 
sacred  isolation  of  the  hill. 

The  chief  does  not  hold  a  satiad  authorizing  adoption  ;  in  matters  of 
succession  the  rule  of  primogeniture  is  followed.  The  chief  is  a 
Hindu  of  the  Gohel  clan  of  Rajputs  ;  he  administers  the  affairs  of  his 
State  in  person,  and  has  power  to  try  his  own  subjects  only.  He 
enjoys  an  estimated  gross  yearly  revenue  of  ;£"2o,ooo ;  pays  tribute 
of  ^1036,  8s.  jointly  to  the  Gaekwar  of  Baroda  and  the  Nawab  of 
Junagarh  ;  and  maintains  a  military  force  of  455  men.  There  are 
(1882-83)  16  schools,  with  579  pupils.  Xo  transit  dues  are  levied  in 
the  State. 

Palitana. — Chief  town  of  Palitana  State,  Kathiawar,  Bombay  Pre- 
sidency;  situated  in  lat.  21°  31'  10"  N.,  and  long.  71°  53'  20"  e.,  at  the 
eastern  base  of  the  famous  Satrunjaya  Hill ;  distant  from  Ahmadabad 
120  miles  south-west;  from  Baroda  105  south-west;  from  Surat  70 
north-west;  and  from  Bombay  190  north-west.  Population  (1881)  7659, 
namely,  4436  Hindus,  1627  Muhammadans,  and  1596  Jains.  Formerly 
the  chief  town  of  a  lsing\\di\  pargand.  School,  dispensary,  and  post-office. 
Connected  by  a  good  road  with  Songarh,  the  head-quarters  of  the 
Gohel  war  division,  14  miles  to  the  north. 

Satrunjaya  Hill,  to  which  reference  has  been  made  in  the  foregoing 
article,  is  sacred  to  Adinath,  the  deified  priest  of  the  Jains.  It  is  1977 
feet  above  sea-level.  The  summit  is  divided  into  two  peaks,  but  the 
valley  between  has  been  partly  built  over  by  a  wealthy  Jain  mer- 
chant. The  entire  summit  is  covered  with  temples,  among  which  the 
most  famous  are  those  of  Adinath,  Kumar  Pal,  Vimalasah,  Sampriti 
Raja,  and  the  Chaumukh.  This  last  is  the  most  lofty,  and  can  be  clearly 
distinguished  at  a  distance  of  25  miles.  Satrunjaya  is  the  most  sacred 
of  the  five  sacred  hills  of  the  Jains.  Mr.  Kinloch  Forbes  in  the  Rds 
Mala  describes  it  as  the  '  first  of  all  places  of  pilgrimages,  the  bridal  hall 


of  those  who  would  win  everlasting  rest.'  And  adds,  'There  is  hardly  a 
city  in  India,  through  its  length  and  breadth,  from  the  river  of  Sind  to 
the  sacred  Ganges,  from  Himala's  diadem  of  ice-peaks  to  the  throne  of 
his  virgin  daughter,  Rudra's  destined  bride,  that  has  not  supplied  at  one 
time  or  other  contributions  of  wealth  to  the  edifices  which  crown  the 
hill  of  Palitana.  Street  after  street,  square  after  square,  extend  these 
shrines  of  the  Jain  faith  with  their  stately  enclosures,  half-palace,  half- 
fortress,  raised  in  marble  magnificence,  upon  the  lonely  and  majestic 
mountain,  and  like  the  mansions  of  another  world,  far  removed  in  upper 
air  from  the  ordinary  tread  of  mortals.'  Owing  to  the  special  sanctity 
of  Satrunjaya,  Jains  from  all  parts  of  India  are  anxious  to  construct 
temples  on  the  hill ;  and  all  members  of  the  Jain  faith  feel  it  a  duty  to 
perform,  if  possible,  one  pilgrimage  here  during  their  life. 

The  following  description  of  this  wonderful  temple-hill  is  condensed 
from  an  account  by  Mr.  Burgess  : — 

'  At  the  foot  of  the  ascent  there  are  some  steps  with  many  little 
canopies  or  cells,  a  foot  and  a  half  to  three  feet  square,  open  only  in 
front,  and  each  having  in  its  floor  a  marble  slab  carved  with  the  repre- 
sentation of  the  soles  of  two  feet  {charan),  very  flat  ones,  and  generally 
with  the  toes  all  of  one  length.  A  little  behind,  where  the  ball  of  the 
great  toe  ought  to  be,  there  is  a  diamond-shaped  mark  divided  into 
four  smaller  figures  by  two  cross  lines,  from  the  end  of  one  of  which  a 
waved  line  is  drawn  to  the  front  of  the  foot.  Round  the  edges  of  the 
slab  there  is  usually  an  inscription  in  Deva-nagari  characters,  and 
between  the  foot-marks  an  elongated  figure  like  a  head  of  Indian  corn 
with  the  point  slightly  turned  over.  These  cells  are  numerous  all  the 
way  up  the  hill,  and  a  large  group  of  them  is  found  on  the  south-west 
corner  of  it  behind  the  temple  of  Adiswar  Bhagwan.  They  are  the 
temples  erected  by  poorer  Sarawaks  or  Jains,  who,  unable  to  afford  the 
expense  of  a  complete  temple,  with  its  hall  and  sanctuary  enshrining  a 
marble  viiirti  or  image,  manifest  their  devotion  to  their  creed  by 
erecting  these  miniature  temples  over  the  charana  of  their  Jainas  or 

'  The  path  is  paved  with  rough  stones  all  the  way  up,  only  interrupted 
here  and  there  by  regular  flights  of  steps.  At  frequent  intervals  also 
there  are  rest-houses,  more  pretty  at  a  distance  than  convenient  for 
actual  use,  but  still  deserving  of  attention.  High  up,  we  come  to  a 
small  temple  of  the  Hindu  monkey -god,  Hanuman,  the  image 
bedaubed  with  vermilion  in  ultra-barbaric  style ;  at  this  point  the  path 
bifurcates — to  the  right  leading  to  the  northern  peak,  and  to  the  left  to 
the  valley  between,  and  through  it  to  the  southern  summit.  A  little 
higher  up,  on  the  former  route,  is  the  shrine  of  Hengar,  a  Musalman  //r, 
so  that  Hindu  and  Moslem  alike  contend  for  the  representation  of  their 
creeds  on  this  sacred  hill  of  the  Jains. 


'  On  reaching  the  summit  of  the  mountain,  the  view  that  presents 
itself  from  the  top  of  the  walls  is  magnificent  in  extent ;  a  splendid 
setting  for  the  unique  picture — this  work  of  human  toil  we  have 
reached.  To  the  east,  the  prospect  extends  to  the  Gulf  of  Cambay  near 
Gogo  and  Bhaunagar;  to  the  north,  it  is  bounded  by  the  granite  range 
of  Sihor  (Sehore)  and  the  Chamardi  peak ;  to  the  north-west  and  west, 
the  plain  extends  as  far  as  the  eye  can  reach,  except  where  broken 
due  west  by  the  summits  of  Mount  Girnar — revered  alike  by  Hindu, 
Buddhist,  and  Jain,  the  latter  of  whom  claim  it  as  sacred  to  Neminath 
their  twenty-second  Tirthankar.  From  west  to  east,  like  a  silver 
ribbon  across  the  foreground  to  the  south,  winds  the  Satrunjaya  river, 
which  the  eye  follows  until  it  is  lost  between  the  Talaja  and  Khokara 
Hills  in  the  south-west.  But  after  this  digression,  let  us  return  to  the 
scene  beside  us.  How  shall  I  describe  it  ?  It  is  truly  a  city  of  temples 
— for,  except  a  few  tanks,  there  is  nothing  else  within  the  gates,  and 
there  is  a  cleanliness,  withal,  about  every  square  and  passage,  porch  and 
hall,  that  is  itself  no  mean  source  of  pleasure.  The  silence,  too,  is 
striking.  Now  and  then  in  the  mornings  you  hear  a  bell  for  a  few 
seconds,  or  the  beating  of  a  drum  for  as  short  a  time,  and  on  holidays 
chants  from  the  larger  temples  meet  your  ear ;  but  generally  during  the 
after-part  of  the  day  the  only  sounds  are  those  of  vast  flocks  of  pigeons 
that  rush  about  spasmodically  from  the  roof  of  one  temple  to  that  of 
another,  apparently  as  an  exercise  in  fluttering  and  just  to  keep  their 
wings  in  use.  Parroquets  and  squirrels,  doves  and  ringdoves  abound, 
and  peacocks  are  occasionally  met  with  on  the  outer  walls.  The  top 
of  the  hill  consists  of  two  ridges,  each  about  350  yards  long,  with  a 
valley  between ;  the  southern  ridge  is  higher  at  the  western  end  than 
the  northern,  but  this  in  turn  is  higher  at  the  eastern  extremity.  Each 
of  these  ridges,  and  the  two  large  enclosures  that  fill  the  valley,  are 
surrounded  by  massive  battlemented  walls  fitted  for  defence.  The 
buildings  on  both  ridges,  again,  are  divided  into  separate  enclosures, 
called  tuks^  generally  containing  one  principal  temple,  with  varying 
numbers  of  smaller  ones.  Each  of  these  enclosures  is  protected  by 
strong  gates  and  walls,  and  all  gates  are  carefully  closed  at  sundown.' 

A  description  of  one  of  these  tiiks  must  suffice  here,  but  the  reader 
who  wishes  to  pursue  the  subject  will  find  an  account  of  the  other 
temples  in  Mr.  Burgess'  Notes  of  a  Visit  to  Satrunjaya  Hill,  published 
at  Bombay.  The  tiik  now  to  be  described  is  that  of  Khartarvasi,  of 
which  the  principal  temple  is  that  of  the  Chaumukh  or  '  four-faced ' 
Jaina  occupying  the  centre.  '  It  is,'  says  Mr.  Burgess  {op.  cit.),  'a  fine 
pile  of  the  sort,  and  may  be  considered  a  type  of  its  class.  It  stands 
on  a  platform  raised  fully  2  feet  above  the  level  of  the  court,  and  57 
feet  wide  by  about  67  in  length,  but  the  front  of  the  building  extends 
some  distance  beyond  the  end  of  this.    The  body  of  the  temple  consists 

PA  LIT  ANA   TOWN.  7 

of  two  square  apartments,  with  a  square  porch  or  niandap  to  the  east, 
from  which  a  few  steps  ascend  to  the  door  of  the  antardla  or  hall,  31 
feet  square  inside,  with  a  vaulted  roof  rising  from  twelve  pillars.  Pass- 
ing through  this,  we  enter  by  a  large  door  into  the  shrine  or  garbha 
griha,  23  feet  square,  with  four  columns  at  the  corners  of  the  altar  or 
throne  of  the  image.  Over  this  rises  the  tower  or  vi?nana  to  a  height 
of  96  feet  from  the  level  of  the  pavement.  The  shrine  in  Hindu 
temples  is  always  dark,  and  entered  only  by  the  single  door  in  front ; 
Jain  temples,  on  the  contrary,  have  very  frequently  several  entrances. 
In  this  instance,  as  in  that  of  most  of  the  larger  temples,  besides  the 
door  from  the  antardla,  three  other  large  doors  open  out  into  porticoes 
on  the  platform  —  a  verandah  being  carried  round  this  part  of  the 
building  from  one  door  to  another.  The  front  temple  has  also  two 
side  doors  opening  upon  the  platform.  The  w^alls  of  the  shrine,  having 
to  support  the  tower,  are  very  thick,  and  contain  cells  or  chapels  opening 
from  the  verandah ;  thus  the  doors  into  the  shrine  stand  back  into  the 
wall.  There  are  ten  cells,  and  some  of  them  contain  little  images  of 
Tirthankars ;  those  at  the  corners  open  to  two  sides.  The  pillars  that 
support  the  verandah  deserve  notice.  They  are  of  the  general  form 
everywhere  prevalent  here — square  columns,  to  the  sides  of  which  we 
might  suppose  very  thin  pilasters  of  about  half  the  breadth  had  been 
applied.  They  have  high  bases,  the  shafts  carved  with  flower  patterns 
each  different  from  its  fellow,  the  usual  bracket  capitals  slanting  down- 
wards on  each  side  and  supporting  gopis^  on  whose  heads  rest  the 
abacus — or  rather  these  figures,  with  a  sort  of  canopy  over  the  head  of 
each,  form  second  and  larger  brackets.  The  floors  of  the  larger  temples 
are  of  beautifully  tesselated  marble — black,  white,  and  yellowish  brown. 
The  patterns  are  very  much  alike,  except  in  details,  and  consist  chiefly 
of  varieties  and  combinations  of  the  figure  called  by  the  Jains  Natida- 
varta  —  a  sort  of  complicated  square  fret  —  the  cognizance  of  the 
eighteenth  Jaina.  The  shrine  contains  a  sinhdsan  or  pedestal  for  the 
image ;  in  this  temple  it  is  of  the  purest  white  marble,  fully  2  feet  high 
and  1 2  square.  Each  face  has  a  centre  panel,  elaborately  carved,  and 
three  of  less  breadth  on  each  side,  the  one  nearer  the  centre  always  a 
little  in  advance  of  that  outside  it. 

'  On  the  throne  sit  four  large  white  marble  figures  of  Adinath,  not 
specially  well  proportioned,  each  facing  one  of  the  doors  of  the  shrine. 
These  are  large  figures,  perhaps  as  large  as  any  on  the  hill ;  they  sit 
with  their  feet  crossed  in  front,  after  the  true  Buddha  style,  the  outer 
side  of  each  thigh  joining  that  of  his  fellow,  and  their  heads  rising 
about  10  feet  above  the  pedestal.  The  marble  is  from  Mokhrano  in 
Marwar,  and  the  carriage  is  said  to  have  cost  an  almost  incredible  sum. 
The  aspect  of  these,  and  of  all  the  images,  is  peculiar  ;  frequendy  on 
the  brow  and  middle  of  the  breast  there  is  a  brilliant,  set  in  silver  or 


gold,  and  almost  always  the  breasts  are  mounted  with  one  of  the 
precious  metals,  whilst  there  are  occasionally  gold  plates  on  the 
shoulders,  elbow,  and  knee-joints,  and  a  crown  on  the  head — that  on 
the  principal  one  in  the  Motisah  being  a  very  elegant  and  massive  gold 
one.  But  the  peculiar  feature  is  the  eyes,  which  seem  to  peer  at  you 
from  every  chapel  like  those  of  so  many  cats.  They  appear  to  be  made 
of  silver  overlaid  with  pieces  of  glass,  very  clumsily  cemented  on,  and 
in  every  case  projecting  so  far,  and  of  such  a  form,  as  to  give  one  the 
idea  of  their  all  wearing  spectacles  wath  lenticular  glasses  over  very 
watery  eyes  in  diseased  sockets. 

'  The  original  temple  in  this  tuk  is  said  to  date  back  to  a  king 
Vikrama ;  but  whether  he  of  the  Samvat  era,  57  B.C.,  or  Harsha  Vikram- 
aditya,  about  500  a.d.,  or  some  other,  is  not  told.  It  appears  to  have 
been  rebuilt  in  its  present  form  about  1619  a.d.,  by  Seva  Somji  of 
Ahmadabad,  for  we  read  thus: — "Samvat  1675,  in  the  time  of  Sultan 
Nur-ud-din  Jahdngir,  Sawai  Vijaya  Raja,  and  the  princes  Sultan  Khushru 
and  Khurma,  on  Saturday,  Baisakh  Sudi  13th,  Devraj  and  his  family, 
of  which  were  Somji  and  his  wife,  Rdjaldevi,  erected  the  temple  of  the 
four-faced  Adindth,"  etc.  A  stair  on  the  north  side  leads  to  the  upper 
storey  of  the  tower.  This  temple  is  said  to  contain  a  hundred  and 
twenty-five  images.' 

Fergusson,  in  his  History  of  Indian  and  Eastern  Architecture^  has  the 
following  remarks  on  the  Jain  temple-cities,  with  special  reference  to  this, 
the  greatest  of  them  all : — '  The  grouping  together  of  their  temples  into 
what  may  be  called  "  cities  of  temples,"  is  a  peculiarity  which  the  Jains 
practised  to  a  greater  extent  than  the  followers  of  any  other  religion  in 
India.  The  Buddhists  grouped  their  stiipas  and  vihdras  near  and  around 
sacred  spots,  as  at  Sanchi,  Manikyala,  or  in  Peshawar,  and  elsewhere  ; 
but  they  w-ere  scattered,  and  each  was  supposed  to  have  a  special  meaning, 
or  to  mark  some  sacred  spot.  The  Hindus  also  grouped  their  temples, 
as  at  Bhuvaneswar  or  Benares,  in  great  numbers ;  but  in  all  cases,  so 
far  as  we  know,  because  these  were  the  centres  of  a  population  who 
believed  in  the  gods  to  whom  the  temples  were  dedicated,  and  wanted 
them  for  the  purposes  of  their  worship.  Neither  of  these  religions, 
however,  possesses  such  a  group  of  temples,  for  instance,  as  that  at 
Satrunjaya,  or  Palitana  as  it  is  usually  called,  in  Gujarat.  No  survey 
has  yet  been  made  of  it,  nor  have  its  temples  been  counted ;  but  it 
covers  a  large  space  of  ground,  and  its  shrines  are  scattered  by  hundreds 
over  the  summits  of  two  extensive  hills  and  the  valley  between  them. 
The  larger  ones  are  situated  in  tuks^  or  separate  enclosures,  surrounded 
by  high  fortified  walls  ;  the  smaller  ones  line  the  silent  streets.  A  few 
yatis  or  priests  sleep  in  the  temples  and  perform  the  daily  services,  and 
a  few  attendants  are  constantly  there  to  keep  the  place  clean,  which  they 
do  with  the  most  assiduous  attention,  or  to  feed  the  sacred  pigeons,  who 


are  the  sole  denizens  of  the  spot ;  but  there  are  no  human  hal)itatiGns, 
properly  so  called,  within  the  walls.  The  pilgrim  or  the  stranger 
ascends  in  the  morning,  and  returns  when  he  has  performed  his 
devotions  or  satisfied  his  curiosity.  He  must  not  eat,  or  at  least  must 
not  cook  his  food,  on  the  sacred  hill,  and  he  must  not  sleep  there.  It 
is  a  city  of  the  gods,  and  meant  for  them  only,  and  not  intended  for  the 
use  of  mortals. 

'Jaina  temples  and  shrines  are,  of  course,  to  be  found  in  cities, 
where  there  are  a  sufficient  number  of  votaries  to  support  a  temple,  as 
in  other  religions ;  but  beyond  this,  the  Jains  seem,  almost  more  than 
any  other  sect,  to  have  realized  the  idea  that  to  build  a  temple,  and 
to  place  an  image  in  it,  was  in  itself  a  highly  meritorious  act,  wholly 
irrespective  of  its  use  to  any  of  their  co-religionists.  Building  a  temple 
is  with  them  a  prayer  in  stone,  which  they  conceive  to  be  eminently 
acceptable  to  the  deity,  and  likely  to  secure  them  benefits  both  here 
and  hereafter. 

'  It  is  in  consequence  of  the  Jains  believing  to  a  greater  extent  than 
the  other  Indian  sects  in  the  efficacy  of  temple-building  as  a  means  of 
salvation,  that  their  architectural  performances  bear  so  much  larger  a 
proportion  to  their  numbers  than  those  of  other  religions.  It  may  also 
be  owing  to  the  fact  that  nine  out  of  ten,  or  ninety-nine  in  a  hundred, 
of  the  Jain  temples  are  the  gifts  of  single  wealthy  individuals  of  the 
middle  classes,  that  these  buildings  generally  are  small  and  deficient  in 
that  grandeur  of  proportion  that  marks  the  buildings  undertaken  by 
royal  command  or  belonging  to  important  organized  communities.  It 
may,  however,  be  also  owing  to  this  that  their  buildings  are  more 
elaborately  finished  than  those  of  more  national  importance.  When  a 
wealthy  individual  of  the  class  who  build  these  temples  desires  to  spend 
his  money  on  such  an  object,  he  is  much  more  likely  to  feel  pleasure 
in  elaborate  detail  and  exquisite  finish  than  on  great  purity  or  grandeur 
of  conception. 

'  All  these  peculiarities  are  found  in  a  more  marked  degree  at  Palitana 
than  at  almost  any  other  known  place,  and,  fortunately  for  the  student 
of  the  style,  extending  through  all  the  ages  during  which  it  flourished. 
Some  of  the  temples  are  as  old  as  the  nth  century,  and  they  are  spread 
pretty  evenly  over  all  the  intervening  period  down  to  the  present 

'  But  the  largest  number,  and  some  of  the  most  important,  are  now 
erecting,  or  were  erected  in  the  present  century,  or  in  the  memory  of 
living  men.  Fortunately,  too,  these  modern  examj^les  by  no  means 
disgrace  the  age  in  which  they  are  built.  Their  sculptures  are  inferior, 
and  some  of  their  details  are  deficient  in  meaning  and  expression  ;  but, 
on  the  whole,  they  are  equal,  or  nearly  so,  to  the  average  examples  of 
earlier  ages.     It  is  this  that  makes  Pahtdna  one  of  the  most  interesting 


places  that  can  be  named  for  the  philosophical  student  of  architectural 
art,  inasmuch  as  he  can  there  see  the  various  processes  by  which 
cathedrals  were  produced  in  the  Middle  Ages,  carried  on  on  a  larger 
scale  than  almost  anywhere  else,  and  in  a  more  natural  manner.  It  is 
by  watching  the  methods  still  followed  in  designing  buildings  in  that 
remote  locality,  that  we  become  aware  how  it  is  that  the  uncultivated 
Hindu  can  rise  in  architecture  to  a  degree  of  originality  and  perfection 
which  has  not  been  attained  in  Europe  since  the  Middle  Ages,  but  which 
might  easily  be  recovered  by  following  the  same  processes.' 

Palivela  (/^/////r^/.v).— Town  in  Amalapur  taluk,  Godavari  District, 
Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  i6°  41'  n.,  long.  81°  55'  e.  Population  (1871) 
5315,  inhabiting  1156  houses;  and  (1881)  5561,  inhabiting  1005 
houses.  Hindus  number  5300  ;  Muhammadans,  253  ;  and  Christians,  8. 
Palivela  lies  on  the  bank  of  the  Amalapur  Canal,  which  connects 
Rajamahendri  (Rajahmundry)  with  Amalapur.  Kottapetta,  the  head- 
quarters of  the  deputy-/^//i-f/^ir,  is  a  hamlet  of  Palivela. 

Paliyad.— Petty  State  in  the  Jhalawar  division  of  Kathiawar,  Bombay 
Presidency.  Area,  227  square  miles,  containing  17  villages,  with  7 
separate  shareholders.  Population  (1881)  9662.  Estimated  revenue  in 
1881,  ^4000;  tribute  of  ^90,  14s.  is  paid  to  the  British  Government, 
and  £zo,  12s.  to  the  Nawab  of  Junagarh.  Formerly  (1809)  the  head- 
quarters of  a  Kathiawar  Political  officer.  A  flourishing  village  called 
after  the  estate  lies  8  miles  west  of  KundU  railway  station.  It  exports 
grain  and  cotton  to  Botad  (10  miles)  and  Ranpur  (11  miles)— 
both  stations  on  the  Bhaunagar-Gondal  Railway.  Population  of  Pahyad 
village  (1881)  3368. 

Paliyaverkadu.— Town  in  Chengalpat  (Chingleput)  District,  Madras 

Presidency. — See  Pulicat. 

YdiS^^xk.  —  Zam'Diddn  estate  in  Warora  tahsil,  Bhandara  Dis- 
trict, Central  Provinces ;  traversed  by  the  main  road  from  Kamtha  to 
Sakoli,  and  comprising  21  villages.  Area,  39  square  miles,  one-fourth 
of  which  is  cultivated.  Population  (1881)  7364.  A  good  deal  of  sugar- 
cane is  grown,  and  the  forests  supply  ^^Vand  bijesal  timber.  Until  1856, 
the  estate  was  a  dependency  of  Kamtha.  The  chief  and  most  of  the 
population  are  Kunbis. 

Palkole.  —  Town    in    Godavari    District,  Madras    Presidency.— 5f^ 


Palkonda  (or  Sesdchalam:  Pal,  'milk;'  Konda,  'a  hill').— Range 
of  mountains  in  Cuddapah  District,  Madras  Presidency;  lying  between 
13°  43'  30"  and  14"  27'  N.  lat.,  and  between  78°  56'  and  79°  28'  30''  e. 
long. ;  average  elevation  above  the  sea,  about  2000  feet;  highest  point, 
Buthaid,  3060  feet.  Starting  from  the  sacred  Tirupati  (Tripati)  Hill, 
and  running  north-west  for  45  miles,  the  range  then  turns  nearly  due 
west,  running  across  the  District  to  the  frontier  of  Bellary.     To  the 


first  portion  the  name  Palkonda  is  generally  reserved,  the  part  which 
crosses  the  District  being  called  Seshachalam.  Mr.  Gribble,  writing  of 
the  entire  chain,  says  : — 'This  is  not  only  the  largest  and  most  extensive 
of  all  the  Cuddapah  ranges,  but  it  also  presents  very  marked  features, 
and  differs  in  appearance  from  the  others.  The  Tirupati  hill  is  2500 
feet  above  the  sea,  and  the  Palkonda  range  continues  at  about  the  same 
uniform  height  very  nearly  throughout  the  whole  of  its  extent.  There 
are  very  few  prominent  peaks ;  and  at  a  distance  of  a  few  miles,  it 
presents  the  appearance,  to  any  one  standing  on  the  inside  portion,  of  a 
wall  of  unvarying  height,  shutting  the  covmtry  in  as  far  as  the  eye  can 
reach.  The  top  of  this  range  is  more  or  less  flat,  forming  a  table-land 
of  some  extent.  On  both  sides  the  slopes  are  well  clothed  with  forests, 
which,  near  the  railway,  are  especially  valuable,  and  form  the  important 
Balapalli,  Yerraguntakota,  and  Kodur  reserves.  A  noticeable  feature 
in  this  range,  and  especially  on  its  south-western  slopes,  is  the  manner 
in  which  the  quartzite  rocks  crop  out  at  the  summit.  The  rock  suddenly 
rises  perpendicularly  out  of  the  slope,  and  is  wrested  and  contorted  into 
various  fantastic  shapes,  which  not  unfrequently  give  the  appearance 
of  an  old  ruined  castle  or  fort.  These  hills  were  in  former  days  a 
favourite  resort  of  dakdits  or  gang-robbers,  probably  because  they  are 
not  so  feverish  as  the  other  hills  of  the  main  division.  They  are  now 
nearly  free  from  these  pests  of  society.  Wild  beasts,  however,  are  still 
to  be  found.  Tigers  are  becoming  annually  more  scarce;  of  leopards 
there  are  a  large  number,  which  are  also  very  destructive  ;  a  few  sdmbhar 
deer  are  to  be  found,  and  a  i^"^  bears,  but  the  hills  have  been  too  much 
marked  to  afford  a  good  field  for  sportsmen.' 

The  area  of  Balapalli  (East  and  West),  Yerraguntakota,  and  Kodiir 
forest  reserves  in  1883-84  was  18,965  acres.  The  chief  trees  were — 
red  Sanders  (Pterocarpus  santalinus),  yeppi  (Hardwickia  binata),  tainba 
(Shorea  Tumbuggaia),y«/(7>/  (Shorea  Talura),  and  teak  of  small  size. 

Palkonda.  —  Town  and  Agency  Tract  in  Vizagapatam  District, 
Madras  Presidency. — See  Palakonda. 

Palk's  Bay  and  Straits. — Gulf  and  channel  between  the  mainland 
of  India  and  the  north  part  of  Ceylon,  named  by  the  Dutch  after 
Governor  Palk.  The  gulf  is  bounded  by  Calimere  Point  and  the  coast 
of  Tanjore  to  the  northward  and  westward ;  by  Adam's  Bridge  and  its 
contiguous  islands  to  the  south  ;  and  by  the  north  part  of  Ceylon, 
with  its  islands,  to  the  east.  The  Dutch  describe  three  channels 
between  Calimere  Point  and  the  north  end  of  Ceylon,  which  lead  into 
Palk's  Bay ;  but  the  southern  channel,  called  Palk's  Strait,  is  probably 
the  only  one  that  may  be  considered  safe  for  large  ships. 

Horsburgh,  from  whose  account  in  the  Sailijig  Directions  this 
article  is  condensed,  supplies  the  following  details  : — 

'  Palk's  Bay  having  been  surveyed  by  the  officers  of  the  East  India 

12  FALL  AD  AM. 

Company,  the  following  directions  for  its  navigition  are  given  by  Mr. 
Franklin: — "There  are  two  good  entrances  into  Palk's  Bay  from  the 
eastward — one  between  Point  Calimere  and  the  northern  end  of  the 
middle  banks,  having  19  to  24  feet;  the  other  between  the  southern  end 
of  the  same  banks  and  the  north  coast  of  Ceylon,  with  5  J  to  6  fathoms. 
Sailing  directions  were  published  some  years  back  for  the  northern 
passage,  but  I  would  strongly  recommend  all  commanders  with  a  vessel 
drawing  12  feet  to  make  use  of  that  to  the  southward,  except  with  a 

leading  wind,  or  with  the  aid  of  steam The  following  are  the 

dangers  in  Palk's  Bay  : — 

"  ist.  The  middle  banks — described  by  Horsburgh  (pp.  553,  554). 

"  2nd.  A  long  sandy  spit,  with  from  i  to  2  fathoms  over  it,  stretching 
east  by  south  13  miles  from  a  low  point  above  Kotepatnam,  on  the 
coast  of  India.  It  has  generally  a  heavy  swash  of  sea  over  it,  and 
should  not  be  approached  from  the  eastward  nearer  than  6  fathom?^. 
Captain  Powell  places  its  eastern  extremity  in  10°  2'  30"  n.  lat.,  and 
79°  19'  30"  E.  long.,  allowing  Galle  to  be  in  80°  16'  e.  Its  bearing 
from  Pambam  (Paumbem)  is  n.n.e.  45  miles,  and  from  Point  Calimere 
s.w.lw.  29  miles. 

"  3rd.  The  foul  ground  off  the  north-west  end  of  Ceylon  to  the  east- 
ward of  the  opening  between  that  and  Karativu,  where  the  coast  ought 
not  to  be  approached  nearer  than  2  miles;  for  although  at  present 
there  are  1 2  to  1 5  feet  over  the  knolls,  the  depth  may  decrease,  as  they 
are  composed  of  coral. 

"  4th.  A  detached  rock,  about  the  size  of  a  ship's  boat,  with  only  2 
feet  water  over  it,  between  Purlitivu  and  the  Devil's  Point,  having  the 
following  bearings  : — Devil's  Point,  south  3  miles  ;  south  end  of  Purli- 
tivu, E.s.E.  2 J  miles. 

"Lastly.  Some  rocks  aw\ish,  which  lie  about  i\  mile  off  the  north- 
east end  of  Rameswaram  Island,  where  the  soundings  ought  not  to  be 
shoaled  to  less  than  5  fathoms.  Care  should  be  taken  in  the  north- 
east monsoon  not  to  get  into  the  bay  to  the  eastward  of  this  island,  as 
it  will  be  found  difficult  to  work  out  again.'" 

Mr.  Nelson,  author  of  the  Ma  Jura  Manual  (1868),  describes  the 
Straits  as  abounding  in  'shoals,  currents,  sunken  rocks,  and  blind  sand- 
banks;' and  adds,  'the  passage  through  its  entrance  is  full  of  difficulty 
and  danger.'  The  fury  of  the  north-east  monsoon  is  particularly  felt  in 
the  Straits.  See  also  Commander  Taylors  India  Directory,  p.  450 
(Allen,  187^1). 

Palladam. — Tdluk  or  Sub-division  of  Coimbatore  District,  Madras 
Presidency.  Area,  742  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  213,391, 
namely,  103,116  m.ales  and  110,275  females,  dwelling  in  194  villages, 
and  occupying  47,971  houses.  Hindus  number  207,895;  Muham- 
madans,  3387;  Christians,   2107;  and  'others,'  2.     In  1883  the  tdluk 


contained  2  criminal  courts ;  police  circles  {tJidnds),  8 ;  regular  police, 
79  men.     Land  revenue,  ;^36,755. 

Palladam  {Pulladum).  —  Head-quarters  of  Palladam  tdluk^  Coim- 
batore  District,  Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  10°  59'  n.,  long.  77°  20'  e. 
Population  (1871)  945,  inhabiting  199  houses;  and  (1881)  1121, 
inhabiting  173  houses.  Two  cotton  presses;  ruins  of  an  old  fort; 

Pal  Lahara. — Native  State  of  Orissa,  Bengal,  lying  between  21° 
8'  30"  and  21°  40'  35"  N.  lat.,  and  between  85°  3'  and  85°  21'  30"  e. 
long.  Area,  452  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  14,887.  Bounded 
on  the  north  by  the  Chutia  Nagpur  State  of  Bonai,  east  by  Keunjhar, 
south  by  Talcher,  and  west  by  Bamra.  The  east  and  north  of  the 
State  are  occupied  by  hills.  A  magnificent  mountain,  Malayagiri 
(3895  feet),  towers  above  the  lesser  ranges.  Some  of  the  finest  sal 
forests  in  the  world  are  found  in  Pal  Lahara ;  its  agricultural  products 
consist  of  tlie  usual  coarse  grains  and  oil-seeds,  but  it  has  nothing 
worthy  of  the  name  of  trade.  Of  the  total  population  in  1881  (14,887), 
Hindus  numbered  14,002;  Muhammadans,  8;  and  non-Hindu  abori- 
gines, 877.  The  real  number  of  aborigines  is,  however,  much  greater, 
and  in  187 1  they  were  returned  at  6340.  The  aboriginal  tribes  of  Pal 
Lahara  are  chiefly  Gonds  and  Savars  who  have  adopted  some  form  of 
Hinduism,  and  have  been  returned  as  Hindus  in  the  Census  of  1881. 
The  number  of  villages  in  the  State  was  returned  (i  881)  at  199,  and  the 
inhabited  houses  at  2718.  Lahara,  the  residence  of  the  Raja,  situated 
in  lat.  21°  26'  N.,  and  long.  85°  13'  46"  e.,  is  the  only  village  containing 
upwards  of  100  houses.  The  Midnapur  and  Sambalpur  high  road 
passes  through  the  State  from  east  to  west. 

Pal  Lahara  was  formerly  feudatory  to  Keunjhar,  but  was  separated 
in  consequence  of  quarrels  arising  from  the  fact  that  the  Keunjhar 
Raja  once  compelled  his  vassal  to  dance  before  him  in  woman's 
clothes.  As  the  price  of  peace,  the  Pal  Lahara  chief  was  exempted 
from  any  longer  paying  his  tribute  to  the  Keunjhar  Raja,  and  now 
pays  it  to  the  British  Government  direct.  The  money,  however, 
is  still  credited  in  the  treasury  accounts  to  the  credit  of  the  Keunjhar 
State,  although  for  all  practical  purposes  Pal  Lahara  is  independent  of 
the  Keunjhar  Raja,  and  completely  disowns  his  authority.  For  services 
rendered  at  the  time  of  the  Keunjhar  rebellion  in  1867-68,  the  Pal 
Lahara  chief  received  the  title  of  Raja  Bahadur.  The  present  chief  is 
the  thirty-fourth  in  descent  from  the  original  founder  of  the  State.  The 
estimated  annual  revenue  is  ;^i2o;  the  Raja's  militia  consists  of  67 
men,  and  the  police  force  of  57  men. 

Pallapatti.— Village  in  Coimbatore  District,  Madras  Presidency. — 
See  Arava  Kurichi. 

Pallavaram    {Palaveram). — Town    in    Saidapet  taluJz^    Chengalpat 


(Chingleput)  District,  Madras  Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  12°  57'  30" 
N.,  and  long.  80°  13'  E.,  on  a  wide  plain,  west  of  a  range  of  stony  hills, 
3  miles  south  of  St.  Thomas'  Mount,  and  1 1  miles  south-west  of  Madras. 
Population  (1881)  3956,  occupying  793  houses.  Hindus  number 
2077;  Muhammadans,  908;  Christians,  970;  and  'others,'  i.  A 
military  cantonment  and  pensioners'  station,  with  a  garrison  of  about 
650  men.  Formerly  it  was  called  the  '  Presidency  Cantonment,'  and  had 
lines  sufficient  for  4  native  regiments.  The  place  is  hot,  but  not  un- 
healthy. Elevation,  about  500  feet.  A  station  on  the  South  Indian 
Railway  ;  cantonment  magistrate's  court ;  post-office. 

Palma. — Deserted  Jain  settlement;  situated  within  a  few  miles  of 
Purulia,  and  near  the  Kasai  (Cossye)  river,  in  Manbhiim  District,  Bengal. 
The  following  description  of  the  ruins  is  given  by  Colonel  Dalton  : — 

'The  principal  temple  is  on  a  mound  covered  with  stone  and  brick, 
the  debris  of  buildings,  through  which  many  fine  old //;>^/ trees  have 
pierced,  and  under  their  spreading  branches  the  gods  of  the  fallen  temple 
have  found  shelter.  In  different  places  are  sculptures  of  perfectly  nude 
male  figures,  standing  on  pedestals  and  under  canopies,  with  Egyptian 
head-dresses,  the  arms  hanging  down  straight  by  their  sides,  the  hands 
turned  in  and  touching  the  body  near  the  knees.  One  of  these  images 
is  larger  than  life.  It  is  broken  away  from  the  slab  on  which  it  was  cut, 
and  the  head,  separated  from  the  body,  lies  near.  At  the  feet  of  each 
idol  are  two  smaller  figures  with  chauris  in  their  hands,  looking  up  at 
the  principal  figure.  I  have  now  seen  several  of  these  figures,  and 
there  can,  I  think,  be  no  doubt  that  they  are  images  of  the  Tirthankaras 
of  the  Jains,  who  are  always  thus  figured,  naked  or  '  sky-clad,'  each  with 
his  representative  animal  or  symbol.  Lieutenant  Money  also  observed 
a  stone  pillar,  set  up  perpendicularly,  standing  12  feet  high  by  ij  foot 
square,  with  corners  chamfered,  making  it  an  octagon ;  and  near  this, 
four  more  of  the  Tirthankaras  are  found.  All  about  this  temple  mound 
are  other  mounds  of  cut  stone  and  bricks,  showing  that  there  must  have 
been  here,  at  a  remote  period,  a  numerous  people,  far  more  advanced 
in  civilisation  than  the  Bhilmij  and  Bauri  tribes  who  have  succeeded 

Palmaner  (formerly  called  Venkatagirikotd). —  Taluk  or  Sub-division 
of  North  Arcot  District,  Madras  Presidency.  Area,  447  square  miles. 
Population  (1872)  60,211;  (1881)  41,815,  namely,  21,184  niales  and 
20,631  females,  dwelling  in  i  town  and  159  villages,  and  occupying  8867 
houses.  Hindus  number  39,194;  Muhammadans,  2526;  and  Chris- 
tians, 95.  During  the  famine  of  1876-78  the  tdbik  suffered  severely, 
and  many  small  villages  have  been  depopulated.  The  Census  of  1872 
returned  565  villages,  and  that  of  1881  only  160;  the  population 
has  decreased  by  30*5  per  cent,  during  the  nine  years.  In  1883  the 
taluk  contained  2  criminal  courts ;  police  circles  {thdnds\  5  ;  regular 


police,  52  men;  village  watch  {chaukiddrs\  7.  Land  revenue,  ^6843. 
The  tdhik  stands  on  the  Mysore  plateau,  its  general  level  being  about 
2500  feet  above  sea-level.  It  was  acquired  by  the  British  on  the 
partition  which  took  place  on  the  defeat  and  death  of  Tipii  Sultan. 
Iron  is  worked  in  the  region.     Length  of  roads,  58  miles. 

Palmaner  (Pdlamainer). — Head-quarters  of  the  Palmaner  tdii^k, 
North  Arcot  District,  Madras  Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  13°  11' 
30"  N.,  and  long.  78°  47'  17"  e.,  26  miles  west  of  Chittiir;  elevation 
above  the  sea,  2247  feet.  Lies  near  the  summit  of  the  Magli  Pass. 
Population  (1881)  1931,  inhabiting  379  houses.  A  healthy  station, 
with  lower  temperature  by  about  10°  F.  than  the  rest  of  the  District.  It 
was  at  one  time  used  as  a  sanitarium  by  the  Europeans  of  Madras, 
before  the  route  to  the  Nilgiris  became  preferable.  There  is  a  busy 
trade,  and  in  the  town  is  a  rum  and  arrack  distillery.  Dispensary  ; 
travellers'  bungalow^;  schools  and  chapels.  A  beautiful  glen,  near 
the  town,  called  the  valley  of  Gangamma,  is  frequently  visited  by 

Palmyras  Point— Headland  in  Cuttack  District,  Bengal.  Lat. 
20°  44'  40"  N.,  long.  87°  2'  E.  Landmark  for  vessels  making  for  the 
Hiigli  from  the  south.  Commander  Taylor  thus  treats  of  it  in  his  Sailing 
Directory  (1874)  :— '  Point  Palmyras  (called  by  the  natives  Maipara,  from 
the  contiguous  sandy  island  of  this  name)  bears  from  False  Point 
about  north-east  by  north,  distant  8  leagues ;  but  from  being  abreast 
the  latter  in  14  or  15  fathoms,  with  it  bearing  west-north-west,  the  direct 
course  is  about  north-east,  and  the  distance  10  leagues  to  the  outer 
edge  of  the  bank  off  Point  Palmyras  in  the  same  depth,  with  the  point 
bearing  west-north-west.  Ships  must  be  guided  by  the  soundings  in 
passing  between  them,  as  the  flood  sets  towards,  and  the  ebb  from,  the 
shore;  from  14  to  15  fathoms  are  good  depths  to  preserve  with  a  fair 
wind.  The  land  on  Point  Palmyras  is  low,  and  clothed  with  Palmyra- 
trees,  having  on  each  side  of  it,  at  a  small  distance,  the  mouth  of  a 
river ;  that  on  the  south  side  is  navigable  by  boats  or  snjall  vessels. 
In  rounding  the  bank  off  the  Point,  the  trees  on  the  land  are  just 
discernible  in  15  fathoms  water,  distant  about  4  leagues  from  the 
shore;  ships,  therefore,  seldom  see  the  Point  in  passing,  unless  the 
weather  be  clear,  and  the  reef  approached  upon  14  or  15  fathoms, 
which  ought  never  to  be  done  in  a  large  ship  during  thick  weather,  or 
in  the  night. 

'A  ship  passing  False  Bay  in  daylight,  with  a  westerly  wind,  may 
steer  along  at  discretion  in  10  or  12  fathoms;  but  if  she  gets  into  9 
fathoms,  and  sees  Point  Palmyras,  she  ought  instantly  to  haul  out  into 
12  or  14  fathoms  in  rounding  the  eastern  limit  of  the  bank.  When 
blowing  strong  from  south-west  or  south,  a  ship  with  da}light,  after 
rounding  the  banks  off  Point  Palmyras,  may  haul  to  the  westward,  and 


anchor  to  the  northward  of  the  banks  in  lo  fathoms  or  rather  less  water, 
where  she  will  be  sheltered  by  them  until  the  force  of  the  wind  is  abated.' 
Palnad.— 21i//^/^  or  Sub-division  of  Kistna  District,  Madras  Presi- 
dency. Area,  1057  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  125,799,  namely, 
62,365  males  and  63,434  females,  dwelUng  in  97  villages,  consisting  of 
24,356  houses.  Hindus  number  110,182;  Muhammadans,  9276;  and 
Christians,  6341.  In  1883  the  taluk  contained  i  civil  and  2  criminal 
courts;  police  circles  (thdnds),  12;  regular  police,  loi  men;  village 
watch  {chaukiddrs),  19.  Total  revenue,  £z\MS'  Forest  tract  in  the 
extreme  west  of  the  District.  '  Palnad '  is  said  to  mean  '  milk  land  '  from 
the  light  cream-coloured  marble  that  abounds  ;  another  derivation  makes 
Palndd  mean  'the  country  of  hamlets.'  Taken  over  by  the  British  in 
1 80 1.  Dachepalle,  the  head-quarters,  has  a  population  (i 881)  of  2268, 
dwelling  in  497  houses.     Post-office. 

Palni.— Tli/z//^  or  Sub-division  of  :vladura  District,  Madras  Presi- 
dency. Area,  910  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  171,5155  namely, 
82,959  males  and  88,556  females,  dwelling  in  i  town  and  125  villages, 
and  occupying  34,457  houses.  Hindus  number  161,857;  Muham- 
madans, 8191  ;  and  Christians,  1467.  In  1883  the  tdliik  contained  2 
criminal  courts;  police  circles  {thdnds\  10;  regular  police,  75  men. 
Land  revenue,  ;^24,ooi. 

Palni  {Palani  or  Pulney^.—Tow^n  in  Palni  idluk,  Madura  District, 
Madras  Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  10°  27'  20"  n.,  and  long.  77°  33'  i" 
E.,  34  miles  west  of  Dindigal,  and  69  miles  north-west  of  Madura. 
Population  (1871)  12,801,  inhabiting  1782  houses;  (1881)  12,974, 
inhabiting  2074  houses.  In  the  latter  year,  Hindus  numbered  ii,395  ; 
Muhammadans,  1329  ;  and  Christians,  250.  It  is  the  head-quarters  of 
the  tdluk,  and  gives  its  name  to  the  neighbouring  range  of  mountains 
{vide  infra).     Post-office. 

Palni  {Palani,  Pidney ;  also  called  Varahagiri,  Vadagirt,  and 
Kaima7idena?i).—lslo\ini2:m  range  in  Madura  District,  Madras  Presi- 
dency;  lying  between  10°  and  10°  15'  n.  lat.,  and  between  77°  20'  and 
77°  55'  E.  long.  It  extends  in  a  north-easterly  direction  from  the 
great  mass  of  mountains  known  as  the  Western  Ghats,  with  which  it 
is  connected  by  an  isthmus  or  ridge  of  hills  about  8  miles  in  width, 
being  completely  isolated  on  every  other  side.  To  the  north  are  the 
Districts  of  Coimbatore  and  Trichinopoli ;  to  the  east  Madura  and 
Tanjore;  to  the  south  and  west  Tinnevelli  and  Travancore  State. 
These  mountains  were  sur\'eyed  more  than  fifty  years  ago  by  Cai)tain 
Ward  of  the  Surveyor-General's  Department.  He  states  their  length, 
from  east  to  west,  to  be  54  miles  ;  average  breadth,  15  miles  ;  superficial 
area,  798^  square  miles,  including  Anjinad,  now  a  dependency  of 
Travancore.  Captain  Ward  reckons  the  area  of  the  Anjinad  Hills  at 
231-:^  square  miles,  which  leaves  567  square  miles  for  the  Palm's  proper. 

PALNI.  17 

The  native  name  of  these  mountains  is  Varahagiri  or  '  Pig-mountains.' 
The  range,  although  nearly  isolated,  is  part  of  the  same  system  as  the 
Anamalais,  and  resembles  the  latter  in  so  many  respects  that -a  large 
portion  of  the  article  on  the  Anamalais  may  be  read  as  referring 
equally  to  the  Palm's.  Anjinad  may  be  taken  as  belonging  to  either 
group,  and  doubtless  it  is  through  the  Palm's  that  the  colonization  of  the 
western  group  will  take  place. 

The  Palm's  are  divided  into  two  groups,  the  higher  and  lower,  or  the 
west  and  east  ranges.  The  mean  elevation  of  the  former  is  about  7000 
feet ;  of  the  latter,  from  3000  to  4000  feet.  Six  ghats  or  passes  lead 
up  to  the  lower  range,  all  of  a  rough  description.  The  lower  range  is 
generally  known  to  the  natives  under  the  designation  of  Tandigudi  and 
Virupachi.  The  higher  range,  which  has  plateaux  of  over  100  square 
miles,  is  said  to  reach  an  elevation  of  8500  feet  in  one  of  its  peaks. 
The  rocks  (of  gneiss  with  quartz  and  felspar)  are  covered  with  heavy 
black  soil,  and  traversed  by  numerous  streams.  The  only  made  ghat 
up  to  the  higher  Palm's  on  the  south  side  is  that  from  Periakulam  to 
Kodaikamal.  Six  other  passes  also  lead  to  the  higher  range.  The 
total  population  of  the  hills  is,  according  to  the  Census  of  1881,  18,633 
souls  ;  5487  on  the  higher  ranges,  and  13,146  on  the  lower.  The  range 
is  connected  with  the  South  Indian  Railway  at  Amanayakaniir  (40 
miles  distant)  by  a  practicable  pass,  and  other  roads  connect  ii-  with 
Travancore  on  the  west,  and  Madura  on  the  east. 

The  wild  animals  met  with  on  the  Palnis  are — tiger,  leopard,  wild 
cat,  bear,  bison,  sdmbhar,  ibex,  spotted  deer,  jungle  sheep,  wild  hog, 
wild  dog,  jackal,  mongoose,  marten  cat,  and  squirrel.  Of  birds — the 
large  brown,  the  crested  and  the  black  eagle,  a  great  variety  of  falcons 
and  hawks,  pea-fowl,  jungle-fowl,  spur-fowl,  hill-quail,  blackbird,  thrush, 
etc.     Elephants  are  now  seldom  seen. 

The  inhabitants  of  the  hills  are  divided  into  the  following  tribes: — (i) 
Manadis,  Kunuvars  (mountaineers)  or  Koravars;  (2)  Karakat  Vellalars; 
(3)  Shettis  or  traders ;  (4)  Paliyars.  The  Koravars  are  supposed  to 
be  a  caste  of  lowland  cultivators,  who  came  from  the  plains  of 
Coimbatore  some  three  or  four  centuries  ago.  They  are  the  chief 
landed  proprietors,  possess  large  herds  of  cattle,  and  compared  with 
the  other  tribes,  seem  to  be  in  easy  circumstances.  At  the  marriage  of 
a  Koravar  the  whole  tribe  is  present ;  and  to  avoid  unnecessary  expense, 
marriages  are  generally  put  off  till  two  or  more  can  be  celebrated 
together,  each  family  contributing  towards  the  expenses.  Incompati- 
bility of  temper  is  a  sufficient  ground  for  divorce.  Polygamy  prevails. 
The  Western  Koravars  have  the  following  peculiar  custom  : — When  an 
estate  is  likely  to  descend  to  a  female  in  default  of  male  issue,  she 
is  forbidden  to  marry  an  adult,  but  goes  through  the  ceremony  of 
marriage  with  some  young  male  child,  or,  in  some  cases,  with  a  portion 

VOL.  XL  B 

i8  PALNI, 

of  her  father's  dwelling-house,  on  the  understanding  that  she  shall  be 
allowed  to  cohabit  with  any  man  of  her  caste  whom  she  prefers,  and 
her  issue  thus  begotten  inherits  the  property,  which  is  retained  in  the 
woman's  family.  Numerous  disputes  originate  in  this  custom,  and 
evidence  has  been  adduced  in  courts  to  show  that  a  child  of  three  or 
four  years  was  the  son  or  daughter  of  a  boy  of  ten  or  twelve.  The 
religion  of  the  Koravars  is  nominally  Sivaite,  but  they  pay  worship 
mainly  to  the  mountain  god  Vallapom. 

The  Karakat  Vellalars  probably  settled  on  the  Palm's  at  a  remote 
period.  They  are  abstemious  in  their  diet  and  are  not  averse  to  meat, 
but  smoke  and  chew  opium  and  tobacco.  They  anoint  themselves 
with  ghi  instead  of  oil ;  wear  the  same  dress  as  the  Vellalars  of  the 
plains ;  abstain  from  the  use  of  sandals ;  and  invariably  ornament  their 
ears  with  rings.  Though  Brahmans  officiate  as  priests  in  the  temples, 
yet  the  ceremonies  of  the  Vellalars  are  performed  by  Pandarams.  They 
associate  freely  with  the  Koravars,  and  each  can  eat  food  dressed  by 
the  other.  A  man,  if  his  wife  proves  barren,  may  with  her  consent 
marry  a  second,  but  in  no  other  case  is  a  plurality  of  wives  allowed. 
The  remarriage  of  widows  is  permitted. 

The  Shetti  class,  from  their  connection  with  the  people  of  the  plains, 
are  considered  aliens.  Their  comparative  affluence  has  procured  for 
them  the  office  of  mediators  in  all  serious  disputes  among  the  other 
tribes,  under  the  impression  that  being  strangers  to  the  hills  they  are 
likely  to  act  impartially.  They  trade  largely  in  hill  produce,  make 
advances  on  crops,  etc.,  and  import  low  country  goods  for  sale  or 
barter  among  the  various  tribes. 

The  Paliyar  tribe  is  the  most  numerous  on  the  Palnis,  and  they  are 
regarded  as  the  aborigines.  The  Paliyars  hold  a  degraded  position,  and 
are  in  some  degree  slaves  to  the  Koravars.  In  spite  of  this,  they  possess 
considerable  influence  over  the  Koravars  and  other  tribes  as  priests  and 
physicians,  for  they  alone  are  believed  to  understand  the  use  of  the 
various  medicinal  herbs,  and  alone  can  offer  charms  and  incantations 
to  the  local  deities.  Their  position  has  been  ameliorated  during  recent 
years.  As  a  body,  they  are  mild  and  inoffensive.  They  are  fond  of 
hunting,  killing  tigers  either  by  shooting  or  poisoning.  Their  religion 
is  demon-worship,  their  marriage  system  monogamous,  and  their  food 
anything.  All  the  tribes  of  the  Palm's  are  more  or  less  addicted  to 
indulging  in  a  species  of  beer  called  Iwja  made  from  i-agi  (Eleusine 

The  native  cultivation  is  carried  on  in  fields,  cut  into  terraces,  on  the 
spurs  and  slopes  of  the  hills,  and  laid  out  with  great  skill  and  labour. 
1  he  hill  people  are  well  acquainted  with  the  value  of  manure,  carefully 
preserving  dung  and  using  it  in  a  liquid  form.  In  irrigation  they 
are  also  skilled ;  constructing  dams  at  the  most  convenient  points,  and 

PALNL  ,g 

conveying  the  water  to  their  fields  by  means  of  channels  along  the  steej) 
sides  of  the  hills.  Considerable  herds  of  cattle  are  in  the  possession  of 
the  people,  who  use  both  oxen  and  buffaloes  for  agricultural  purposes. 
But  compared  with  the  fine  breed  of  Toda  buffaloes  in  the  Nilgiris, 
the  Palni  buffalo  is  an  insignificant  animal.  The  native  products  of  the 
higher  range  of  the  Palm's  are — garlic,  rice,  mustard,  wheat,  barley, 
vendayam  (Trigonella  Foenum-gra^cum),  t/ien?iai  (Setaria  italica),  and 
a  few  potatoes.  Garlic  is  the  staple  product  and  the  chief  article  of 
export.  On  the  lower  range  of  the  Palm's  the  native  i)roducts  are- 
turmeric,  ginger,  cardamoms,  plantains,  vendayam,  castor-oil  seed,  rice, 
samai  (Panicum  miliare),  vardgu  (Panicum  miliaceum),  themiai,  ra<^t 
(Eleusine  corocana),  kambu  (Pennisetum  typhoideum),  and  potatoes. 
The  chief  staple  of  export  is  a  peculiar  species  of  plantain.  In  the 
jungles  are  found  the  jack,  mango,  orange,  lime,  citron,  pepper,  wild 
cinnamon,  and  nutmeg. 

On  the  lower  Palnis  coffee  plantations  have  been  formed.  In  1883 
the  number  of  plantations  was  2059,  covering  an  area  of  2289  acres,  of 
which  1643  acres  were  under  mature  plants,  177  acres  under  immature 
plants,  and  469  acres  were  taken  up  for  planting;  the  approximate  yield 
was  931,581  lbs.,  or  an  average  of  567  lbs.  per  acre  of  mature  plants. 
Several  portions  of  the  upper  range  are  also  well  adapted  for  the  growth 
of  coffee. 

Considerable  traffic  is  carried  on  between  the  plains  and  the  Palnis. 
The  chief  article  of  import  is  salt ;  cloth  and  other  necessaries  are 
also  bartered  for  hill  products,  chiefly  garlic.  The  whole  of  the 
traffic  is  in  the  hands  of  the  Shettis  and  Labbays,  who  make  large 

Since  1880,  on  the  upper  Palm's  76-6  square  miles,  on  the  lower 
Palm's  27-2  square  miles,  besides  some  important  sholas  or  glades, 
have  been  constituted  forest  reserves.  The  timber  trees  include  teak, 
blackwood,  cedar,  and  vengai  (Pterocarpus  Marsupium).  The  forests 
on  the  slopes  are  of  considerable  value,  containing  much  vengai  and 
other  valuable  timber.  Teak,  blackw^ood,  and  sandal-wood  are  now 
scarce.  Much  of  the  best  forest  land  has  been  exhausted  by  plantain 
cultivation.  The  shingle  tree  (Acrocarpus  fraxinifolius)  grows  to  a 
great  size,  several  trees  measuring  upwards  of  20  feet  in  girth  at  six 
feet  from  the  base. 

The  climate  is  milder  and  of  a  more  even  temperature  than  that  of 
Utakamand  (Ootacamund).  The  rainfall  is  less  than  on  the  Nilgiris, 
but  it  is  more  equally  distributed  throughout  the  year.  Mists  and  fogs 
are  common.  The  lower  range  is  feverish,  but  the  higher  portion  is 
healthy.  The  sanitarium  of  Kodaikanal  enjoys  a  growing  popularity. 
Around  Kodaikanal  the  soil  is  very  productive.  Nearly  all  English 
trees  and  vegetables  grow  well. 


Paloha.— Village  in  Gadawara  iahsil,  Narsinghpur  District,  Central 
Provinces.  Population  (1881)  2838,  namely,  Hindus,  2740;  Muham- 
madans,  54;  Jains,  8  ;  Kabirpanthi,  i  ;  and  non-Hindu  aborigines,  35. 
PalU.— Village  in  the  District  of  the  Twenty-four  Parganas,  Bengal ; 
situated  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Hugli,  in  lat.  22°  47'  30"  N.,  and  long. 
88°  24'  E.,  2  miles  above  Barrackpur.  In  old  days  it  was  known  as 
containing  a  powder  magazine,  and  as  the  point  where  the  Grand  Trunk 
Road  from  Calcutta  crosses  the  Hugli  towards  the  north-west.  It  is 
now  more  celebrated  for  its  works  supplying  Calcutta,  14  miles  distant, 
with  water,  the  purity  of  which  is  daily  tested  in  Calcutta  by  the  Govern- 
ment analyst.  The  works  include  a  jetty  for  landing  machinery,  coals, 
and  filtering  media,  while  it  protects  the  two  large  suction  pipes,  30 
inches  in  diameter,  which  here  dip  into  the  river,  and  through  which 
the  water  is  drawn  by  pumps.  There  is  an  aided  vernacular  school  at 

Palupare.— Old  fort  in  the  Kiggatnad  taluk  of  Coorg,  on  the  Kire 
river.  Once  the  residence  of  former  rulers  of  Coorg  named  Kole  Linga 
and  Borne  Krishna;  and  the  scene  of  a  battle  at  the  end  of  the  17th 
century,  in  which  Raja  Dodda  Virappa  completely  defeated  an  invading 
army  from  Mysore  under  the  command  of  Chikka  Deva  Wodeyar. 
Some  ditches  and  small  stone  temples  still  mark  the  spot,  which  has 
now  been  converted  into  a  coffee  estate. 

Palwal.— Central  eastern  tahsil  of  Gurgaon  District,  Punjab ;  lying 
between  27°  55'  30"  and  28°  14  n.  lat,  and  between  77°  14'  and 
77^"  35'  E.  long.,  stretching  along  the  right  bank  of  the  Jumna,  and 
intersected  by  the  Agra  Canal  and  the  trunk  road  from  Delhi  to 
Agra.  The  soil  is  generally  fertile,  consisting  of  loam  and  clay. 
The  population  consists  principally  of  Jat  cultivators.  Area,  385 
square  miles,  with  186  towns  and  villages,  13,781  houses,  and  32,363 
families.  Total  population  (1881)  142,258,  namely,  males  75^233, 
and  females  67,025.  Average  density  of  the  population,  369  persons 
per  square  mile.  Classified  according  to  religion,  there  were  in 
1881 — Hindus,  121,576;  Muhammadans,  20,494;  Jains,  172;  Sikhs, 
15  ;  and  Christian,  i.  Of  the  186  towns  and  villages,  100  contain  less 
than  five  hundred  inhabitants ;  53  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand;  31 
from  one  to  five  thousand;  and  2  upwards  of  five  thousand.  The 
average  area  under  cultivation  for  the  five  years  1877-78  to  1881-82 
was  246^  square  miles,  or  157,709  acres,  the  area  occupied  by  the  chief 
crops  being  as  follows  \—jodr,  41,366  acres  ;  barley,  34,480  acres ;  gram, 
32,730  acres;  hajra,  29,749  acres;  wheat,  17,650  acres.  Of  non-food 
crops,  cotton  is  by  far  the  most  important,  and  was  grown  on  an  annual 
average  of  23,541  acres  for  the  above  five  years.  Revenue  of  the 
tahsil,  ;£2 7,890.  The  tahsilddr  is  the  only  local  administrative  officer, 
and  presides  over  i  civil  and  i  criminal  court ;  number  of  police  circles 

PAL  WAL  TO  WN- FAME  AM  PASS  A  GE.  2 1 

(f/uimh),   3 ;    strength  of  regular  police  force,   84   men ;    rural    police 
{c/uin/yiddrs)^  299. 

Palwal. — Town  and  municipality  in  Gurgaon  District,  Punjab,  and 
head-quarters  of  Palwal  fa/isil.  Situated  in  lat.  28°  8'  30"  n.,  and  long. 
77°  22'  15"  E.,  in  the  open  plain  between  the  river  Jumna  (Jamuna) 
and  the  Mewat  hills,  about  30  miles  south-east  of  Gurgaon,  on  the 
trunk  road  from  Delhi  to  Muttra.  Palwal  is  a  town  dating  from  remote 
antiquity,  and  Hindu  pandits  identify  it  with  the  Apelava  of  the 
Mahdbhdrata,  part  of  the  Pandava  kingdom  of  Indraprashtha.  It  is 
said  to  have  been  one  of  the  cities  restored  by  Vikramaditya,  57  B.C. 
The  oldest  part  covers  a  high  mound  formed  by  the  accumulated 
debris  of  many  centuries ;  but  of  late  years,  houses  and  streets  have 
sprung  up  on  the  plain  at  the  foot  of  the  mound.  Bricks  of  unusual 
dimensions  are  often  unearthed  \  and  in  digging  a  well  a  few  years  ago, 
remains  of  walls  and  houses  were  found  fifty  feet  below  the  surface. 

The  modern  town  of  Palwal  is  the  second  largest  in  Gurgaon  Dis- 
trict ;  but  with  the  exception  that  the  bazar  forms  a  grain  mart  for  the 
surrounding  country,  it  is  of  no  commercial  importance,  and  has  no 
manufactures.  The  population,  too,  has  declined  from  12,729  in 
1868  to  10,635  in  1881.  In  the  latter  year,  Hindus  numbered  7107  ; 
Muhammadans,  3426;  Jains,  97;  and  Sikhs,  5.  Number  of  houses, 
1293.  Municipal  income  (1883-84),  ^743,  or  an  average  of  is.  sd. 
per  head.  The  principal  streets  are  paved  with  stone  or  brick,  and  are 
well  drained.  An  elegant  domed  tomb  of  red  sandstone,  just  outside 
the  town  on  the  Muttra  road,  is  said  to  have  been  built  by  a  fakir, 
who  levied  an  impost  for  this  purpose  of  one  slab  on  every  cart-load  of 
stone  which  passed  from  Agra  to  Delhi  for  the  building  of  the  fort  of 
Salimgarh.  The  principal  architectural  feature  of  the  town  is  a  mosque 
of  the  early  Muhammadan  period.  It  has  a  flat  roof,  supported  by  square 
carved  pillars  and  architraves  of  the  style  usually  found  in  mosques 
built  of  material  taken  from  Hindu  temples.  The  town  contains  besides 
the  usual  Sub-divisional  courts  and  offices,  a  post-oftice,  rest-house, 
police  station,  school,  and  a  large  sardi  or  native  inn. 

Pambai. — River  in  Travancore  State,  Madras  Presidency;  a  rapid 
mountain  stream,  with  rocky  bed  and  high  banks  in  its  upper  course 
from  the  Western  Ghats.  In  the  plains  it  becomes  a  fine  navigable 
river;  and,  with  the  waters  of  the  Achinkoil,  which  join  it  about  15  miles 
from  its  mouth,  it  enters  the  great  backwater  at  Alleppi.  Its  whole  length 
is  about  90  miles,  for  50  of  which  it  is  navigable  by  large  boats  at  most 

Pambam  Passage  {Paumbefi;  pambu,  *a  snake,'  said  to  be  named 
from  the  character  of  the  channel). — The  artificial  channel  known  as 
the  '  Pass,'  which  affords  the  means  of  communication  for  sea-going 
ships  between  the  continent  of  India  and  the  island  of  Ceylon.       It 


lies  between  the  mainland  of  Madura  District  and  the  little  island  of 
Rameswaram,  which  is  the  first  link  in  the  chain  of  islets  and  rocks 
forming  Adam's  Bridge.  Geological  evidence  tends  to  show  that  in 
early  days  this  gap  was  bridged  by  a  continuous  isthmus ;  and  the 
ancient  records  preser\'ed  in  the  temple  of  Rameswaram  relate  that  in 
the  year  1480  a  violent  storm  breached  the  isthmus,  and  that,  despite 
efforts  to  restore  the  connection,  subsequent  storms  rendered  the  breach 
permanent.  The  Passage  was  formerly  impracticable  for  ships,  being 
obstructed  by  two  parallel  ridges  of  rock  about  140  yards  apart.  The 
more  northerly  of  these  ridges  was  the  higher  of  the  two,  and  used  to 
appear  above  water  at  high  tide.  The  space  between  was  occupied  by 
a  confused  mass  of  rocks,  lying  for  the  most  part  parallel  to  the  ridges, 
and  in  horizontal  strata.     The  formation  is  sandstone. 

The  first  proposal  to  deepen  this  channel  for  traffic  was  made  by  a 
certain  Colonel  Manuel  Martinez,  who  brought  the  matter  under  the 
attention  of  Mr.  Lushington,  Collector  of  the  Southern  Provinces  of 
India,  and  afterwards  Governor  of  Fort  St.  George.  Nothing,  however, 
was  done  until  1822,  when  Colonel  de  Haviland  recommended  the  insti- 
tution of  a  regular  sur\-ey,  which  was  entrusted  to  Ensign  (afterwards  Sir 
Arthur)  Cotton,  whose  name  is  so  honourably  associated  with  all  the 
great  engineering  projects  in  Southern  India.  Cotton's  opinion  was 
favourable;  but  other  matters  diverted  the  attention  of  Government 
until  1828,  when  Major  Sim  was  instructed  to  undertake  experiments  in 
blasting  and  removing  the  rocks.  His  report  will  be  found  at  length  in 
the  Journal  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society  (vol.  iv.).  The  first 
scientific  marine  surv^ey  of  the  channel  was  conducted  in  1837  by 
Lieutenants  Powell  and  Ethersey  of  the  Indian  Navy,  assisted  by 
Lieutenants  Grieve  and  Christopher,  with  Felix  Jones  as  their  draughts- 
man. The  charts  made  on  this  occasion  still  remain  the  standard 
authority.  Finally,  in  1877,  a  connection  was  estabhshed  by  Mr. 
Chapman  and  Lieutenant  Coomb,  R.N.,  between  the  marine  and  land 
surveys ;  and  a  series  of  valuable  obser\-ations  were  made  on  the 
tides,  etc.,  which  have  been  published  in  the  form  of  a  Hydrographical 

The  operations  for  deepening  and  widening  the  channel  were  com- 
menced in  1838,  and  have  ever  since  been  continued.  Convict  labour 
has  been  employed  to  a  considerable  extent,  under  the  supervision  of 
the  Madras  Sappers  and  Miners.  By  1844  the  channel  had  been 
deepened  to  8  feet  of  water  at  low  spring  tides,  and  two  war  steamers 
were  able  to  pass  through.  The  total  expenditure  up  to  that  date  was 
-^o^SjSQS-  I^  1S54,  Lieutenant  -  Colonel  Cotton  reported  that  the 
uniform  depth  was  10 J  feet;  that  the  passage  was  navigable  for  keeled 
vessels  of  200  tons;  that  the  tonnage  passing  through  in  1853  was 
nearly  160,000  tons,  as  compared  with  17,000  tons  in  1822  ;  and  that 


the  total  expenditure  had  been  about  ;£"32,5oo.  Colonel  Cotton 
pressed  upon  Government  that  the  channel  should  be  extended  on 
such  a  scale  as  to  be  practicable  for  ocean  steamers ;  but  this  is  for- 
bidden by  the  shallow  character  of  the  neighbouring  coast.  Blasting 
and  dredging  operations  have  since  been  carried  on  regularly  up  to  the 
present  date.  The  main  channel  through  the  larger  reefs  of  rocks  has 
now  been  carried  down  to  a  minimum  depth  of  14  feet.  Its  length  is 
4232  feet,  and  its  width  80  feet.  The  returns  furnished  for  the  first 
edition  of  this  work  showed  that,  in  1875-76,  the  total  number  of 
vessels  that  passed  through,  including  several  steamers,  was  2657, 
aggregating  269,544  tons ;  the  Government  share  of  pilotage  fees 
was  ;2<!"23i3.  There  is  a  second  channel  to  the  south  of  the  main 
channel,  called  Kilkarai  Passage,  which  is  2100  feet  long  and  150 
feet  wide,  and  has  been  dredged  through  a  sandbank  to  the  depth 
of  12  feet.  In  1875-76  this  was  used  by  805  vessels,  paying  ^87 
in  dues.     Later  navigation  statistics  are  not  available. 

The  traffic  passing  by  the  Pambam  Passage  is  mostly  of  a  coasting 
nature,  between  Ceylon  and  the  mainland ;  though  there  is  some 
emigration  by  this  route  to  British  Burma  and  the  Straits.  If  ocean 
steamers  are  ever  destined  to  run  inside  the  island  of  Ceylon,  it  is 
stated  that  the  best  route  will  be  a  ship  canal  across  either  the  peninsula 
of  Ramnad  or  the  island  of  Rameswaram. 

Pambam.  —  Town,  deriving  its  name  from  the  passage  between 
the  island  of  Rameswaram  and  the  mainland  of  India,  in  Madura 
District,  Madras  Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  9°  17'  20'' n.,  and  long. 
79°  15'  31"  E.,  at  the  western  extremity  of  the  island  commanding  the 
channel.  Population  in  187 1  (with  adjoining  villages)  9407,  inhabiting 
1986  houses.  In  1881  the  population  of  Pambam  village  was  4833, 
and  the  number  of  houses  727.  The  lighthouse,  rising  97  feet  above 
high-water  mark,  contains  a  fixed  catadioptric  light  which  guides  vessels 
making  the  channel  from  the  Gulf  of  Manar.  The  channel  is  open  to 
vessels  of  500  tons  burden.  The  population,  chiefly  Labbays,  are 
employed  as  pilots,  divers,  and  in  other  seafaring  pursuits.  Half  the 
year,  the  Ceylon  Government  have  their  immigration  depot  fixed  here  ; 
and  this,  with  the  constant  influx  of  pilgrims  from  every  part  of  India, 
and  the  grain  trade,  gives  the  port  an  appearance  of  great  activity.  The 
average  annual  value  of  trade  for  the  five  years  ending  1883-84  was 
;£"55,92i— imports  ^23,857,  and  exports  ^32,064.  In  1883-84  the 
value  of  trade  was  ;£\Z^(i2^ — imports  ;£"i 9,802,  and  exports  ^28,823. 
At  one  time  the  place  was  of  importance  on  account  of  its  pearl  fishery, 
and  at  an  early  period  it  was  used  as  a  refuge  for  the  Ramnad 
chiefs,  in  whose  zaviinddri  it  is  still  included.  They  had  a  palace  in 

Pamidi.— Town  in  Gooty  (Giiti)  taluk,  Anantapur  District,  Madras 


Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  14°  56'  30"  n.,  and  long.  77°  39'  15"  e.,  on 
the  Penner  river,  14  miles  south  of  Gooty  (Gilti).  Population  (1881) 
5260,  residing  in  1025  houses.  Hindus  number  4290,  and  Muham- 
madans  970.  Pamidi  is  an  unhealthy  place,  occupied  chiefly  by  a 
community  of  weavers.     Post-ofiice. 

Pdmpur. — Town  in  Kashmir  (Cashmere)  State,  Northern  India, 
lying  in  lat.  34°  N.,  long.  75°  3'  E.,  on  the  north  bank  of  the  river 
Jehlam  (Jhelum),  about  5  miles  south-west  of  Srinagar,  in  the  midst  of 
a  fertile  tract,  surrounded  by  orchards  and  gardens.  A  bridge  of 
several  arches  spans  the  river ;  bazar ;  two  Muhammadan  shrines. 
The  neighbouring  country  is  chiefly  devoted  to  growth  of  saff"ron,  con- 
sidered finer  than  that  of  Hindustan. 

Panabdras. — ZaminddH  or  chiefship  in  Warora  iahsil,  Chanda 
District,  Central  Provinces ;  situated  80  miles  east  -  north  -  east  of 
Wairagarh,  within  a  dense  belt  of  jungle  and  forest,  comprising  an 
area  of  344  square  miles,  with  142  villages  and  4058  houses.  Total 
population  (1881)  12,374;  average  density  of  population,  36  persons 
per  square  mile.  The  population  has  considerably  increased  of  late 
years,  owing  to  the  opening  out  of  Chhatisgarh,  of  which  plateau  the 
Panabaras  zamifiddri  forms  a  part.  Wild  arrowroot  {tikhur)  grows 
abundantly  in  the  valleys;  and  the  hills  yield  much  wax  and  honey. 
The  climate  is  moist  and  cool  even  in  the  summer  months.  Panabaras 
includes  the  dependent  chiefship  of  Aundhi.  The  ruler  ranks  first  of 
the  Wairagarh  chiefs. 

Panabdras.  —  Teak  forest  in  the  south-east  corner  of  Panabaras 
chiefship  in  Chanda  District,  Central  Provinces.  Area,  25  square 
miles.  The  boundary  has  been  cleared  and  marked  out  by  the  Forest 
Department.  The  population  consists  of  Gonds,  but  dahya  or  nomad 
cultivation  seems  unknown  to  them.  Some  of  the  trees  contain  as 
much  as  200  cubic  feet  of  timber.  This  forest  supplied  the  teak 
used  in  the  Nagpur  palace,  the  Kamthi  (Kamptee)  barracks,  and  the 
Residency  at  Sitabaldi. 

Pdndgur. — Town  in  Jabalpur  (Jubbulpore)  tahsil^  Jabalpur  District, 
Central  Provinces;  situated  in  lat.  23°  17'  n.,  and  long.  80°  2  e.,  on 
the  northern  road  9  miles  from  Jabalpur  city.  Population  (1881) 
4915,  chiefly  agricultural.  Hindus  number  3491  ;  Kabirpanthis,  63  ; 
Satnamis,  36;  Jains,  417;  Muhammadans,  589;  and  non-Hindu 
aborigines,  319.  Iron,  from  the  neighbouring  mines,  forms  the  chief 
article  of  trade.     Sugar-cane  is  the  principal  agricultural  product. 

Panahat  (or  Bah-Pandhat). — South-eastern  tahsil  of  Agra  District, 
North-Western  Provinces.  It  is  nearly  surrounded  on  all  sides  by 
large  rivers,  and  forms  almost  an  island,  cut  off  from  the  main 
District.  For  about  five  or  six  miles  on  the  east,  the  iahsil  is  bounded 
by  Etawah  District,  and  in  the  extreme  west  for  about  nine  miles  by 


Dholpur  State.  Elsewhere  it  is  enclosed  by  water — on  the  south  by  the 
Chambal,  flowing  in  long  and  sweeping  curves  from  west  to  east,  which 
separates  it  from  Gwalior  territory ;  and  on  the  north  by  the  Utanghan 
and  the  Jumna,  which  form  a  continuous  boundary  line,  separating  the 
tahsil  from  Mainpuri  and  Etawah  Districts.  In  shape,  Pan^hat  is  a 
long  irregular  strip  of  land,  narrow  at  either  end,  but  widening  out 
toward  the  centre.  Its  extreme  length  from  east  to  west  is  about  42 
miles,  and  its  extreme  breadth  about  14  miles,  with  an  average  breadth 
of  eight  or  nine  miles. 

Total  area  of  the  tahsil^  341  square  miles,  of  which  176  square 
miles  are  cultivated.  A  considerable  portion  of  the  land  is  held 
revenue-free,  and  only  283  square  miles  are  assessed  for  Government 
revenue;  of  w^hich  161  square  miles  are  cultivated,  37  square  miles 
cultivable,  and  85  square  miles  barren  and  waste.  Total  popu- 
lation (1872)  142,155;  (1881)  120,529,  namely,  males  63,524,  and 
females  57,005,  thus  showing  a  decrease  of  population  in  13  years  of 
21,626,  or  15-2  per  cent.  Classified  according  to  religion,  there  were 
in  1881 — Hindus,  115,154;  Muhammadans,  3491;  Jains,  1880;  and 
Christians,  4.  Of  204  inhabited  villages,  124  contained  less  than  five 
hundred  inhabitants;  52  between  five  hundred  and  a  thousand;  27 
between  one  and  five  thousand;  and  i  upwards  of  five  thousand. 
Government  land  revenue  (1881-82),  ^20,867,  or  including  local  rates 
and  cesses  levied  on  the  land,  ;£"2  3,698.  Total  rental,  including  rates 
and  cesses,  paid  by  the  cultivators,  £^^<^,2^i. 

Panahat  tahsil  is  badly  off  for  communications,  and  it  is  only  in  the 
direction  of  Dholpur  that  there  is  any  exit  for  the  tahsil^  except  by  the 
passage  of  an  unbridged  river.  Four  second-class  roads  afford  means  of 
internal  communication.  There  is  but  httle  trade,  and  there  are  no 
merchants.  Cattle-breeding  is  largely  carried  on  by  the  landholders, 
and  the  so-called  Panahat  breed  has  more  than  a  local  reputation. 
In  1883  the  /^/[j// contained  i  criminal  court;  number  of  police  circles, 
4;  strength  of  regular  police,  56  men;  village  police  {chaiikiddrs)^  348. 

Panahat. — Town  in  Agra  District,  North- Western  Provinces,  and  the 
head-quarters  of  the  tahsil  till  1882,  when  it  was  removed  to  the  village 
of  Bah.  Situated  in  lat.  26°  52'  39"  n.,  and  long.  78'  24'  58"  e.,  about 
a  mile  from  the  left  bank  of  the  Chambal,  -t^Z  niiles  south-east  of  Agra 
city.  Population  (1881)  5697,  namely,  Hindus,  5005;  Muhammadans, 
653;  and  Jains,  39.  The  town  contains  a  police  station,  post-office, 
school,  and  three  fine  Hindu  temples.  The  old  fort  commands  an 
extensive  view,  and  is  a  station  of  the  great  Trigonometrical  Survey. 

Panapur  (or  Bhagiadu).  —  Agricultural  town  in  Saran  District, 
Bengal.     Population  (1881)  6425. 

Panar. — River  in  Purniah  District,  Bengal ;  formed  by  the  junction 
of  a  number  of  hill  streams  rising  in  Nepal.     Its  course  is  first  south- 


east  through  Sultinpur  and  Haveli  Purniah  pargands,  then  southwards 
through  Kadba  and  Hatanda  to  the  Ganges.  It  is  navigable  by 
boats  of  250  ?naunds,  or  about  9  tons  burden,  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Purniah,  and  above  that  for  boats  of  100  viaunds  (about  3 J  tons), 
ahnost  to  the  Nepal  frontier.  The  current  in  the  upper  reaches  is 
very  rapid. 

Panchamnagar. — ^Village  in  Damoh  District,  Central  Provinces  ; 
situated  in  lat.  24^  3'  n.,  and  long.  79°  13'  e.,  24  miles  north-west  of 
Damoh  town.  Population  (1881)  below  2000;  but  the  place  appears 
to  have  been  once  much  larger.  The  paper  produced  at  Panchamnagar 
bears  a  high  repute.     Police  station  and  village  school. 

Panchannagram  {'The  Fifty-five  Villages'). — The  name  given  to 
the  suburbs  of  Calcutta,  containing  an  area,  according  to  the  latest 
Revenue  Survey  Report,  of  14,829  acres,  or  23*17  square  miles.  Lat. 
22°  30'  to  22°  41'  N.,  long.  88°  19'  to  88°  31'  e.  Attached  to  the  treaty 
made  in  1757  with  Mir  Jafar,  is  a  Hst  of  the  villages  then  granted  to  the 
Company  free  of  rent.  This  was  the  origin  of  the  zaminddri  of  Dihi 
Panchaimagram,  of  which  the  part  enclosed  within  the  limits  of  the  old 
Maratha  Ditch  forms  the  town  of  Calcutta.  The  remainder,  which  is 
under  the  Collector  of  the  Twenty-four  Parganas,  yields  an  annual 
revenue  of  ;^8i2o,  derived  from  22,500  separate  holdings.  The  lands 
lie  all  round  the  south-east  and  south  of  Calcutta,  beginning  from  the 
Government  telegraph -yard  on  Tolly's  nald^  and  running  up  to  Dum- 
Dum  on  the  east.  On  the  north  the  zatmnddri  is  bounded  by  the 
Government  estate  of  Barahanagar  (Burranagore). 

Panchavra. — Petty  State  in  the  Gohelwar  division  of  Kathiawar, 
Bombay  Presidency ;  consisting  of  i  village.  Lies  2  miles  south  of 
Songarh  station,  on  the  Bhaunagar-Gondal  Railway,  and  12  miles  north- 
east of  Palitana.     Area,  78  square  miles.     Population  (1881)  504. 

Panchet  {Pdjichkol). — Large  zaminddri  or  landed  estate  in  Man- 
bhiim  District,  Bengal;  occupying  an  area  of  1,209,795  acres,  or  1890 
square  miles,  being  five-thirteenths  of  the  total  area  (4914  square 
miles)  of  the  District.  It  contains  19  of  the  45  pargajtds  into  which 
Manbhilm  is  divided,  and  pays  to  Government  a  revenue  of  ;£"5579. 
The  Rajas  of  Panchet  claim  that  they  came  into  Manbhum  as  conquer- 
ing Rajputs  from  North-Western  India ;  but  it  is  more  probable  that 
they  are  of  aboriginal  descent,  and  it  is  certain  that  their  claims  to 
supremacy  were  only  nominally  recognised  by  the  other  chiefs  of  the 
District.  The  earliest  mention  of  the  estate  by  the  Muhammadan 
historians  is  given  by  Mr.  Blochmann  in  The  /oiir?ial  of  the  Asiatic 
Society  for  187 1,  as  follows: — 'Of  Panchet,  I  have  only  found  a  short 
remark  in  the  voluminous  Pddishdh-ndtnah  (B.  i.  p.  317):  "  Bir 
Narayan,  zajuinddr  of  Panchet,  a  country  attached  to  Subah  Behar,  was 
under  Shah  Jahan  a  commander  of  300  horse,  and  died  in  the  6th  year 


(a.h.  1042-43,  A.D.  1632-33)."     Short  as  the  remark  is,  it  implies  that 
Panchet  paid  a  fixed  />esMasA  to  Delhi.' 

Mr.  J.  Grant,  in  his  Report  to  Lord  Cornwallis  in  the  last  century 
on  the  Revenues  of  Bengal  (Fifth  Report,  Madras  edition,  1866, 
p.  464),  describes  the  '  Zamiuddri  Ra'J  of  Pdnchet '  as  a  jungle  territory 
of  2779  square  miles,  situated  within  the  portion  of  country  ceded  to 
the  Company,  and  differing  little  in  its  financial  history  or  internal 
management  from  the  adjoining  District  of  Bishnupur.  From  the 
year  1135  to  1 150  of  the  Bengal  era  (1728-43  a.d.).  Raja  Garur  Narayan 
was  subject  to  an  annual  tribute  of  Rs.  18,203  ^o^  the  Fiscal  Division 
of  Panchet  and  the  kisuiat  of  Shergarh.  In  1743,  an  additional  charge 
of  Rs.  3323  was  levied  from  the  estate  in  the  form  of  the  dbivdb  chauth 
Mardthd  imposed  by  All  Vardi  Khan.  In  11 70  (1763),  the  sajf-i-sikkd, 
or  impost  levied  by  Kasim  Ali  to  cover  losses  on  the  exchange  of  coins, 
swelled  the  net  assessment  to  Rs.  23,544.  Muhammad  Reza  Khan  in 
1766  raised  the  demand  to  Rs.  30,000,  but  only  Rs.  5969  was  in  fact 
collected  during  that  year.  In  1771,  a  zor  talab  or  compulsory  exac- 
tion of  Rs.  144,954,  including  a  saranjdmi  or  deduction  for  collecting 
charges  of  Rs.  17,302,  was  established,  and  the  demand  enforced  by 
military  authority.  In  the  'gross  medium  Settlement'  of  1777  with 
Raja  Raghunath  Narayan,  '  the  actual  payment  of  Panchet,  with  the 
recent  territorial  annexation  of  Jhalida,'  is  stated  at  Rs.  69,027.  Yet  the 
native  surveyors  had  discovered  sources  of  revenue  amounting  in  all  to 
Rs.  154,423,  including  paldtikd  or  revenue  chargeable  on  lands  that 
had  been  deserted  by  the  cultivators.  Finally,  in  1783,  the  total 
assessment  of  the  same  territory  amounted  to  Rs.  76,532,  charged  with 
a  deduction  of  about  Rs.  57,000  for  collection  expenses.  This,  Mr. 
Grant  points  out,  gives  little  more  to  the  sovereign  than  the  original 
tribute,  and  '  leaves  a  recoverable  defalcation  exceeding  i  lakh  of 
rupees,  if  we  take  the  zor  talab  or  compulsory  exaction  of  17  71  as  the 
proper  standard.' 

In  the  Permanent  Settlement  made  with  the  Raja  of  Panchet,  the 
Government  revenue  was  fixed  by  assessing  in  detail  every  village 
within  the  zamiuddri,  with  the  exception  of  the  rent-free  grants.  A  list 
of  the  latter  was  submitted  to  Government  by  the  Raja  as  early  as  177 1, 
and  the  rent-paying  villages  were  returned  in  a  similar  manner  at  the 
time  of  the  Decennial  Settlement.  The  large  numbers  of  rent-free  grants 
is  mainly  due  to  the  desire  to  induce  Brahmans  to  settle  on  the  estate. 

Panchet.  — Hill  in  Manbhiim  District,  Bengal;  situated  in  lat.  23° 
37'  30"  N.,  and  long.  86°  49'  15"  e.,  half-way  between  Raghunathpur 
and  the  confluence  of  the  Barakhar  and  Damodar  rivers.  It  is  3  miles 
long,  stretching  from  north  to  south  in  a  long  rounded  ridge,  at  least 
2000  feet  above  sea-level.  The  hill  is  covered  with  dense  jungle,  and 
is  inaccessible  to  beasts  of  bur  Jen. 


Pdnchipenta  {Pdchipeta). — Hill  pass  or  ghat  in  Saliir  taluk,  Vizaga- 
patam  District,  Madras  Presidency,  by  which  the  road  crosses  from 
Saliir  to  Jaipur.  The  crest  of  the  pass  is  about  3000  feet  above  sea- 
level.  Lat.  18°  28'  N.,  long.  83°  12'  E.  The  village  of  Panchipenta 
— containing  in  1881,  879  houses  and  4385  inhabitants — is  the  capital 
of  an  ancient  zami?iddri,  a  feudatory  of  Jaipur  (Jeypore),  and  '  Count 
of  the  Southern  Marches.'  The  Maratha  Horse  of  Jafar  Ali  descended 
into  the  Chicacole  Circar  in  1754,  by  the  treachery  of  the  Panchipenta 
zaminddr,  who  was,  in  consequence,  imprisoned.  One  of  the  family 
fell  at  the  battle  of  Padmanabham  in  1794.  The  estate  pays  a  fixed 
revenue  of  ;^2 696. 

Pdnchkot. — Large  zaminddn  and  hill  in  Manbhiim  District,  Bengal. 
— See  Panchet. 

Panch  Mahals  (or  Five  Sub-divisions).  —  British  District  on  the 
eastern  frontier  of  Gujarat,  Bombay  Presidency;  lying  between  22°  30' 
and  23°  10'  N.  lat.,  and  between  73°  35'  and  74°  10'  e.  long.  Area, 
1613  square  miles.  Population  in  1881,  255,479  persons,  or  158  per 
square  mile.  For  purposes  of  administration,  the  territory  is  distributed 
over  3  Sub-divisions,  which  form  two  main  groups,  divided  by  the  lands 
of  Baria  in  Rewa  Kantha.  The  Sub-divisions  are  Godhra,  Kalol,  and 
Dohad.  Halol  is  a  petty  Sub-division  under  Kalol.  The  south-west 
portion  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  States  of  Lundwara,  Sunth,  and 
Sanjeli ;  on  the  east  by  Baria  State ;  on  the  south  by  Baroda  State ; 
and  on  the  west  by  Baroda  State,  the  Pandu  Mehwds  and  the  river 
Mahi  separating  it  from  Kaira  District.  The  north-east  portion  is 
bounded  on  the  north  by  the  States  of  Chilkari  and  Kushalgarh ;  on 
the  east  by  Western  Malvva  and  the  river  Anas  ;  on  the  south  by  Western 
Malvva  ;  and  on  the  west  by  the  States  of  Sunth,  Sanjeli,  and  Baria. 
On  the  transfer  of  the  Panch  Mahals  from  Sindhia  in  1861,  they  were, 
in  the  first  instance,  placed  under  the  Political  Agent  for  Rewa 
Kantha.  In  1864  the  revenue  was  made  payable  through  Kaira.  In 
1877  the  Panch  Mahals  were  erected  into  a  distinct  Collectorate. 
For  purposes  of  general  administration,  they  form  a  non-regulation 
District,  under  the  charge  of  an  officer  styled  the  Collector  and  Agent 
to  the  Governor  of  Bombay,  Panch  Mahals.  The  administrative  head- 
quarters of  the  District  are  at  Godhra. 

Physical  Aspects. — The  two  sections  of  the  District  differ  consider- 
ably in  appearance  —  that  to  the  south-west  (except  a  hilly  portion 
covered  with  dense  forest,  comprising  the  Pawagarh  Hill)  is  a  level 
tract  of  rich  soil ;  while  the  northern  portion,  although  it  contains 
some  fertile  valleys,  is  generally  rugged,  undulating,  and  barren,  with 
but  little  cultivation.  The  forests  lie  mainly  in  the  centre  of  the 
District.  In  some  of  the  western  villages,  the  careful  tillage,  the 
well -grown    trees,    the   deep   sandy   lanes  bordered   by   high   hedges 


overgown  with  tangled  creepers,  recall  the  wealthy  tracts  of  Kaira. 
In  other  parts  are  wide  stretches  of  woodland  and  forest,  or  bare 
and  fantastic  ridges  of  hills  without  a  sign  of  tillage  or  population. 
In  the  north-east,  the  wide  expanse  of  yellow  corn,  and  the  fields  of 
many-coloured  poppies,  tell  of  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  opium- 
growing  Mahvi. 

Though  there  are  many  streams  and  watercourses,  the  District  has 
no  permanent  river,  except  the  Mahi,  which  touches  on  the  north-west. 
The  Anas  and  Panam  dry  up  in  the  hot  weather.  From  wells  and 
pools,  however,  the  District  is  sufficiently  supplied  with  water.  There 
are  altogether  (1881)  2260  wells,  127  water-lifts,  and  753  ponds  in  the 
Panch  Mahals.  Several  of  these  ponds  cover  an  extent  of  over  100 
acres.  The  one  near  Godhra,  called  the  Orwada  lake,  is  said  never  to 
have  been  dry,  and  to  have  a  pillar  in  the  centre  only  visible  in  times 
of  extreme  drought. 

Pawagarh,  the  '  quarter  hill,'  in  the  south-west  corner  of  the  District 
is  the  only  mountain  of  any  size.  It  rises  2500  feet  from  the  plain  in 
almost  sheer  precipices,  and  has  a  rugged  and  picturesque  outline  on 
the  summit,  which  is  strongly  fortified,  and  was  formerly  a  place  of 
much  consequence.  Mention  is  made  of  it  so  far  back  as  1022,  when  the 
Tuars  were  lords  of  the  neighbouring  country  and  of  Pawa  Fort.  The 
Chauhans  next  held  the  fort,  and  a  Muhammadan  commander  attacked 
it  in  1418  without  success.  Sindhia  took  it  between  1761  and  1770, 
and  held  it  until  1803,  when  it  was  breached  and  seized  by  Colonel 
Woodington.  In  1804,  Pawagarh  was  handed  back  to  Sindhia,  with 
whom  it  remained  until  1853,  when  the  English  took  over  the  manage- 
ment of  the  District.  Pawagarh  is  now  a  sanitarium  for  the  Europeans 
in  Panch  Mahals  District  and  Baroda. 

The  District  contains  limestone,  sandstone,  trap,  quartz,  basalt,  granite, 
and  other  varieties  of  stone,  well  fitted  for  building  purposes.  The  hill 
of  Pawagarh  is  said  to  represent  a  mass  of  trap  rock,  which  at  one  time 
reached  to  the  Rajpipla  Hills.  There  are  hot  springs  10  miles  west  of 

When,  in  1861,  the  District  was  taken  over  by  the  British  Govern- 
ment, big  game  of  all  kinds,  and  many  varieties  of  deer,  abounded. 
Wild  elephants  were  common  two  centuries  ago,  and  twenty  years 
back,  tigers  were  numerous.  As,  however,  large  numbers  of  big  game 
have  been  shot  annually  for  many  years,  the  supply  is  now  much 
reduced.  Only  within  the  last  few  years  has  any  attempt  been  made  to 
introduce  a  system  of  conservancy  into  the  management  of  the  Panch 
Mahal  forests.  So  severely  have  they  suffered  from  previous  want 
of  care,  that,  in  spite  of  their  great  extent,  litde  timber  of  any  size  is 
now  to  be  found.  In  1881-82,  the  forest  revenue  amounted  to  ;^4426. 
Besides  timber-trees,   the  most    important   varieties    are  —  the  7nahud 


(Bassia  latifolia),  from  whose  flowers  a  favourite  intoxicating  drink  is 
prepared;  the  khdkhra  (Butea  frondosa),  whose  flat,  strong  leaves  are  used 
as  plates  by  Hindus  ;  the  mango,  and  the  rayen  (Mimusops  indica). 

History. — The  history  of  the  Panch  Mahals  is  the  history  of  the  city  of 
Champaner,  now  a  heap  of  ruins.  During  the  Hindu  period  (350  to  1300 
A.D.)  Champaner  was  a  stronghold  of  the  Anhilwara  kings  and  of  the 
Tuar  dynasty.  The  Chauhans  followed  the  Tuars,  and  retained  posses- 
sion of  the  place  and  surrounding  country  until  the  appearance  of  the 
Muhammadans  in  1484.  From  this  time  until  1536,  Champaner  remained 
the  political  capital  of  Gujarat.  In  1535,  Humayiin  pillaged  the  city, 
and  in  the  following  year  the  court  and  capital  was  transferred  to 
Ahmadabad.  The  Marathas  under  Sindhia  overran  and  annexed  the 
District  in  the  middle  of  the  i8th  century;  and  it  was  not  until  1853 
that  the  British  took  over  the  administration.  In  i86t,  Sindhia 
exchanged  Panch  Mahals  for  lands  near  Jhansi.  Since  1853,  the 
peace  has  been  twice  disturbed  —  once  in  1858  by  an  inroad  of 
mutineers,  and  a  second  time  in  t868,  when  the  Naikdas  (said  to  be 
the  Muhammadan  descendants  of  the  population  of  Champaner)  rose, 
but  were  dispersed  by  Captain  Macleod  and  a  detachment  of  Poona 
Horse.     The  chief  criminal,  Joria,  was  hanged. 

Popiclation. — In  1872,  the  Panch  Mahals  District  had  a  population 
of  240,743  persons.  The  Census  Returns  of  1881  disclosed  a  total 
population  of  255,479,  residing  in  3  towns  and  672  villages,  and  occupy- 
ing 50,970  houses.  Density  of  the  population,  158  persons  per  square 
mile;  houses  per  square  mile,  37;  persons  per  village,  377;  persons 
per  house,  5*0.  Classified  according  to  sex,  there  were  131,162  males 
and  124,317  females;  proportion  of  males,  51*3  per  cent.  Classified 
according  to  age,  there  were — under  15  years,  males  57,041,  and  females 
53,187;  total  children,  110,228,  or  43*15  per  cent.:  15  years  and 
upwards,  males  74,121,  and  females  71,130;  total  adults,  145,251,  or 
56'85  per  cent.  Of  the  total  population,  159,624  were  Hindus,  16,060 
Musalmans,  1867  Jains,  77,840  non-Hindu  aborigines,  30  Parsis,  7 
Jews,  44  Christians,  and  '  others,'  7. 

Among  the  Hindus  were  included  the  following  castes: — Brahmans, 
6086;  Rajputs,  5595;  Chamars,  2177;  Darji's  (tailors),  780;  Napits 
(barbers),  1858;  Kunbis,  5934;  Kohs,  81,737;  Kumbars  (potters), 
1868;  Lobars  (blacksmiths),  181 1;  Mhars,  5023;  Mali's  (gardeners), 
918;  Banjaras  (carriers),  1580;  Sonars  (goldsmiths),  732;  Sutars 
(carpenters),  907;  Tehs  (oilmen),  746  ;  other  Hindus,  41,872. 

The  bulk  of  the  aboriginal  tribes  are  Bhils,  who  number  69,590, 
or  27*2  per  cent,  of  the  total  population;  'other'  aborigines  numbered 
8250,  nearly  all  Naikdas.  Until  within  the  last  few  years  the  aboriginal 
tribes  were  turbulent,  and  much  addicted  to  thieving  and  drunken- 
ness ;  to  check  these  tendencies  the  Panch  Mahals  are  provided,  in 


addition  to  the  unarmed  police,  with  a  regiment  called  the  Gujarat 
Bhil  Corps,  about  530  strong.  The  Bhils  now  mostly  cultivate  the  same 
field  continuously,  although  many  still  practise  nomadic  tillage  on 
patches  of  forest  land,  which  they  abandon  after  a  year  cr  two. 
Formerly,  as  robbers  they  never  entered  a  town  except  to  plunder,  but 
now  they  crowd  the  streets,  selling  grain,  wood,  and  grass.  The  Naikdas 
are  found  only  in  the  wildest  parts,  and  are  employed  as  labourers  and 
wood-cutters ;  a  few  practise  nomadic  tillage.  The  Bhils  and  Naikdas 
do  not  live  in  villages  ;  each  family  has  a  separate  dwelling ;  and  they 
often  move  from  place  to  place. 

The  Muhammadan  population  by  race  consists  of— Shaikhs,  2601  ; 
Pathans,  1765;  Sayyids,  :i,T^2  ;  Sindis,  65;  and  'other'  tribes,  11,297. 
According  to  sect,  the  Muhammadans  were  returned — Sunnis  12,597, 
and  Shias  3463.  Of  the  Musalman  population,  5283  belong  to'  a 
special  class,  known  as  Ghanchis.  These  men,  as  their  name  implies, 
are  generally  oil-pressers ;  but  in  former  times  they  were  chiefly  em- 
l)loyed  as  carriers  of  merchandise  between  IMalwa  and  the  coast.  The 
changes  that  have  followed  the  introduction  of  railways  have  in  some 
respects  reduced  the  prosperity  of  these  professional  carriers,  and  the 
Ghanchis  complain  that  their  trade  is  gone.  Several  of  them  have 
taken  to  cultivation;  and  they  are,  as  a  class,  so  intelligent,  pushing,  and 
thrifty,  that  there  seems  little  reason  to  doubt  that  before  long  they 
will  be  able  to  take  advantage  of  some  opening  for  profitable  employ- 

In  respect  of  occupation,  the  Census  distributes  the  adult  population 
into  six  main  groups  as  follows  : — (i)  Professional  class,  including  State 
officials  of  every  kind  and  members  of  the  learned  professions,  321 1 ; 
(2)  domestic  servants,  inn  and  lodging  keepers,  1414;  (3)  commercial 
class,  including  bankers,  merchants,  carriers,  etc.,  1469  ;  (4)  agricultural 
and  pastoral  class,  including  gardeners,  60,097;  (s)  industrial  class, 
including  all  manufacturers  and  artisans,  9486  ;  and  (6)  indefinite  and 
unproductive  class,  comprising  general  labourers,  male  children,  and 
persons  of  unspecified  occupation,  55,485. 

Of  the  675  towns  and  villages  in  the  Panch  Mahals  District,  322  in 
1881  contained  less  than  two  hundred  inhabitants;  230  from  two  to 
five  hundred:  89  from  five  hundred  to  one  thousand;  22  from  one 
to  two  thousand ;  7  from  two  to  three  thousand ;  2  from  three  to  five 
thousand;  i  from  five  to  ten  thousand;  and  2  Irom  ten  to  fifteen 
thousand.  The  three  principal  towns  in  the  District  are  Godhra, 
population  (188 1 )  13,342;  Dohad,  12,394;  and  Jhalod,  5579. 

Agriculture. — Agriculture  supported  185,019  persons  in  the  Panch 
Mahdls  in  1881,  or  72*42  per  cent,  of  the  entire  population.  Of  these, 
112,194  were  'workers,'  giving  an  average  of  7*5  acres  of  cultivable  and 
cultivated  land  to  each.     Of  the   total   District   area  of   16 13   square 


miles,  1 27 1  square  miles  are  assessed  to  Government  revenue.  Of 
these,  673  square  miles  are  under  cultivation,  and  598  square  miles  are 
cultivable.  Total  amount  of  Government  assessment,  including  local 
rates  and  cesses  on  land,  ;^33,6ii,  or  an  average  of  is.  2jd.  per 
cultivated  acre. 

The  total  area  of  cultivable  land  in  1883  was  482.868  acres,  of  which 
228,623  acres,  or  47*5  per  cent.,  were  taken  up  for  cultivation.  Of  this 
area,  27,484  acres  were  fallow  or  under  grass  ;  of  the  remaining  201,139 
acres  (46,108  of  which  were  twice  cropped),  grain  crops  occupied 
171,093  acres;  pulses,  46,893;  oil-seeds,  25,134;  fibres,  2765;  and 
miscellaneous,  1362  acres.  The  area  under  wheat  in  1883  was  16,667 
acres;  rice,  36,865;  maize,  49,679;  bdjra  (Pennisetum  typhoideum), 
30,606;  gram,  30,000;  tobacco,  227;  sugar-cane,  560;  sesamum, 
23,999 ;  cotton,  286. 

The  prices  current  in  the  District  in  1882-83  were  for  i  rupee  (2s.) 
as  follows — wheat,  22  lbs.;  best  rice,  26  lbs.;  bdjra  (the  staple  food 
of  the  cultivators),  35  lbs. ;  common  rice,  31  lbs.  Salt  costs  about  |d. 
per  lb.  The  agricultural  stock  in  1882-83  included  207,106  horned 
cattle,  945  horses,  1068  mares,  465  foals,  1270  donkeys,  25,837  sheep 
and  goats;  34,470  ploughs,  and  8234  carts.  The  cost  of  labour  was 
loi^d.  a  day  for  skilled  workmen,  and  3fd.  for  unskilled  workmen. 
The  hire  per  day  of  a  cart  was  2s.  6d.  There  is  not  a  constant  demand 
for  labour  all  the  year  round,  but  only  in  harvest  time.  Women  work 
in  the  fields  as  hard  as  men. 

Considerable  tracts  of  arable  land  in  the  Panch  Mahals  have  not 
yet  been  brought  under  the  plough.  The  opening  of  the  Godhra 
branch  of  the  Bombay,  Baroda,  and  Central  India  Railway  will, 
it  is  hoped,  bring  both  buyers  of  land  and  cultivators.  During 
the  year  1876-77  colonization  was  attempted  by  the  settling 
near  the  foot  of  Pawagarh  Hill  of  about  1867  families  of  the 
Talavia  tribe,  from  the  overcrowded  tracts  of  Kaira,  Broach,  and 
Baroda  ;  but  it  proved  a  failure,  the  settlers  nearly  all  dying  out  and 
some  absconding,  causing  a  loss  to  Government  of  about  Rs.  86,000 
(^8600),  the  total  of  sums  advanced  from  time  to  time  with  a  view  of 
helping  the  settlers.  In  1881,  an  attempt  was  made  by  a  Parsi  to 
reclaim  land.  He  at  first  started  on  1000  acres,  adding  to  it  in  1884 
another  2500  acres  in  Halol  taluk,  7  miles  from  Bhodarpur,  the  terminus 
of  the  Baroda  State  Railway.  In  1885  he  had  1500  acres  under 
cultivation,  growing  cotton  and  wheat  (never  before  cultivated  in  the 
District),  as  well  as  grain  w4th  much  success.  There  are  now  (1885) 
on  the  estate  450  families,  75  ploughs,  500  cattle,  125  houses. 

Trade,  etc. — The  through  trade  of  the  District  was  once  very  flourish- 
ing, especially  after  the  reduction  of  transit  duties  ;  but  the  opening  of 
the  Malwa  line  of  the  Rajputana-Malwa  State  Railway  into  Central  India 


from  Khandwa  has  interfered  with  this  traffic,  and  tobacco  and  salt  from 
Ciujardt,  which  used  to  pass  over  the  road  leading  from  Gujarat  to 
Malwa  and  Mewar,  are  now  sent  by  rail.  The  opium  traffic  from 
Malwa  has  also  been  stopped  under  excise  prohibition.  The  chief 
exports  to  Gujarat  are  grain,  mahiai  flowers,  timber,  and  oil-seeds ;  the 
chief  imports  from  Gujarat  are  tobacco,  salt,  cocoa-nuts,  hardware,  and 
piece-goods.  Timber  is  the  chief  article  of  export,  and  most  of  it  comes 
from  the  Baria  and  Sangli  forests.  The  only  industry  of  any  importance 
in  the  District  is  the  making  of  lac  bracelets  at  Dohad.  Dohad  also 
is  looked  upon  as  a  granary  in  time  of  necessity  for  Malwa,  Mewar, 
and  Gujarat;  and  it  is  anticipated  that  here  a  large  grain  trade  will 
spring  up.  The  recent  opening  of  the  railway  to  Godhra,  the  chief 
town  of  the  District,  has  given  a  new  impulse  to  the  trade  of  the 
Panch  Mahals. 

Administratioji. — When  the  British  took  over  the  management  of  the 
Panch  Mahals  in  1853,  the  greatest  disorder  prevailed,  as  the  country 
had  for  many  years  been  in  the  hands  of  revenue  contractors,  who  were 
not  interfered  with  so  long  as  the  revenue  was  paid.  Some  of  the 
Rajputs  and  village  head-men  had  been  forced  into  outlawry,  and  the 
contractors  in  retaliation  had  collected  mercenaries,  with  whom  they 
harried  the  villages.  The  British  has  respected  the  position  of  the 
large  landlords,  tdlukddrs,  and  thdkiirs,  who  are  chiefly  Kolis,  and  own 
estates  varying  from  one  to  forty  or  fifty  villages,  and  levy  the  same 
rent  now  as  at  the  commencement  of  the  British  rule.  The  aliena- 
tions of  former  governments  have  been  settled  on  an  equitable  basis. 
A  survey  settlement  has  been  efl"ected  in  part  of  the  District,  and  is  in 
progress  in  the  remainder.  Special  rates  have  been  offered  to  colonists 
to  take  up  the  cultivable  waste  lands  in  Godhra  Sub-division,  namely, 
rent-free  for  five  years,  and  then  at  4  arums  (6d.)  an  acre,  and  gradually 
rising  until  the  rate  equals  the  sur\-ey  rate. 

The  District  for  purposes  of  administration  contains  three  Sub- 
divisions, Godhra,  Dohad,  and  Kalol.  The  revenue  raised  in 
1 88 1-82,  from  all  sources,  imperial,  local,  and  municipal,  amounted  to 
;£455232,  or,  on  a  population  of  255,479,  an  incidence  per  head  of 
35.  6d.  The  land-tax  forms  the  principal  source  of  revenue,  amounting 
^o  ;^2  7,o57  ;  other  important  items  are  stamps  and  forests.  The  local 
funds  created  since  1863  for  works  of  public  utility  and  rural  education 
yielded  a  total  sum  of  £\~<^2>  i^  1881-82.  The  two  municipali- 
ties, Godhra  and  Dohad,  contain  a  municipal  population  (1882-83) 
of  22,159;  municipal  income,  jP^\oZ^ ;  incidence  of  municipal  taxa- 
tion per  head,  iifd.  The  administration  of  the  District  in  revenue 
matters  is  entrusted  to  a  Collector,  with  2  Assistants,  of  whom 
one  is  a  covenanted  civilian.  For  the  settlement  of  ci^^l  disputes 
there  are  3  courts;    11  officers  administer   criminal  justice.      On  an 

VOL.  XI.  c 


average,  each  village  is  lo  miles  distant  from  the  nearest  court.  The 
total  strength  of  the  regular  police  consisted  in  1882-83  of  796  officers 
and  men,  giving  i  policeman  to  every  331  of  the  population,  or  to  every 
2-09  square  miles  of  area.  The  total  cost  was  ;£i  1,638,  equal  to  ^7, 
4s.  3d.  per  square  mile  of  area,  and  nearly  is.  per  head  of  population. 
The  number  of  persons  convicted  of  any  offence,  great  or  small,  was 
970  in  1876,  and  360  in  1882-83.  There  is  one  jail  in  the  District] 
number  of  convicts  (1881),  238. 

Education  has  spread  rapidly  of  late  years.  In  1855-56  there  were 
only  7  schools,  attended  by  327  pupils.  In  1881-82  there  were  67 
schools,  attended  by  4329  pupils,  or  an  average  of  i  school  for  every 
13  inhabited  villages.     There  are  2  libraries. 

Medical  Aspects. — The  cold  season  lasts  from  November  to  February  ; 
the  hot  from  March  to  the  middle  of  June ;  and  the  rainy  from  the 
middle  of  June  until  the  end  of  September.  October  is  temperate  and 
windy.  Average  rainfall  at  Godhra  for  14  years  ending  1881,  42*4 
inches ;  the  fall  at  Dohad  in  the  east  of  the  District  is  somewhat  less. 
The  prevailing  diseases  are  fever,  eye  diseases,  and  cutaneous  affections. 
In  1883,  the  number  of  deaths  from  cholera  was  28;  from  fevers,  3974; 
from  smallpox,  31.  In  1883,  the  number  of  in-door  patients  treated  in 
the  two  dispensaries  of  the  District  was  869;  out-door  patients,  14,663. 
The  number  of  persons  vaccinated  in  the  same  year  was  9484.  Income 
of  the  dispensaries  (1883),  ^1537  ;  expenditure,  ^1356.  Vital  statistics 
showed  a  death-rate  in  1876  of  20^69  per  thousand.  In  1883,  the  birth- 
rate per  thousand  was  26;  and  the  death-rate,  16 "8.  [For  further  in- 
formation regarding  the  Panch  Mahals,  see  vol.  iii.  of  the  Gazetteer  of  the 
Bombay  Presidency^  published  under  Government  orders,  and  edited  by 
Mr.  J.  M.  Campbell;  C.S.  See  also  the  Bombay  Census  Report  for 
t88i  ;  and  the  several  Administration  and  Departmental  Reports  for 
the  Bombay  Presidency.] 

Panchpara.  —  River  in  Balasor  District,  Bengal.  Formed  by  a 
number  of  small  streams,  the  principal  being  the  Bans,  Jamira,  and 
Bhairingi,  which  unite,  bifurcate,  and  re-unite  in  the  wildest  confusion, 
until  they  finally  enter  the  sea  in  lat.  21°  31'  n.,  and  long.  87°  9'  30"  E. 
The  tide  runs  up  only  10  miles;  and  although  the  interlacings 
constantly  spread  out  into  shallow  swamps,  yet  one  of  them,  the 
Bans,  is  deep  enough  to  be  navigated  by  boats  of  4  tons  burden  all  the 
year  round. 

Panchpukuria. — Village  in  Tipperah  District,  Bengal ;  situated  on 
the  Gumti.     Targe  river-borne  trade  in  rice,  jute,  hides,  etc. 

Pandai. — River  in  Champaran  District,  Bengal;  rising  on  the  north 
of  the  Sumeswar  Hills,  and  entering  the  Ramnagar  Raj  through  a  pass 
between  the  Sumeswar  and  Churia  Ghatia  ranges,  at  the  Nepal  outpost 
of  Thori.     For  6  miles  below  this  pass  its  bed  is  stony,  but  the  Pandai 


soon  becomes  an  ordinary  channel,  with  high  clay  banks.  The  flood 
discharge  ,s  considerable,  the  breadth  of  the  stream  being  100  yards 
with  a  full  depth  of  S  or  9  feet.  The  course  of  the  ri^er  is  at  fiS 
jresterly;  but  afterwards  it  curves  to  the  south-east,  and  joins  the 
Dhoram  about  2  miles  east  of  Singari)ur. 

Pa,nda,na,.—  or  chiefship  in  Mungeli  /a/,sl/,  Bilaspur  Dis- 
trict, Central  Provinces,  comprising  332  villages.  Area,  486  square 
miles,  half  of  which  is  covered  with  hills,  while  the  remainder  is  a 
cultivated  plain,  consisting  for  the  most  part  of  first-class  black  soil 
largely  devoted  to  cotton.  Population  (,88i)  71,1:0,  namely,  males 
35,49-',  and  females  35,618,  residing  in  18,965  houses;  average  density 
of  the  population,  146  persons  per  square  mile.  Besides  cotton 
wheat,  gram,  and  other  rail  crops  are  grown,  as  well  as  much  sugar- 
cane, fhe  chief  is  a  Raj-Gond,  and  the  chiefship  was  conferred  on 
his  ancestor  three  centuries  ago  by  the  Gond  Raja  of  Garhd  Mandla 

Pandaria.- Village  in    Mungeli   Misl/,   Bilaspur  District,   Central 
Provinces,  and  the  residence  of  the  ^amwddr  of  Pandaria  estate      Lat 

'L  ''*  /■; '°"^-  ,^/°  '^'  ^-  P°P">^ti°n  (1881)  431 7,  namely,  Hindus, 
3682;  kabirpanthis,  267;  Satnimi's,  65;  Muhammadans,  270;  and 
non-Hindu  aborigines,  33.  The  village  contains  a  well-attended  dis- 

Pandarkaura.-Toun  in  Wdn  District,  Berar.  Lat.  20^  i'  x,  loner 
78  35'  E.  Population  not  returned  in  Census  Report.  Scene  of  the 
defeat  of  the  Peshwa  Baji  Rao  by  the  combined  forces  of  Colonels 
Scott  and  Adams,  on  the  2nd  April  1818.  By  this  defeat  the  Peshwa's 
movement  on  Nagpur  to  aid  Apa  Sahib  was  finally  checked.  The 
town  IS  now  the  head-quarters  of  the  newly  formed  fd/u/c  of  Kehlapur 
and  contams  a  tczM/dd^^s  court,  pohce  station,  dispensary,  school,  and 

Panda  Tarai.  -  Village  in  Mungeli  fa/isl/,  in  Bilaspur  District 
Central  Provmces,  and  within  the  Pandaria  camhiddn ;  situated  in  lat' 
22  12'  N.,  and  long.  81°  22'  e.,  near  the  foot  of  the  Maikal  hills  so 
miles  west  of  Bilaspur  town.  Population  (1881)  2421,  namely,  Hindus 
2070;  Kabirpanthis,  143;  Satnamis,  4 ;  Muhammadans,  69;  and  non- 
Hindu  aborigines,  135.  The  village  does  a  good  trade  in  grain  with 
carriers  from  Jabalpur  (Jubbulpore).  The  weekly  market  is  the  larc^est 
m  the  Pandaria  chiefship. 

Pandaul.— Village  in  Darbhangah  District,  Bengal ;  situated  7  miles 
south  of  Madhubani,  on  the  Darbhangah  road.  The  site  of  a  factory  of 
the  same  name,  which  once  had  the  largest  indigo  cultivation  in  Tirhiit. 
Ihere  are  also  the  remains  of  a  sugar  factory  by  the  side  of  a  large 
tank  ascribed  to  Raja  Seo  Singh,  one  of  the  ancient  princes  of  the 

Pan-daw.— Town  in  the  Ye-gyi  township  of  Bassein  District,  Pegu 


Division,  Lower  Burma.  Lat  17°  19'  30"  n.,  long.  95°  10'  e.  Head- 
quarters of  the  united  townships  of  Ye-gyi,  Bo-daw,  and  Mye-nu.  Con- 
tains a  court-house,  poHce  station,  and  market.  Population  (1877) 
3982;  revenue,  ^380:  and  (1881)  population,  2630;  revenue,  ^391. 
A  rapidly  rising  place,  sometimes  called  Ye-gyi  Pan-daw.  It  was  here 
that  the  Taking  army  made  its  last  stand  against  the  Burmese  conqueror 

Pan-daw. — Creek  in  Bassein  District,  Lower  Burma. — See  Ye-gyi. 
Pandhana. — Village  in  Khandwa  iahsil,  Nimar  District,  Central 
Provinces;  situated  in  lat.  21°  42' n.,  and  long.  76°  16'  e.,  10  miles 
south-west  of  Khandwa  town.  Population  (1881)  2788,  namely, 
Hindus,  2318;  Muhammadans,  452;  Kabfrpanthis,  8;  and  Jains,  10. 
At  the  market  held  every  Tuesday,  a  brisk  trade  is  done  in  grain, 
forest  produce,  and  cotton  goods. 

Pandharpur.  —  Sub-division  of  Sholapur  District,  Bombay  Presi- 
dency. Situated  in  the  centre  of  the  District  between  lat.  17*  29' 
and  17°  56'  N.,  and  long.  75°  11'  and  75°  44' e.  Area,  470  square 
miles,  containing  2  towns  and  83  villages.  Population  (1872)  79,314; 
(1881)  72,212,  namely,  35,843  males  and  36,369  females.  Hindus 
number  68,187  ;  Muhammadans,  2864;  and  '  others,' 1 161.  Pandhar- 
pur is  an  open  waving  plain,  almost  bare  of  trees.  The  chief  rivers  are 
the  Bhima  and  the  Man.  Along  the  river  banks  the  soil  is  mostly 
deep  black,  and  to  the  east  of  the  Bhima  it  is  specially  fine.  On  the 
high-lying  land  the  soil  is  shallow,  black  and  gray,  gravelly  or  barad. 
The  climate  is  dry  ;  rainfall  scanty  and  uncertain.  At  Pandharpur  town, 
in  the  centre  of  the  Sub-division,  during  the  10  years  ending  1882  the 
rainfall  varied  from  44  inches  in  1874  to  8  inches  in  1876,  and  averaged 
28  inches.  Total  cultivated  area  of  Government  land  in  1881-82, 
191,580  acres,  of  which  2585  acres  bore  two  crops;  the  principal  class 
of  crops  being — grain  crops,  159,545  acres,  of  which  137,694  were 
jodr  (Sorghum  vulgare) ;  pulses,  10,572  acres;  oil-seeds,  16,827  acres; 
fibres,  5321  acres;  and  miscellaneous  crops,  1900  acres.  Li  1883  the 
Sub-division  contained  i  civil  and  3  criminal  courts;  police  circles 
{thdnds),  3  ;  regular  police,  48  men  ;  and  village  watch  {chmikiddrs),  179. 
Land  revenue,  ^^9443. 

Pandharpur  (or  IVie  City  of  Paudhari  Vithoha). — Chief  town  of  the 
Pandharpur  Sub-division  of  Sholapur  District,  Bombay  Presidency ; 
situated  in  lat.  17°  40'  40"  n.,  and  long.  75°  22'  40"  e.,  on  the  right  or 
southern  bank  of  the  Bhima,  a  tributary  of  the  Krishna,  84  miles  east  of 
Satara,  112  south-east  of  Poona  (Puna),  38  west  of  Sholapur  town,  and 
31  miles  from  the  Barsi  road  station  on  the  Great  Indian  Peninsula 
Railway.  A  mail  pony  cart  plies  daily  along  the  road  from  Barsi 
station  ;  and  other  pony  carts  and  hundreds  of  bullock  carts  are  on  hire 
at  the  station.     The  best  view  of  Pandharpur  is  from  the  left  bank  of 


the  Bhi'ma.  When  the  river  is  full,  the  broad  winding  Bhima  gay  with 
boats ;  the  islet  temples  of  Vishnupad  and  Narad ;  on  the  further  bank 
the  rows  of  domed  and  spired  tombs  ;  the  crowded  flight  of  steps 
leading  from  the  water ;  the  shady  banks,  and  among  the  tree-tops  the 
spires  and  pinnacles  of  many  large  temples,  form  a  scene  of  much  beauty 
and  life. 

Population  (1881)  16,910.  Hindus  number  15,680  ;  Muhammadans, 
859;  Jains,  371.  Area,  about  150  acres.  Pandharpur  is  one  of  the 
most  frequented  places  of  pilgrimage  in  the  Bombay  Presidency.  The 
debris  of  former  buildings  have  somewhat  raised  the  level  of  the  centre  of 
the  town.  In  that  part  the  houses  are  comparatively  well  built,  many 
of  them  being  two  or  more  storeys  high,  with  plinths  of  hewn  stone. 
Pandharpur  is  highly  revered  by  Brahmans,  as  containing  a  celebrated 
temple  dedicated  to  the  god  Vithoba,  an  incarnation  of  Vishnu. 
Vithoba's  temple  is  near  the  centre  of  the  part  of  the  town  which  is 
considered  holy,  and  is  called  Pandharikshetra,  or  the  holy  spot  of 
Pandhari.  It  has  a  length  from  east  to  west  of  350  feet,  and 
a  breadth  from  north  to  south  of  170  feet.  In  honour  of  this  god 
three  fairs  are  annually  held.  At  the  first  of  these,  in  April,  the 
attendance  varies  from  20,000  to  30,000  persons ;  at  the  second,  in 
July,  from  100,000  to  150,000;  and  at  the  third,  in  November,  from 
40,000  to  50,000.  Every  month,  also,  four  days  before  the  full  moon, 
from  5000  to  10,000  devotees  assemble  here.  Since  1865,  a  tax  of  6d. 
per  head  has  been  levied  on  pilgrims  at  each  of  the  three  great  fairs. 
The  yield  from  this  source,  in  1882,  amounted  to  ^4383.  The  town 
is  well  supplied  with  water,  and  satisfactory  arrangements  have  been 
made  for  the  comfort  and  convenience  of  pilgrims.  The  Bhima  has 
II  ghats  or  landings,  three  of  which  were  unfinished  in  1884.  Besides 
these,  several  stone  pavements  slope  to  the  river. 

During  the  famine  of  1876-78,  numbers  of  children  were  left  to  die 
by  their  starving  parents ;  while  the  famine  lasted,  the  children  were  fed 
in  the  Gopalpur  relief  house.  When  the  relief  house  was  closed,  an 
orphanage,  the  only  institution  of  its  kind  in  the  Bombay  Presidency, 
was  established  from  subscriptions,  and  the  foundation  stone  was  laid  on 
the  loth  October  1878.  In  connection  with  the  orphanage  a  foundling 
home  was  established  from  ;^iooo  subscribed  in  Bombay,  to  which  a 
school  of  industry  was  added  in  November  1881. 

In  1659,  the  Bijapur  general,  Afzul  Khan,  encamped  at  Pandharpur 
on  his  way  from  Bijapur  to  Wai  in  Satara.  In  1774,  Pandharpur  was 
the  scene  of  an  engagement  between  Raghunath  Rao  Peshwa  and  Trim- 
bak  Rao  Mama,  sent  by  the  Poona  ministers  to  oppose  him.  In  181 7, 
an  indecisive  action  w^as  fought  near  Pandharpur  between  the  Peshwa's 
horse  and  the  British  troops  under  General  Smith,  who  was  accompanied 
by  Mr.  Elphinstone.    In  1847,  the  noted  dakdif,  Raghuji  Bhangrya,  was 


caught  at  Pandharpur  by  Lieutenant,  afterwards  General,  Gell.  During 
1857  the  office  and  the  treasury  of  the  indmlatddr  were  attacked  by  the 
rebels,  but  successfully  held  by  the  police.  In  1879,  Vasudeo  Balwant 
Phadke,  a  notorious  dakdit  leader,  was  on  his  way  to  Pandharpur,  when 
he  was  captured. 

Pandharpur  has  a  large  annual  export  trade  worth  about  ^36,000 
in  biika  (sweet-smelling  powder),  gram-pulse,  incense  sticks,  safflower 
oil,  kiwiku  (red  powder),  maize,  parched  rice,  and  snuff.  Pandharpur 
is  a  municipal  town,  with  an  annual  revenue  of  ^£^7369;  incidence 
of  municipal  taxation,  9s.  per  head.  Sub-judge's  court,  dispensary, 
and  post-office.  Number  of  patients  treated  in  the  dispensary,  10,406 
in  1883,  of  whom  56  were  in-door.  [For  a  full  and  interesting  account 
of  Pandharpur,  its  temples,  ghdts^  and  objects  of  interest,  ancient  and 
modern,  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  Gazetteer  of  Bombay^  vol.  xx.  pp. 
415-485  (Bombay,  1884).] 

Pandhlirna. — Town  and  municipality  in  Chhindwara  ta/isii,  Chhind- 
wara  District,  Central  Provinces;  situated  in  lat.  21°  36'  n.,  and  long. 
78°  35'  E.,  54  miles  south-west  of  Chhindwara  town,  on  the  main  road 
from  Betiil  to  Nagpur.  The  municipal  limits  include  the  villages  of 
Bamni  and  Sawargaon,  and  contained  a  total  population  (1881)  of  7469, 
chiefly  agriculturists.  Hindus  numbered  6854;  Muhammadans,  500; 
Jains,  60;  and  non-Hindu  aborigines,  55.  Municipal  revenue  in 
1882-83,  ;£^302,  of  which  £197  were  derived  from  taxation;  average 
incidence  of  municipal  taxation,  6|d.  per  head.  The  soil  around  is 
rich  and  produces  much  cotton.  Pandhurna  has  a  police  outpost 
station,  travellers'  bungalow,  sardi  (native  inn),  and  Government  school, 
with  a  daily  average  attendance  of  about  120  pupils. 

Pandri  Kalan. — Town  in  Unao  ta/isi/,  Unao  District,  Oudh ;  10 
miles  south-east  of  Unao  town.  Population  (1881)  3733,  namely,  3620 
Hindus  and  113  Muhammadans.  Market  twice  a  week,  with  annual 
sales  averaging  ;^9oo.     Government  school. 

Pandrinton  (Fdndret/mn). — Temple  in  Kashmir  (Cashmere)  State, 
Northern  India ;  standing  in  the  midst  of  a  tank,  about  4  miles  south- 
east of  Srinagar,  the  capital  of  the  Kashmir  valley.  Lat.  34°  2'  N.,  long. 
74°  47'  E.,  according  to  Thornton,  who  thus  describes  the  building  :  'It 
is  a  striking  specimen  of  the  simple,  massive,  and  chaste  style  which 
characterizes  the  architectural  antiquities  of  Kashmir.  The  ground 
plan  is  a  square  of  20  feet,  and  the  roof  pyramidal.  In  each  of  the 
four  sides  is  a  doorway,  ornamented  with  pilasters  right  and  left,  and 
surmounted  by  a  pediment.  The  whole  is  constructed  of  blocks  of 
hewn  limestone.  The  interior  is  filled  with  water,  communicating  with 
that  without,  which  is  about  4  feet  deep ;  and  as  the  building  is  com- 
pletely insulated,  it  can  be  reached  only  by  wading  or  swimming.  The 
purpose  of  its  construction  is  not  known,  but  it  is  generally  considered 



a  Buddhist  relic.     It  exhibits  neither  inscriptions  nor  sculptures,  except 
the  figure  of  a  large  lotus  carved  on  the  roof  inside.' 

Pandu.— Petty  State  of  the  Pandu  Mehwas  in  Rewa  Kantha,  Bombay 
Presidency.  Area,  9^  square  miles  ;  estimated  revenue,  ^520  ;  tribute, 
of  ^450,  2s.  is  paid  to  the  Gaekwar  of  Baroda.  I'here  are  two 
principal  holders  with  several  sub-shares  of  the  property,  half  of  which 
has  been  under  British  management  since  1874,  and  the  other  half 
smce  1878,  owing  to  the  extreme  poverty  of  the  proprietors  and  their 
mability  to  pay  the  amount  of  their  heavy  tribute. 

Pandu  Mehwas.— Group  of  26  petty  States  forming  a  territorial 
division  of  Rewa  Kantha,  Bombay  Presidency.  Area,  147  square 
miles.  Population  (1872)  20,284;  (1881)  20,312,  namely,  10,785  males 
and  9527  females,  dwelling  in  36  villages,  containing  4560  houses. 
Density  of  population,  138  persons  per  square  mile.  Hindus  number 
19,682,  and  Muhammadans  630.  Estimated  revenue,  ^11,000.  The 
Pandu  Mehwas  group  of  estates  stretches  along  the  river  Mahi  in  a 
narrow  broken  line  for  58  miles.  Climate  healthy.  Soil  light,  vielding 
millets,  rice,  and  sugar-cane.  Kolis,  Bariyas,  Rajputs,  and  Musalmans 
form  the  landowning  classes.      The   region  is,  comparatively,  a  poor 


Panduah.— Village,  municipality,  and  railway  station   in   Hiigli  Dis- 
trict,  Bengal.     Lat.    23°   4'   28'^  x.,  long.   88^   19'  43"  e.     Population 
(iSSi)  3344,  namely,  males  1656,  and  females  1688.   Municipal  income 
(1883-84),  ^125;  incidence  of  taxation,  8Jd.  per  head.     Jn  ancient 
times,  Panduah  was  the  seat  of  a  Hindu  Raja,  and  fortified  by  a  wall  and 
trench  5  miles  in  circumference.     It  is  now  only  a  small  rural  village, 
picturesquely  surrounded  by  groves,  orchards,  and  gardens.     Traces  of 
its  ancient  fortifications  are  still  discernible  at  places;  a  tower  (120  feet 
high),  built  to  commemorate  a  victory  gained  by  the   Muhammadans 
over  the   Hindus  in   1340  a.d.,  is   said  to   be  the  oldest  building  in 
Bengal.     It  has  defied  the  storms  and  rains   of  a  tropical  climate  for 
five    centuries,  and   has    seen    the    rise  and  fall   of  Gaur,  Sonargacr, 
Rajmahal,  Dacca,  and  Murshidabad,  the  successive  capitals  of  Bengal 
during  the  Muhammadan  era.     For  the  local  traditions  relating  to  the 
war  between  the  Hindus  and  Muhammadans,  see  Statistical  Account  of 
Bengal,  vol.   iii.   p.   313.     Up  to  the  commencement  of  the  present 
century,  Panduah  was  the  seat  of  a  large  native  paper  manufacture,  but 
not  a  trace  of  this  industry  exists  at  the  present  day. 

Panduah  (or  as  it  is  commonly,  but  less  correctly,  called,  Faruali), 
—Deserted  town  in  Maldah  District,  Bengal,  once  the  Muhammadan 
capital  of  the  Province ;  situated  6  miles  from  Old  Maldah,  where  there 
are  extensive  ruins  and  remains  of  paved  roadways,  showing  that  this 
was  formerly  the  river  port  of  Panduah,  and  about  20  miles  from  G.\ur, 
in  a  north-easterly  direction  from  both.     Like  those  of  Gaur,  the  ruins 

40  PAND  UAH  TO  WN, 

of  Panduah  lie  buried  in  almost  impenetrable  jungle,  which  for  long 
formed  the  undisputed  home  of  tigers  and  other  wild  animals,  till  the 
recent  clearances  of  the  jungle  made  by  new  settlements  of  Santal 
colonies.  Although  in  all  respects  less  noteworthy  than  Gaur,  it  con- 
tains some  remarkable  specimens  of  early  Muhammadan  architecture. 
Its  comparatively  small  historical  importance  has  given  rise  to  more 
than  one  error.  The  maps  scarcely  mark  the  place  at  all,  and  uniformly 
give  some  one  of  the  corrupt  modes  of  spelling  the  name.  Hence, 
Avhen  a  mention  of  the  place  is  found  in  history,  it  is  often  confused 
with  the  better  known  but  much  less  important  place  of  the  same  name 
in  Hiigli  District.  To  avoid  this  difficulty.  General  Cunningham  has 
proposed  that  it  should  be  known  as  Hazrat  Panduah.  The  proximity 
of  Gaur  has  also  overshadowed  Panduah,  so  that  the  antiquities  of 
the  latter  place  have  been  sometimes  attributed  in  their  entirety  to  the 

The  fortified  city  of  Panduah  or  Paruah,  the  suburbs  of  which  reached 
to  Old  Maldah,  extended  within  the  ramparts  for  6  miles  due  north  along 
the  watershed  of  this  part  of  the  country,  some  4  miles  to  the  east  of 
the  Mahananda  river,  and  running  nearly  parallel  with  it.  It  is  stated, 
and  apparently  with  truth,  that  the  Mahananda  many  centuries  ago 
flowed  past  the  high  ground  on  which  the  city  of  Panduah  was 
built.  Old  Maldah  was  the  fortified  river  port  south  of  the  city  at  the 
junction  of  the  Kalindri  and  the  Mahananda,  while  the  suburb  of  Rai 
Khan  Dighi  was  a  similar  fortified  port  on  the  Mahananda,  10  miles 
north  of  Old  Maldah.  The  fort  of  Rai  Khan  Dighi  also  guarded  the 
bridge  over  the  Mahananda  at  Pirganj  on  the  great  military  road.  The 
attractions  offered  by  the  site  of  Panduah  appear  to  have  been  its 
natural  elevation  and  commanding  position  on  the  main  road  to  the 
north,  and  also  the  sport  afforded  by  the  game  of  all  kinds  which 
abounded  in  the  neighbouring  jungles.  Panduah  was  probably 
originally  an  outpost,  forming  one  of  the  many  defences  of  the  more 
ancient  city  of  Gaur,  guarding  the  road  from  the  north  from  the 
incursions  of  Kochs,  Palis,  and  Rajbansis.  It  afterwards  became  a 
favourite  rural  retreat,  and  for  some  time  was  the  capital  of  Bengal, 
when  the  Muhammadan  governors  found  it  a  more  desirable  residence 
than  the  palace  at  Gaur,  which  was  the  first  part  of  that  city  to 
experience  the  unhealthiness  caused  by  malarious  exhalations,  as 
the  Ganges  gradually  receded  westward  from  below  the  palace  walls  in 
the  14th  century.  As  Panduah  increased  in  wealth  and  importance,  its 
fortifications  were  extended,  and  it  was  further  strengthened  by  an 
outpost  at  Ekdala,  some  20  miles  to  the  north,  within  the  limits  of  the 
modern  District  of  Dinajpur. 

The  first  appearance  of  Panduah  in  history  is  in  the  year  1353  a.d., 
when  Ilias  Khwaja  Sultan,  the  first  independent  king  of  Bengal,  is  said 

TAND  UAH  TO  IVN.  4 1 

to  have  temporarily  transferred  his  capital  from  Gaur  to  Pancluah.  It 
has  been  supposed  that  this  king  and  his  successors,  who  with  difficulty 
repelled  the  Delhi  Emperor,  were  influenced  in  their  desertion  of 
Gaur  by  strategic  reasons.  Panduah  was  not  accessible  by  water,  and 
was  probably  then,  as  now,  protected  by  almost  impenetrable  jungles. 
It  is  not  likely  that  the  vast  Hindu  community  of  traders  and  artisans 
also  left  their  homes  at  Gaur,  but  merely  that  the  court  was  removed. 
This  would  explain  both  the  smaller  number  of  ruined  dwelling-houses  at 
Panduah,  as  well  as  the  superior  sanctity  in  which  this  place  is  held  by 
the  Muhammadans.  The  court  name  for  Panduah  was  Firozabdd, 
which  during  this  period  regularly  makes  its  aj^pearance  on  the  coins, 
whereas  that  of  Lakhnauti  ((jaur)  disappears.  The  seat  of  Government 
remained  here  during  the  reigns  of  five  successive  monarchs,  when  it 
was  re-transferred  to  Gaur.  It  is  probable,  however,  that  Panduah, 
though  its  name  is  not  again  mentioned  in  history,  maintained  its 
splendour  for  some  time,  and  was  a  favourite  country  resort  for  royalty. 

The  history  of  Panduah  is  short,  and  the  topography,  so  far  as  it  has 
been  explored,  is  equally  simple.  No  survey  has  ever  been  taken  of 
the  site;  and  even  Dr.  Buchanan-Hamilton  found  himself  unable  to 
penetrate  through  the  dense  jungle  beyond  the  beaten  track.  The 
following  description  is  condensed  from  his  account  of  the  place,  con- 
tained in  his  MS.  notes  on  the  District  of  Dinajpur,  which  in  his  time 
(1807-13)  included  this  part  of  Maldah,  whereas  Gaur  then  lay  within 
the  District  of  Purniah. 

A  road  paved  with  brick,  from  12  to  15  feet  wide,  and  not  very 
straight  (afterwards  the  high  road  from  Maldah  to  Dinajpur),  seems  to 
have  passed  through  the  entire  length  of  the  town,  which  stretches  nearly 
north  and  south,  and  is  about  6  miles  in  length.  From  the  heaps  of 
bricks  on  both  sides,  it  would  appear  to  have  been  a  regular  street, 
lined  with  brick  houses,  of  which  the  foundations  and  the  tanks  can 
still  be  traced  in  many  places.  Almost  all  the  surviving  monuments 
are  on  the  borders  of  this  road.  Near  the  middle  is  a  bridge  of  three 
arches,  partly  constructed  of  stone,  which  has  been  thrown  over  a 
rivulet.  It  is  rudely  built,  and  of  no  great  size ;  and,  as  is  the  case 
with  all  the  other  monuments  in  Panduah,  the  materials  have  mani- 
festly come  from  the  Hindu  temples  of  Gaur,  as  they  still  show 
sculptured  figures  of  men  and  animals.  At  the  northern  end  of  the 
street  are  evident  traces  of  a  rampart,  and  the  passage  through  is  called 
Garhdwar,  or  the  gate  of  the  fortress.  At  the  south  end  are  many 
foundations,  which  have  also  probably  belonged  to  a  gate,  but  the 
forest  is  so  impenetrable  that  the  wall  cannot  be  traced.  Dr.  Buchanan - 
Hamilton  was  of  opinion  that  in  general  the  town  extended  only  a  little 
w\iy  either  east  or  west  from  the  main  street,  but  that  a  scattered 
suburb  reached  in  a  southerly  direction  as  far  as  Maldah. 

42  P ANDY  A. 

Dr.  Buchanan-Hamilton  proceeds  to  give  a  detailed  description  of 
the  ruins,  which  is  too  lengthy  for  insertion  in  this  work,  but  which  will 
be  found  in  the  Statistical  Account  of  Bengal^  vol.  vii.  pp.  60-64.  The 
principal  buildings  of  note  are  the  monuments  of  Mukhdam  Shah  Jalal 
and  his  grandson  Kutab  Shah,  the  two  most  distinguished  religious 
])ersonages  under  the  early  Muhammadan  kings  of  Bengal ;  the  Golden 
Mosque  (1585  a.d.),  with  walls  of  granite,  and  10  domes  of  brick;  the 
Eklakhi  Mosque,  containing,  according  to  tradition,  the  graves  of 
Ghiyas-ud-din  11.,  the  third  Muhammadan  king  of  Bengal,  and  his  two 
sons;  the  Adina  Masjid  (14th  century),  by  far  the  most  celebrated 
building  in  this  part  of  India,  and  characterized  by  Mr.  Fergusson  as 
the  most  remarkable  example  of  Pathan  architecture  in  existence ;  and 
the  Satdsgarh  ('Sixty  Towers'),  which  is  said  to  have  been  the  palace 
of  one  of  the  kings.  A  Muhammadan  meld,  or  religious  gathering, 
takes  place  at  Panduah  every  year  in  October  or  November;  it  is 
attended  by  5000  or  6000  persons,  and  lasts  for  five  days. 

Pandya  (IlavSatry  of  Megasthenes  ;  Pandi  Mandala  of  the  Periplus  ; 
Pandionis  Mediterranea  and  Modura  Regia  Pandionis  of  Ptolemy). — One 
of  the  three  great  Divisions  of  Dravida  or  Southern  India,  the  other 
two  being  Chola  and  Chera.  The  capital  was  first  at  Kolkai  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Tambraparni,  and  afterwards  at  Madura.  Kolkai  is  now 
several  miles  inland.  An  early  legend  runs  that  the  three  kingdoms 
were  founded  by  three  brothers  from  Kolkai,  the  two  younger  going 
north  and  west,  and  founding  Chola  and  Chera.  The  kingdom  of 
Pandya  included  Madura  District  and  all  south  of  it.  Its  early  history 
is  purely  legendary ;  but  it  is  believed  to  have  been  founded  in  the  6th 
century  B.C.,  and  it  is  known  to  have  been  overthrown  in  the  middle 
of  the  nth  century  of  the  Christian  era,  to  be  restored,  after  a  period 
of  anarchy,  by  the  Nayaks.  Bishop  Caldwell  says  :  '  The  Singhalese 
traditions  preserved  in  the  Mahdva?isa  represent  Vijaja,  the  first 
sovereign  of  Ceylon,  as  marrying  a  daughter  of  the  Pandya  king,  in 
consequence  of  which  his  son  was  called  Panduvamsadeva.  Arjuna, 
one  of  the  five  Pandava  brothers,  is  related  in  the  Mahdbhdrata  to  have 
married  a  daughter  of  the  King  of  the  Pandyas  in  the  course  of  his  many 
wanderings.  There  is  no  certainty  in  these  traditions,  but  it  is  certain 
that  about  the  time  of  Pliny  and  the  Periplus  a  portion  of  the  Malabar 
coast  was  ruled  over  by  the  Pandyas,  a  proof  that  their  power  had  con- 
siderably extended  itself  from  its  original  seats;  and  I  regard  it  as  nearly 
certain  that  the  Indian  king  who  sent  an  embassy  to  Augustus  was  not 
Porus,  but  Pandion,  i.e.  the  King  of  the  Pandyas,  called  in  Tamil 
Pandiyan.'  The  Senderbandi  of  Marco  Polo  is  assumed  to  be  a 
corruption  of  Sundara  Pandya,  the  King  of  Madura.  [For  further 
information  the  reader  is  referred  to  The  Madiera  Count?y,  by  J.  H. 
Nelson,  M.A.,  C.S.,  Madras,  1868,  pp.  1-86  of  Part  iii.] 


Panhcin. — Pargand  in  Purwd  tahsil,  Unao  District,  Oudh  ;  bounded 
on  the  north  by  Purwa  pargand,  on  the  east  by  Mauranwan  and  Rai 
Bareli  District,  on  the  south  by  the  Lon  river,  and  on  the  west  by 
Purwa.  The  surface  of  the  pargand  is  a  level  plain,  except  in  the 
extreme  south,  where  there  is  a  slight  inclination  to  the  bed  of  the  Lon. 
There  are  no  jungles,  and  but  few  groves,  but  babul  trees  grow 
plentifully  along  the  Lon,  on  a  tract  of  saliferous  land,  where  salt  was 
formerly  manufactured  on  an  extensive  scale.  This  industry  has, 
however,  disappeared  as  a  private  undertaking  under  British  rule. 
Near  the  Rdi  Bareli  border  is  a  large  lake  or  jhi/,  known  as  the  Sudna 
Talab,  which  is  well  stocked  with  fish.  Area,  19  square  miles,  of  which  9 
are  cultivated.  Population  (1881)  7566,  namely,  7362  Hindus  and  204 
Muhammadans.  Of  the  23  villages  or  viauzds  comprising  \S\^ pargand, 
9  are  tdlukddri  and  14  mufrdd.  Government  land  revenue  demand, 
^1599.  T\\&  pargand  was  formerly  in  the  hands  of  the  Bhars,  and  the 
ruins  of  an  old  fort  are  pointed  out  as  the  remains  of  the  ancient  Bhar 
stronghold.  The  Bhars  were  expelled  many  centuries  ago  by  the  Bais 
chieftain  Abhai  Chand. 

Panhan. — Town  in  Purwa  tahsil,  Unao  District,  Oudh,  and  head- 
quarters QiV:m\\h\  pargand  ;  situated  24  miles  south  of  Unao  town,  on 
the  road  to  Rai  Bareli.  Lat.  26°  25'  n.,  long.  80°  54'  e.  Population 
(1881)  237,  namely,  199  Hindus  and  38  Muhammadans.  Three  Hindu 
temples.  Two  annual  fairs  are  held  in  honour  of  a  Muhammadan  saint, 
each  attended  by  about  4000  persons,  at  which  the  sales  average  ^2400. 
Vernacular  school,  attended  by  50  boys. 

Pan-hlaing". — Creek  in  Rangoon  and  Thun-gwa  Districts,  Lower 
Burma.  Runs  from  the  Irawadi  (Irrawaddy)  at  Nyaung-dun  to  the 
Hlaing,  just  above  Rangoon  town.  Its  banks  are  steep  and  muddy, 
and  covered  with  grass,  trees,  and  plantain  gardens.  In  the  rains, 
river  steamers  can  navigate  this  channel  throughout  its  whole  length  ;  but 
in  the  dry  season,  boats  are  compelled  to  take  a  circuitous  route  up 
the  Pan-daing  creek  to  Pan-daing  village,  and  thence  by  a  narrow 
passage  back  to  the  Pan-hlaing  above  the  shoals  between  the  villages  of 
Kat-ti-ya  and  Me-za-li. 

Pania. — Town  in  Deoria  tahsil,  Gorakhpur  District,  North- Western 
Provinces. — See  Paina. 

Paniala. — Agricultural  village  or  collection  of  hamlets  in  Dera  Ismail 
Khan  District,  Punjab;  situated  in  lat.  32°  14'  30"  n.,  and  long.  70° 
55'  15"  E.,  at  the  entrance  to  the  Largi  valley,  32  miles  north  of  Dera 
Ismail  Khan  town.  Population  (1881)  6603.  Staging  bungalow, 
abundant  supplies. 

Panimar. — Village  in  the  south  of  Nowgong  District,  Assam,  on  the 
Kapili  river,  where  it  debouches  into  the  plains  from  the  Jaintia  Hills. 
In  the  neighbourhood,  good  building-stone  and  limestone  abound. 


Panipat. — Southern  tahsilox  Sub-division  of  Karnal  District,  Punjab. 
Area,  458  square  miles,  with  166  towns  and  villages,  26,715  houses, 
and  42,406  families.  Total  population  (188 1)  186,793,  namely,  males 
100,301,  and  females  86,492.  Average  density  of  the  population, 
408  persons  per  square  mile.  Classified  according  to  religion,  there 
were  in  1881 — Hindus,  137,801,  or  73-8  per  cent.;  Muhammadans, 
45,908,  or  246  per  cent.;  Sikhs,  213;  Jains,  2858;  and  Christians,  13. 
Of  the  166  towns  and  villages,  60  contain  less  than  five  hundred 
inhabitants ;  40  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand ;  65  from  one  to  five 
thousand;  and  i  upwards  of  ten  thousand  inhabitants.  The  average 
area  under  cultivation  for  the  five  years  1877-78  to  1881-82  was 
2 29 J  square  miles,  or  146,701  acres,  the  area  occupied  by  the  chief 
crops  being  as  follows  : — Wheat,  49,710  acres  \jod}\  26,155  acres  ;  gram, 
15,943  acres;  rice,  8263  acres;  barley,  7719  acres;  other  food-grains, 
consisting  of  <^ay>(7,  Indian  corn,  and  inoth^  7020  acres;  cotton,  12,932 
acres;  sugar-cane,  11,451  acres;  vegetables,  763  acres;  and  tobacco, 
426  acres.  Revenue  of  the  tahsil^  ;£^2 7,385.  The  tahsilddr  is  the  only 
administrative  officer,  and  presides  over  i  civil  and  i  criminal  court ; 
number  of  police  circles  {thdfids),  4;  strength  of  regular  police,  109 
men  ;  rural  police  {chai^kidd7's),  306. 

Pdnipat  {Faniput).  —  Decayed  town,  municipality,  and  famous 
battle-field  in  Karnal  District,  Punjab,  and  head  -  quarters  of  the 
Panipat  tahsil.  Situated  in  lat.  29°  23'  n.,  long.  77°  i'  10"  e.,  on  the 
Grand  Trunk  Road,  53  miles  north  of  Delhi,  near  the  old  bank  of  the 
Jumna,  upon  a  high  mound  composed  of  the  debris  of  centuries. 
Panipat  town  is  of  great  antiquity,  dating  back  to  the  period  of  the  war 
between  the  Pandavas  and  the  Kauravas,  when  it  formed  one  of  the 
well-known /^/j  ox pi'dsthas  demanded  by  Yudishthira  from  Duryodhana 
as  the  price  of  peace. 

In  historical  times,  the  neighbourhood  of  Panipat  has  thrice  formed 
the  scene  of  decisive  battles,  which  sealed  the  fate  of  Upper  India. 
The  great  military  road  which  runs  north-west  through  Hindustan  to  the 
frontier,  bisects  the  broad  plain  of  Panipat,  at  a  distance  of  about  50 
miles  from  Delhi.  Count  von  Noer,  whose  interesting  Life  of  Akbar  is 
shortly  to  be  published  in  an  English  form  by  Mrs.  Beveridge,  thus 
describes  the  scenery  of  that  wide  expanse  : — '  Panipat  is  a  far-reaching, 
almost  illimitable  level  tract,  broken  only  by  insignificant  undulations. 
Here  and  there,  where  the  shallow  soil  is  moistened  from  some  niggardly 
watercourse,  grow  sparse  grasses  and  stunted  thorn  bushes.  But  for 
the  most  part,  the  eye  falls  only  on  the  uniform  yellowish-grey  waste 
of  sterile  earth.  Everywhere  empty  silence  reigns ;  and  it  would  almost 
seem  as  if  this  desert  had  been  designed  for  the  battle-field  of  nations.' 

In  1526,  Babar  with  his  small  but  veteran  army  met  Ibrahim  Lodi  at 
the  head  of  100,000  troops  near   Panipat,  and,  after  a  battle  lasting 

FANirA  T  TO  ]VN.  45 

from  sunrise  to  sunset,  completely  defeated  the  imperial  forces.  Ibrahim 
I.odi  fell  with  15,000  of  his  followers  ;  and  in  May  1526,  Babar  entered 
Delhi  and  established  the  so-called  Mughal  dynasty.  Thirty  years 
later,  in  1556,  his  grandson,  Akbar,  on  the  same  battle-field  conquered 
Hemu,  the  Hindu  general  of  the  Afghan  Sher  Shah,  whose  family  had 
temporarily  driven  that  of  Babar  from  the  throne,  thus  a  second  time 
establishing  the  Mughal  power.  Finally,  on  7th  January  1761,  Ahmad 
Shah  Durani  fought  beneath  the  walls  of  Panipat  the  decisive  battle 
which  shattered  for  ever  the  unity  of  the  Maratha  power,  and  placed 
the  destinies  of  the  Empire  in  the  hands  of  the  Afghan  conqueror.  The 
following  graphic  account  of  this  great  batde  is  taken  from  an  article 
by  Mr.  H.  G.  Keene  in  the  Calcutta  Review,  1879  : — 

'  The  Maratha  troops  marched  in  an  oblique  line,  with  their  left  in 
front,  preceded  by  their  guns  small  and  great.  The  Bhao,  with  the 
Peshwa's  son  and  the  household  troops,  was  in  the  centre.  The  left 
wing  consisted  of  \\\^  gardis  under  Ibrahim  Khan  ;  Holkar  and  Sindhia 
were  on  the  extreme  right. 

'  On  the  other  side,  the  Afghans  formed  a  somewhat  similar  line, 
their  left  being  formed  by  Najib's  Rohillas,  and  their  right  by  two 
brigades  of  Persian  troops.  Their  left  centre  was  led  by  the  two 
Wazirs,  Shuja-ud-daula  and  Shah  Wall.  The  right  centre  consisted  of 
Rohillas  under  the  well-known  Hafiz  Rahmat  and  other  chiefs  of  the 
Indian  Pathans.  Day  broke  ;  but  the  Afghan  artillery  for  the  most  part 
kept  silence,  while  that  of  the  enemy,  losing  range  in  its  constant 
advance,  threw  away  its  ammunition  over  the  heads  of  the  enemy,  and 
dropped  its  shot  a  mile  to  their  rear.  Shah  Pasand  Khan  covered  the 
left  wing  with  a  choice  body  of  mailed  Afghan  horsemen  ;  and  in  this 
order  the  army  moved  forward,  leaving  the  Shah  at  his  usual  post, 
which  was  now  in  rear  of  the  line,  from  whence  he  could  watch  and 
direct  the  battle. 

'  On  the  other  side,  no  great  precautions  seem  to  have  been  taken, 
except  indeed  by  the  gardis  and  their  vigilant  leader,  who  advanced  in 
silence,  and  without  firing  a  shot,  with  two  battalions  of  infantry  bent 
back  to  their  left  flank,  to  cover  their  advance  from  the  attack  of  the 
Persian  cavalry  forming  the  extreme  right  of  the  enemy's  line.  The 
valiant  veteran  soon  showed  the  worth  of  French  discipline ;  and 
another  division  such  as  his  would  have  probably  gained  the  day. 
Well  mounted  and  armed,  and  carrying  in  his  own  hand  the  colours  of 
his  own  personal  command,  he  led  his  men  against  the  Rohilkhand 
column  with  fixed  bayonets ;  and  to  so  much  effect,  that  nearly  8000 
men  were  put  hors  de  combat.  For  three  hours  the  gardis  remained  in 
unchallenged  possession  of  that  i)art  of  the  field.  Shuja-ud-daula,  with 
his  small  but  com.pact  force,  remained  stationary,  neither  fighting  nor 
flying  ;  and  the  Marathas  forbore  to  attack  him.     The  corps  between 

46  PANIFA  T  TO  \VN. 

tliis  and  ihe  Pathans  was  that  of  the  Durani  Wazi'r  ;  and  it  suffered 
severely  from  the  shock  of  an  attack  deUvered  upon  them  by  the  Bhao 
himself,  at  the  head  of  the  household  troops.  The  Pandit  being  sent 
through  the  dust  to  inform  Shuja  what  was  going  on,  found  Shah  Wall 
vainly  trying  to  rally  the  courage  of  his  followers,  of  whom  many  were 
in  full  retreat.  "  Whither  would  you  run,  friends?"  cried  the  Wazir; 
"  your  country  is  far  from  here  !  " 

'  Meanwhile  the  prudent  Najib  had  masked  his  advance  by  a  series 
of  breastworks,  under  cover  of  which  he  had  gradually  approached  the 
hostile  line.  "I  have  the  highest  stake  to-day,"  he  said,  "and  cannot 
afford  to  make  any  mistakes."  The  part  of  the  enemy's  force  imme- 
diately opposed  to  him  was  commanded  by  the  head  of  the  Sindhia 
house,  who  was  Najib's  personal  enemy.  Till  noon,  Naji'b  remained 
on  the  defensive,  keeping  off  all  close  attacks  upon  his  earthworks  by 
continuous  discharges  of  rockets.  But  so  far  the  fortune  of  the  day 
was  evidently  inclined  towards  the  Marathas.  The  Muhammadan 
left  still  held  their  own  under  the  Wazirs  and  Najib,  but  the  centre  was 
cut  in  two,  and  the  right  was  almost  destroyed. 

'  Of  the  circumstances  which  turned  the  tide  and  gave  the  crisis  to 
the  Moslems,  but  one  account  necessarily  exists.  Hitherto  we  have 
had  the  guidance  of  Grant-Duff  for  the  Maratha  side  of  the  affair  ;  but 
now  the  whole  movement  was  to  be  from  the  other  side,  and  we 
cannot  do  better  than  trust  the  Pandit.  Dow,  the  only  other  con- 
temporary author  of  importance — if  we  except  Ghulam  Husain,  who 
wrote  at  a  very  remote  place  —  is  irremediably  inaccurate  and  vague 
about  all  these  transactions.  The  Pandit,  then,  informs  us  that 
during  the  earlier  hours  of  the  conflict,  the  Shah  had  watched  the 
fortunes  of  the  battle  from  his  tent,  guarded  by  the  still  unbroken  forces 
on  his  left.  But  now,  hearing  that  his  right  was  reeling  and  his  centre 
was  defeated,  he  felt  that  the  moment  was  come  for  a  final  effort.  In 
front  of  him  the  Hindu  cries  of  Har !  Har !  Jai  Mahddeo  I  were 
maintaining  an  equal  and  dreadful  concert  wuth  those  of  Allah  I  Allah  I 
D'm  I  Din  I  from  his  own  side.  The  batde  wavered  to  and  fro,  like 
that  of  Flodden,  as  described  by  Scott.  The  Shah  saw  the  critical 
moment  in  the  very  act  of  passing.  He  therefore  sent  500  of  his  own 
body-guard  with  orders  to  drive  all  able-bodied  men  out  of  camp,  and 
send  them  to  the  front  at  any  cost.  Fifteen  hundred  more  he  sent 
to  encounter  those  who  were  flying,  and  slay  without  pity  any  who 
would  not  return  to  the  fight.  These,  with  4000  of  his  reserve 
troops,  went  to  support  the  broken  ranks  of  the  Rohilla  Pathans  on  the 
right.  The  remainder  of  the  reserve,  10,000  strong,  were  sent  to  the 
aid  of  Shah  Wall,  still  labouring  unequally  against  the  Bhao  in  the 
centre  of  the  field.  The  Shah's  orders  were  clear.  The  mailed 
warriors  were    to  charge  with  the  Wazir  in  close    order,  and    at    full 

PA  NIP  A  T  TO  \VN.  4  7 

gallop.  As  often  as  they  charged  the  enemy  in  front,  the  chief  of  the 
staff  and  Najib  were  directed  to  fall  upon  either  flank.  These  orders 
were  immediately  carried  out. 

'  The  forward  movement  of  the  Moslems  began  at  i  p.m.  The  fight 
was  close  and  obstinate,  men  fighting  with  swords,  spears,  axes,  and 
even  with  daggers.  Between  2  and  3  p.m.,  the  Peshwa's  son  was 
wounded,  and,  having  fallen  from  his  horse,  was  placed  upon  an 
elephant.  The  last  thing  seen  of  the  Bhao  was  his  dismounting  from 
the  elephant,  and  getting  on  his  Arab  charger.  Soon  after,  the  young 
chief  was  slain.  The  next  moment  Holkar  and  the  Gaekwar  left  the 
field.  In  that  instant  resistance  ceased,  and  the  Marathas  all  at  once 
became  helpless  victims  of  butchery.  Thousands  were  cut  down,  other 
thousands  were  drowned  in  escaping,  or  were  slaughtered  by  the  country 
people  whom  they  had  so  long  pillaged.  The  Shah  and  his  principal 
commanders  then  retired  to  camp,  leaving  the  pursuit  to  be  completed 
by  subordinate  officers.  Forty  thousand  prisoners  are  said  to  have 
been  slain.' 

The  plain  of  Panipat  was  selected  as  the  arena  for  the  manoeuvres 
connected  with  the  great  Indian  Camp  of  Exercise  of  December  1885. 
'I'he  general  plan  of  the  operations  comprised  the  advance  of  an  invadino- 
army  from  the  north,  upon  Delhi ;  and  the  defence  of  that  city,  by  the 
counter-movements  of  an  opposing  force. 

The  modern  town  of  Panipat  is  built  upon  a  small  promontory  due 
south  of  Karnal,  round  which  runs  the  old  bed  of  the  Jumna.  From 
all  sides  the  town  slopes  gently  upwards  towards  an  old  fort,  which  is 
its  highest  point,  and  with  low  and  squalid  outskirts  receiving  the 
drainage  of  the  higher  portion.  The  town  is  enclosed  by  an  old  wall 
with  15  gates,  and  suburbs  extend  in  all  directions  except  to  the 
east.  It  is  intersected  by  two  main  bazars  crossing  each  other  in  the 
centre.  The  streets  are  all  well  paved  or  metalled,  but  are  narrow  and 

The  populadon  in  188 1  numbered  25,022,  namely,  males  12,431,  and 
females  12,591.  Classified  according  to  religion,  there  were — Muham- 
madans,  16,917  ;  Hindus,  7334;  Jains,  768;  and  'others,'  3.  Number 
of  houses,  2952.  Municipal  income  (1883-84),  ^2063,  or  an  average 
of  IS.  7^d.  per  head  of  the  municipal  population  (25,651).  The  muni- 
cipal income  is  chiefly  derived  from  octroi  duties  levied  on  almost  all 
goods  brought  to  the  town  for  consumption. 

The  opening  of  the  railway  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Jumna  has 
somewhat  prejudiced  the  commercial  position  of  Panipat,  having  attracted 
to  it  much  of  the  traffic  formerly  passing  along  the  Grand  Trunk  Road. 
The  local  manufactures  consist  of  copper  utensils  for  export,  country 
cloth,  blankets,  cutlery,  silver  beads,  and  glass  ornaments  for  women's 
dress.     Panipat  was  formerly  the  head-quarters  of  the  District,  which 


was  transferred  to  Karnal  in  1854,  owing  to  the  growing  unhealthiness 
of  the  former  place.  The  principal  public  buildings,  apart  from  the 
ordinary  Sub-divisional  courts  and  offices,  are  the  municipal  hall, 
post-office,  police  station,  school,  rest-house,  and  large  sardi  or  native 

Panjab. — Province  of  Northern  India. — Sie  Punjab. 

Panjim  (or  New  God). — The  central  quarter  of  New  Goa,  the  present 
capital  of  Portuguese  India. — See  Goa. 

Panjnad. — Great  river  of  the  Punjab,  formed  by  the  united  waters 
of  the  Sutlej  (Satlaj),  Beas  (Bias),  Ravi,  Chenab,  and  Jehlam  (Jhelum). 
Commences  at  the  confluence  of  the  Sutlej  (Satlaj)  with  the  Trimab  or 
Chenab,  in  laL  29°  21'  n.,  and  long.  71°  3'  e.,  and,  taking  a  south- 
westerly course  of  about  60  miles,  joins  the  Indus  nearly  opposite 
Mithankot,  in  lat.  28°  57'  n.,  and  long.  70°  29'  e.  The  Panjnad 
separates  the  British  District  of  IMuzaffargarh  from  the  Native  State  of 
Bahawalpur.  The  stream,  even  after  the  junction  with  the  Sutlej,  often 
bears  the  name  of  the  Chenab. 

Pan-ma-myit-ta. — Tidal  creek  in  Bassein  District,  Irawadi  Division, 
Lower  Burma.  It  connects  the  Pya-ma-law  and  Ywe  streams,  and 
is  navigable  by  river  steamers  at  all  times,  and  is  the  route  generally 
followed  by  small  vessels  plying  between  Rangoon  and  Bassein. 

Pan-ma-wa-di.  —  Creek  in  Bassein  District,  Irawadi  Division, 
Lower  Burma.  Under  the  name  of  the  Thi-kwin,  it  leaves  the  Min- 
ma-naing  near  the  village  of  Tan-ta-bin,  in  about  lat.  16°  50'  n.,  and 
long.  95°  13'  E.  After  a  generally  westerly  course  of  about  60  miles, 
the  Pan-ma-wa-di  unites  with  the  Bassein,  the  depth  at  its  mouth 
being  10  fathoms  at  low-water  spring-tides.  River  steamers  can  ascend 
at  all  seasons  as  far  as  the  village  of  Thi-kwin,  a  distance  of  48  miles, 
where  the  channel  is  200  feet  broad.  The  chief  branches  of  the  Pan- 
ma-wa-di  are  the  Min-di  and  the  Min-ma-naing. 

Panna  {Punnah).  —  Native  State  in  Bundelkhand,  under  the 
political  superintendence  of  the  Bundelkhand  Agency  of  Central  India. 
Bounded  on  the  north  by  the  British  District  of  Banda,  and  by  one  of 
the  outlying  divisions  of  Charkhari  State ;  on  the  east  by  the  States  of 
Kothi,  Suhawal,  Nagode,  and  Ajaigarh ;  on  the  south  by  Damoh  and 
Jabalpur  (Jubbulpore)  Districts  of  the  Central  Provinces ;  and  on  the 
west  by  the  petty  States  of  Chhatarpur  and  Ajaigarh.  Estimated  area, 
2568  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  227,306.  Panna  is  for  the  most 
part  situated  on  the  table-lands  above  the  Vindhyan  Ghats,  and  contains 
much  hill  and  jungle  land. 

The  former  prosperity  oi  the  State  was  due  to  its  diamond  mines. 
The  diamonds  were  found  in  several  places,  especially  on  the  north-east 
of  the  town  (*  Panna  Mines ').  '  The  ground  on  the  surface  and  for  a 
few  feet  below/  says  Thornton,  from  whom  this  paragraph  is  condensed, 



'consists  of  ferruginous  gravel,  mixed  with  reddish  clay;  and  this  loose 
mass,  when  carefully  washed  and  searched,  yields  diamonds,  though 
{q\v  in  number  and  of  small  size.  The  matrix  containing  in  greater 
quantity  the  more  valuable  diamonds  lies  considerably  lower,  at  a  depth 
varying  generally  from  12  to  40  feet,  and  is  a  conglomerate  of  pebbles 
of  quartz,  jasper,  hornstone,  Lydian  stone,  etc.  The  fragments  of  this 
conglomerate,  quarried  and  brought  to  the  surface,  are  carefully 
pounded ;  and  after  several  washings,  to  remove  the  softer  and  more 
clayey  parts,  the  residue  is  repeatedly  searched  for  the  diamonds.  As 
frequently  happens  in  such  speculative  pursuits,  the  returns  often  scarcely 
equal  the  outlay,  and  the  adventurers  are  ruined.  The  business  is  now 
much  less  prosperous  than  formerly,  but  Jacquemont  did  not  consider 
that  there  were  in  his  time  any  symptoms  of  exhaustion  in  the  adaman- 
tiferous  deposits,  and  attributed  the  unfavourable  change  to  the 
diminished  value  of  the  gem  everywhere.  The  rejected  rubbish,  if 
examined  after  a  lapse  of  some  years,  has  been  frequently  found  to 
contain  valuable  gems,  which  some  suppose  have  in  the  interval  been 
produced  in  the  congenial  matrix ;  but  experienced  and  skilful  miners 
are  generally  of  opinion  that  the  diamonds  escaped  the  former  search,  in 
consequence  of  incrustation  by  some  opaque  coat,  and  have  now  been 
rendered  obvious  to  the  sight  from  its  removal  by  fracture,  friction,  or 
some  other  accidental  cause.  More  extensive  and  important  than  the 
tract  just  referred  to  is  another  extending  from  12  to  20  miles  north- 
east of  the  town  of  Panna,  and  worked  in  the  localities  of  Kamariya, 
Brijpur,  Bargari,  Maira,  and  Etwa.  Diamonds  of  the  first  water,  or 
completely  colourless,  are  very  rare,  most  of  those  found  being  either 
pearly,  greenish,  yellowish,  rose-coloured,  black,  or  brown.' 

Pogson,  who  worked  one  of  the  mines  on  his  own  account,  mentions 
that  the  diamonds  are  of  four  sorts — the  viotichal^  which  is  clear  and 
brilliant ;  the  mdtiik,  of  greenish  hue ;  the  pan?ia,  which  is  tinged  with 
orange ;  and  the  bauspat,  which  is  blackish.  In  his  time,  the  mines 
chiefly  worked  were  at  Sakariya,  about  12  miles  from  Panna;  and  he 
thus  describes  the  operation  :  '  The  diamonds  there  are  found  below 
a  stratum  of  rock  from  15  to  20  feet  thick.  To  cut  through  this  rock 
is,  as  the  natives  work,  a  labour  of  many  months,  and  even  years ;  but 
when  the  undertaking  is  prosecuted  with  diligence,  industry,  and 
vigour,  the  process  is  as  follows  : — On  the  removal  of  the  superficial 
soil,  the  rock  is  cut  with  chisels,  broken  with  large  hammers,  and  a  fire 
at  night  is  sometimes  lit  on  the  spot,  which  renders  it  more  friable. 
Supposing  the  work  to  be  commenced  in  October,  the  miners  may 
possibly  cut  through  the  rock  by  March.  The  next  four  months  are 
occupied  in  digging  out  the  gravel  in  which  diamonds  are  found ;  this 
is  usually  a  work  of  much  labour  and  delay,  in  consequence  of  the 
necessity  of  frequently  emptying  the  water  from  the  mines.     The  miners 

VOL.  XI.  D 



then  await  the  setting  in  of  the  rainy  season,  to  furnish  them  with  a 
supply  of  water  for  the  purpose  of  washing  the  gravel.'  The  same 
writer  considers  that  'inexhaustible  strata  producing  diamonds  exist 
here.'  '  None  of  the  great  diamonds  now  known  appear  to  be  traceable 
to  the  mines  in  Panna,  and  Tieffenthaler  mentions  it  as  a  general 
opinion  that  those  of  Golconda  are  superior.'  During  the  prosperity  of 
the  mines,  a  tax  of  25  per  cent,  was  levied  on  their  produce,  but  the  tax 
now  imposed  is  stated  to  exceed  this  rate.  The  revenue  is  divided  in 
proportions  between  the  Rajas  of  Panna  and  Charkhari.  The  value  of 
the  diamonds  still  found  in  the  mines  is  estimated  at  ;^i 2,000  per 
annum.     Iron  is  also  found  in  the  State. 

The  chief  of  Panna  is  descended  from  Hardi  Sah,  one  of  the  sons  of 
the  famous  Maharaja  Chhatar  Sal.  When  the  British  entered  Bundel- 
khand,  Raja  Kishor  Singh  was  the  chief  of  the  State,  which  was  then  in 
a  condition  of  complete  anarchy.  He  was  confirmed  in  his  possessions 
by  i"^/za^j  granted  in  1807  and  181 1.  As  a  reward  for  services  rendered 
during  the  Mutiny  of  1857,  the  Raja  received  the  privilege  of  adoption, 
a  dress  of  honour  of  the  value  of  ^2000,  and  a  personal  salute  of  13 
guns.  The  present  Maharaja,  Rudra  Pratap  Singh,  who  is  a  Biindela 
Rajput,  succeeded  in  1870;  and  in  1876  he  was  invested  with  the 
insignia  of  a  Knight  Commander  of  the  Star  of  India  by  His  Royal 
Highness  the  Prince  of  Wales. 

The  population  of  Panna  was  in  1881  returned  at  227,306  persons, 
dwelling  in  i  town  and  867  villages,  and  occupying  45,414  houses; 
males  numbered  118,349,  females  108,957.  Average  number  of 
persons  per  square  mile,  88"5.  Hindus  number  203,425 ;  Muham- 
madans,  5989  ;  Jains,  1271  ;  Christians,  9  ;  Parsis,  3  ;  aboriginal  Gonds, 
8886;  and  Kols,  7723.  The  land  revenue  is  estimated  at  5  lakhs  of 
rupees  (say  ;£5 0,000),  but  much  of  this  amount  is  alienated.  A  small 
and  fiuctuatins:  revenue  is  also  derived  from  a  tax  on  the  diamond 
mines.  Tribute  of  ^995  is  paid  on  the  districts  of  Surdjpur  and 
Ektana.  A  road  was  constructed  by  the  late  Maharaja  Narpal  Singh 
from  his  capital  to  Simari3'a  in  the  Damoh  direction  (40  miles).  The 
present  chief  has  constructed  another  road  towards  the  north,  through 
Bisram  Ghat,  a  distance  of  14  miles,  at  a  cost  of  about  ^6500,  and 
which  for  tracing  and  workmanship  will  bear  comparison  with  any  hill- 
road  in  the  country.  Schools  have  also  been  founded  in  the  State. 
A  military  force  is  maintained  of  250  cavalry  and  2440  infantry,  with 
19  guns  and  60  artillerymen. 

Panna. — Chief  town  of  the  Native  State  of  Panna,  Bundelkhand, 
Central  India;  situated  in  lat.  24°  43'  30"  n.,  and  long.  80°  13'  55"  e., 
on  the  route  from  Banda  to  Jabalpur  (Jubbulpore),  62  miles  south  of 
the  former  and  169  miles  north  of  the  latter;  distant  from  Kalpi  130 
miles  south,  and  from  x\llahabad   173  south-west.     Population  (1881) 



14,676,  namely,  8194  males  and  6482  females.  Hindus  number 
12,500;  Muhammadans,  2028;  and  'others,'  148.  Elevation  above 
sea-level,  1147  feet.  Panna  is  a  clean,  well-laid-out  city,  built  almost 
entirely  of  stone,  which  is  found  in  abundance  in  the  neighbourhood. 
Several  large  modern  Hindu  temples;  and  an  imposing-looking  edifice 
of  nondescript  design  has  been  lately  completed  by  the  chief  as  a 
temple  to  Baladeo  (a  name  of  Balarama,  brother  of  Krishna).  A  new 
palace,  now  under  construction,  will,  when  completed,  be  a  handsome 
building.  On  a  table  covered  with  gold  cloth  lies  the  volume  of  Pran 
Nath,  in  an  apartment  of  the  building  consecrated  to  the  use  of  the  sect 
founded  by  Pran  Nath,  a  Kshattriya,  who,  being  versed  in  Muham- 
madan  as  well  as  in  Hindu  learning,  attempted  to  reconcile  the  two 
religions.  The  neighbouring  diamond  mines,  which  take  their  name 
from  the  town,  are  described  in  the  article  on  Panna  State  {jide 

Fabnnmv  (Funniar). — Town  in  Gwalior  State,  Central  India;  situated 
in  lat.  26°  6'  12"  n.,  and  long.  78°  2'  2"  e.,  12  miles  south-west  of 
Gwalior  fort.  'Scene  of  an  engagement,'  writes  Thornton,  'on  the 
29th  December  1843  (the  date  of  the  victory  of  Maharajpur),  between 
the  British  and  Maratha  forces.  Major-General  Grey,  leading  from 
Bundelkhand  a  British  detachment  to  co-operate  with  that  marching 
from  Agra  under  the  conduct  of  Sir  Hugh  Gough,  commander-in- 
chief,  crossed  the  river  Sind  at  Chandpur,  and  proceeding  north-west, 
after  a  march  of  16  miles,  was  attacked  by  the  Maratha  army, 
strongly  posted  near  the  village  of  Mangor.  The  British  army  took 
post  at  Panniar,  and,  by  a  series  of  attacks,  drove  the  enemy  from  all 
points  of  his  position,  capturing  all  his  artillery,  amounting  to  24 
pieces,  and  all  his  ammunition.  The  Maratha  army  is  represented  to 
have  been  about  12,000  strong,  and  to  have  suffered  most  severely. 
The  British  loss  amounted  to  35  killed  and  182  wounded.' 

Panroti  {Panrutti).  —  Town  in  Cuddalore  tdluk^  South  Arcot 
District,  Madras  Presidency,  and  a  station  on  the  South  Indian  Railway. 
A  large  market  town,  being  situated  at  the  junction  of  several  important 
roads.  Lat.  11°  46'  40"  n.,  and  long.  79°  35'  16"  e.  Population 
(1881)  20,172,  namely,  10,021  males  and  10,151  females.  Hindus 
number  18,953;  Muhammadans,  1135;  and  Christians,  84. 

Pantalaori.— Petty  State  of  the  Sankheda  Mehwas  in  Rewa  Kantha, 
Bombay  Presidency.  Area,  5  square  miles.  There  are  two  chiefs, 
Nathu  Khan  and  Nazir  Khan.     Estimated  revenue,  ;£"2oo. 

Pantan. — Forest  reserve  in  the  south  of  Kamriip  District,  Assam, 
on  the  left  bank  of  the  Kulsi  river ;  containing  valuable  sal  timber. 
Area,  12  square  miles. 

Pan-ta-naw.  —  Township  in  Thun-gwa  District,  Irawadi  Division, 
Lower    Burma.     Area,   489  square  miles;    revenue  (1877),  ^^16,482, 

52  PAN-TA-NA  ]V—rAN]VEL, 

and  (1881)  ^36,072.  It  is  divided  into  8  revenue  circles,  with  a 
total  population  (1881)  of  40,410  persons.  The  greater  part  of  the 
country  is  covered  with  forests.  -r^-  .  •  ^ 

Pan-ta-naw.— Town  in  the  Pan-ta-naw  township,  Thun-gwa  District, 
Irawadi  Division,  Lower  Burma ;  situated  on  the  river  Irawadi  (Irra- 
waddy),  in  lat.  16°  55'  ^.  and  long.  95°  ^8'  e.  Population,  5824  m 
1877,  and  6174  in  1881.  Head-quarters  of  an  extra-Assistant  Com- 
missioner.    Considerable  river-borne  traffic  in  nga-p'i,  dried  fish,  piece- 

troods,  and  hardware. 

Panth-Piplanda.— Guaranteed  chiefship  (Thakiirat)  under  the 
Western  :vldlwa  Agency.  Consisting  of  10  villages.  Population  (1881) 
4086,  dwelling  in  903  houses.  Hindus  number  3989;  Muham- 
madans,  93  ;  and  non-Hindu  aborigines,  4. 

Panwari.  — South-western  tahsil  of  Hamirpur  District,  North- 
western Provinces.— 5"^^  Kulpahar. 

Panwel  — Sub-division    of    Thana   District,    Bombay  Presidency. 
This  Sub-division  includes  the  petty  Division  of  Uran,  and  lies  in  the 
south-west  of  the  District,  having  along  its  eastern  boundary  the  lofty 
Bava  Malang,  Matheran,  and  Prabal  ranges,  and  the  Manikgarh  range 
on  the  south-east.     It  has  many  naturd  advantages ;  its  seaboard  and 
rivers  give  it  the  command  of  water  carriage  to  Bombay  as  well  as  in 
the  interior,  while  the    Poona   and   Bombay  road  supplies    excellent 
land  communication.     The  climate,  though  damp  and  unhealthy  for 
Europeans,  is  temperate  except  in  the  hot  season,  at  which  time  the 
water-supply  gets  scanty.     Area,  307  square  miles,  containing  2  towns 
and  217  villages.     Population  (1872)  96,714;  (1881)  101,181,  namely, 
52,140  males  and  49,041  females.     Hindus  number  93,816;  Muham- 
madans,  5920  ;  and  '  others,'  i445-     I"  1879-80,  the  separate  holdings 
numbered  13,105,  of  an  average  area  of  6f  acres  each,  and  paying  an 
average  assessment  of  £\,  8s.  iid.     Total  area  in   i88r,  exclusive  of 
91  square  miles  occupied  by  the  lands  of  alienated  villages,  216  square 
miles.       Of  the    Government   area,    76,691    acres   were    returned    as 
cultivable,  8959  acres  as  uncultivable,  39,132  acres  as  forest  land,  4021 
acres  as  salt  land,  and  6926  acres  occupied  by  village  sites,  etc.     Total 
cultivated  area  of  Government  land  in  1880-81,  49,466  acres,  of  which 
364  acres  were  twice  cropped.     Principal  crops— grain,  46,535  acres; 
pulses,  2382  acres;  oil-seeds,  434  acres;  fibres,   29  acres;  and  miscel- 
laneous, 450  acres.     Rice  occupied  43^936  acres.     In  1883  the  Sub- 
division contained  i  civil  and  3  criminal  courts ;  police  circles  {thdfids), 
2  ;  regular  police,  65  men.     Land  revenue  (1882-83),  ^19,618. 

Panwel. Chief  town  of  the  Panwel  Sub-division  of  Thana  District, 

Bombay  Presidency ;  situated  20  miles  south  by  east  of  Thana  town, 
on  the  high  road  to  Poona,  in  lat.  18°  58'  50"  n.,  and  long.  73°  9'  10" 
E.     Population  (1881)  10,351,  namely,  5462  males  and  4889  females. 

FA  OXI-  PA- FUN,  5  3 

Hindus  number  7807;  Muliammadans,  21S6  ;  Jains,  95  ;  Christians,  20  ; 
Parsis,  15;  and  'others,'  228.  Panwel  is  the  chief  of  four  ports  con- 
stituting the  Panwel  Customs  Division.  The  average  annual  value  of 
trade  at  Panwel  port  during  the  five  years  ending  1881-82  was — imports 
^5245,  and  exports  ^12,129.  In  1881-82,  the  trade  of  Panwel  port 
^vas — imports  ^^42 78,  and  exports  j£']i6o.  The  sea  trade  of  Panwel 
is  entirely  coasting.  The  chief  imports  are  grain,  fish,  liquor,  gunny- 
bags,  viahud  flowers,  cocoa-nut,  timber,  from  Bombay,  Surat,  Broach,  and 
the  neighbouring  ports  of  Thana.  The  chief  exports — grain,  ghi^  fire- 
wood, cart-wheel  and  axle  oil,  oil-seed,  to  Bombay,  Surat,  Broach,  Bhau- 
nagar,  and  neighbouring  ports  of  Thana.  The  chief  local  industry  is 
the  construction  of  cart-wheels,  of  which  it  is  said  that  every  cart  from 
the  Deccan  carries  away  a  pair.  Brick-making  on  a  large  scale  has 
been  attempted,  but  the  enterprise  has  on  two  occasions  failed.  Panwel 
port  is  mentioned  as  carrying  on  trade  with  Europe  in  1570;  and  it 
probably  rose  to  importance  along  with  Bombay,  as  it  is  on  the  direct 
Bombay-Deccan  route.  Sub-judge's  court,  post-office,  dispensary;  four 
schools  with  554  pupils  in  1883. 

Paoni. — Village  and  administrative  head-quarters  of  Garhwal  Dis- 
trict, North-Western  Provinces. — See  Pauni. 

Papaghni  {^ Sin-Destroyer^).  —  River  of  Southern  India,  rising  in 
Mysore  State.  After  entering  the  Madanapalli  taluk  in  Cuddapah 
(Kadapa)  District,  Madras  (lat.  13°  43'  n.,  long.  78°  10'  e.),  it  flows 
through  the  large  tank,  Vyasa-samudram,  at  Kandakur,  and  thence 
north  through  the  Palkonda  Hills  at  Vempalli,  where  it  is  known  as 
the  Gandairii  ('  River  of  the  Gorge ').  Thence  it  flows  through  the 
Cuddapah  taluk  into  the  Penner,  the  confluence  being  in  lat.  14° 
37'  N.,  and  long.  78^  47'  e.  The  Papaghni  is  held  sacred,  and  on  its 
banks,  in  the  Palinendla  taluk,  is  a  large  pagoda.  A  girder  bridge 
on  the  north-west  line  of  the  Madras  Railway,  with  22  spans  of  72  feet, 
crosses  the  river  a  short  distance  from  Kamalapur. 

Papanasham  ('  Rejuoi'al  of  Shi ').  —  Village  in  Ambasamiidram 
taluk,  Tinnevelli  District,  Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  8°  48'  n.,  long.  77° 
24'  E.  Noted  as  a  place  of  pilgrimage,  and  for  the  falls  of  the  Tambra- 
parni  river.  Situated  about  six  miles  west  of  Ambasamiidram.  The 
cataract  is  only  80  feet  high,  but  the  body  of  water  is  very  great.  The 
pagoda  is  much  venerated.  The  fish  here  are  fed  by  the  Brahmans,  and 
come  up  for  food  when  called. 

Papikonda. — Mountain  in  Goddvari  District,  Madras. — See  Bison 

Pa-pun.— Head-quarters  of  Sal  win  (Sal  ween)  District,  Tenasserim 
Division,  Lower  Burma ;  situated  on  the  Yunzalin  river.  Contains 
a  court-house,  temporary  hospital,  and  dispensary ;  a  strong  police 
force  is  quartered  in  a  stockade  close  to  the  village. 


Parad  Singha. — Village  in  Katol  tahs'il,  Nagpur  District,  Central 
Provinces.  Population  (i 88 1)  2780,  namely,  Hindus,  2669;  Muham 
madans,  55  ;  Jains,  22  ;  non-Hindu  aborigines,  34. 

Parahat. — Sequestrated  estate  in  Singhbhum  District,  Bengal.  Area, 
791  square  miles.  Population  (1872)  54,374,  dwelling  in  380  villages 
and  10,327  houses.  Number  of  Hindus,  26,364;  Mubammadans, 
200;  Christians,  484;  and  'others,'  27,326.  Average  number  of 
persons  per  square  mile,  69  ;  villages  per  square  mile,  0*48  ;  houses  per 
square  mile,  13;  persons  per  house,  5*3;  proportion  of  males  in  total 
population,  50*8.  No  returns  of  area  or  population  of  this  estate  are 
separately  given  in  the  Census  Report  of  1881. 

Two  rival  legends  are  current  concerning  the  origin  of  the  chiefs  of 
Parahat,  who  were  formerly  called  Rajas  of  Singhbhum.  One  of  these, 
apimrently  an  aboriginal  tradition,  alleges  that  the  founder  of  the  family 
was  discovered  as  a  boy  in  a  hollow  tree,  which  a  Bhuiya  forester  was 
cutting  down.  This  boy  became  the  head  of  the  Bhuiya  tribe,  and 
worshipped  Pauri  or  Pahciri  Devi,  a  peculiarly  Bhuiya  divinity,  corre- 
sponding to  the  Thakurani  Mai  of  the  Bhuiyas  in  Keunjhar  The 
Singh  family  themselves,  however,  claim  to  be  Kshattriyas  of  pure  blood. 
They  assert  that,  many  generations  ago,  the  first  of  their  race,  a  Kadam- 
bansi  Rajput  from  Marwar,  while  passing  through  the  country  on  a 
pilgrimage  to  the  shrine  of  Jagannath  at  Puri,  was  chosen  by  the  people 
as  their  Raja.  Some  time  afterwards,  a  dispute  arose  between  the 
Bhuiyas  of  Eastern  Singhbhum  and  the  Larka  Kols  of  the  central  tract 
of  Kolhan ;  the  chief's  family  joined  the  Kols,  and  after  they  had  put 
down  the  Bhuiyas,  claimed  sovereignty  over  both  tribes.  This  latter 
legend  is  no  doubt  open  to  suspicion,  as  arrogating  to  the  family  a 
distant  foreign  origin,  and  indirectly  supporting  their  invalid  claim  to 
supremacy  over  the  Kols ;  but  it  is  corroborated  by  the  fact  that  good 
families  admit  the  Rajput  origin  of  the  Parahat  chief. 

The  estate  of  Parahat  or  Singhbhum  Proper  was  saved  by  its  rocky 
boundaries  and  sterile  soil  from  conquest  by  the  Marathas,  and  was 
thoroughly  independent  when,  in  181 8,  Raja  Ghansham  Singh  Deo 
tendered  his  allegiance  to  the  British  Government.  The  neighbouring 
estates  of  Saraikala  and  Kharsawan  abutted  on  the  frontier  of  the  old 
Jungle  Mahals  of  Western  Bengal;  and  as  early  as  1793,  engagements 
relating  to  fugitive  rebels  had  been  taken  from  their  chiefs.  But  the 
Parahat  estate  lay  farther  west,  and  there  had  previously  been  no  com 
munication  between  its  chief  and  the  British  Government.  The  objects 
of  the  Raja  in  thus  becoming  a  British  feudatory  were, — first,  to  be 
recognised  as  lord  paramount  over  Vikram  Singh,  ancestor  of  the  present 
Raja  of  Saraikala,  and  Babu  Chaitan  Singh  of  Kharsawan  ;  secondly,  to 
regain  possession  of  a  certain  tutelary  image,  which  had  fallen  into  the 
hands  of  Babu  Vikram  Singh  of  Saraikala;  and  lastly,  to  obtain  aid 


in  reducing  the  refractory  tribe  of  Larka  Kols  or  Hos.  The  British 
Government,  while  disallowing  his  claim  to  supremacy  over  his  kins- 
men of  Saraikala  and  Kharsdwan,  exacted  from  him  a  nominal  tribute 
of  Rs.  loi  (^10,  2S.),  and  declined  to  interfere  in  any  way  with  the 
internal  administration  of  the  estate.  An  engagement  embodying  these 
conditions  was  taken  from  him  on  the  ist  of  February  1820;  and  it 
was  intended  that  similar  agreements  should  be  entered  into  by  the 
chiefs  of  Saraikala  and  Kharsawan.  The  matter,  however,  appears  to 
have  been  overlooked  at  the  time ;  and  those  chiefs  have  never  paid 
tribute,  though  they  have  frequently  been  called  upon  to  furnish  con- 
tingents of  armed  men  to  aid  in  suppressing  disturbances.  In  1823, 
the  Raja  of  Parahat  regained  by  a  Government  order  the  family  idol, 
which  he  had  claimed  in  181 8  from  the  Raja  of  Saraikala.  But  he  gra- 
dually sank  into  poverty,  and  in  1837  was  granted  a  pension  of  Rs.  500 
(^50)  as  a  compassionate  allowance,  in  compensation  for  any  losses 
he  might  have  sustained  in  consequence  of  our  assumption  of  the  direct 
management  of  the  Kolhan.  In  1857,  Arjun  Singh,  the  last  Raja  of 
Parahat,  after  delivering  up  to  Government  the  Chaibasa  mutineers,  in 
a  moment  of  caprice  rebelled  himself,  and  was  sentenced  to  imprison- 
ment for  life  at  Benares.  The  estate  of  Parahat  was  confiscated,  and 
is  now  under  the  direct  management  of  Government. 

Parambakudi. — Town  in  Madura  District,  Madras  Presidency. — 
Sec  Parmagudi. 

Paramukka.  —  Site  of  old  town  in  Malabar  District,  Madras 
Presidency. — See  Ferokh. 

Parangla. — Pass  in  Kangra  District,  Punjab,  over  the  Western 
Himalayan  range  from  Kibbar  in  Spiti  to  Rupshii  in  Ladakh.  Lat. 
32°  31'  N.,  long.  78°  i'  E.  Practicable  for  laden  yaks  and  ponies. 
Elevation  above  sea-level,  about  18,500  feet. 

Parantij. — Sub-division  of  Ahmadabad  District,  Bombay  Presidency  ; 
situated  in  the  extreme  north-east  of  Ahmadabad  District.  Area,  449 
square  miles,  containing  2  towns  and  159  villages.  Population  (1872) 
106,934;  (1881)  107,554,  namely,  55,099  males  and  52,455  females, 
dwelUng  in  24,486  houses.  Hindus  number  96,922  ;  Muhammadans, 
7561;  and  'others,'  3071.  From  the  north-east,  lines  of  rocky, 
bare  hills  gradually  sink  west  and  south  into  a  plain,  at  first  thinly 
wooded  and  poorly  tilled,  then  with  deeper  soil,  finer  trees,  and  better 
tillage,  till  in  the  extreme  west  along  the  banks  of  the  Sabarmati,  the 
surface  is  broken  by  ravines  and  ridges.  In  the  east,  the  staple  crop 
is  maize,  and  in  the  west  millet.  Garden  cultivation  is  neglected. 
Water  abundant.  The  Sub-division  is  the  healthiest  and  coolest  part 
of  the  District.  Total  area,  exclusive  of  137  square  miles  occupied  by 
the  lands  of  alienated  villages,  312  square  miles.  Of  the  Government 
area  in    1877-78,    195,619   acres  were  returned  as  occupied  land,  of 


which  22,669  ^cres  were  alienated  land,  92,953  acres  cultivable,  59  174 
acres  uncultivable  waste,  and  43,192  acres  of  village  sites,  etc.  Total 
cultivated  area  of  Government  land  in  1877-78,  72,026  acres,  of 
which  3441  acres  were  twice  cropped.  Principal  crops — grain  crops, 
53,205  acres,  of  which  29,924  were  under  bdjra;  pulses,  19,458  acres; 
oil-seeds,  2572  acres;  fibres,  42  acres;  and  miscellaneous  crops,  190 
acres.  In  1861-62,  the  year  of  Settlement,  10,035  holdings  were 
recorded,  with  an  average  area  of  9 J  acres,  and  paying  an  average 
revenue  of  1 7s.  4id.  In  1883  the  Sub-division  contained  3  criminal 
courts  and  2  police  circles  itJidnds);  regular  police,  122  men;  village 
watch  {chaukiddrs),  644.     Land  revenue,  ;£^i 3,830. 

Parantij  {Farantej).  —  Chief  town  of  the  Parantij  Sub-division, 
Ahmadabad  District,  Bombay  Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  23°  26'  20" 
N.,  long.  72°  53'  45"  E.,  -^-^  miles  north-west  of  Ahmadabad  city. 
Population  (1881)  8353.  Hindus  number  5252 ;  Muhammadans, 
2165  ;  Jains,  932  ;  and  '  others,'  4.  Parantij  is  a  prosperous  town.  Its 
special  manufacture  is  soap ;  there  are  six  soap  factories  with  a  yearly 
out-turn  of  about  178  tons.  Parantij  is  a  municipality,  with  an  income 
in  1883-84  of  ;£^378;  incidence  of  taxation  per  head  of  population, 
7fd.  Post-office,  travellers'  bungalow,  dispensary,  and  two  schools 
with  557  pupils  in  1883.  Exports,  ghi,  grain,  and  leather  of  annual 
value  of  ;^  1 980. 

Parasgarh. — Sub-division  of  Belgaum  District,  Bombay  Presidency ; 
situated  in  the  south-east  corner  of  the  District.  A  low  range  of  sand- 
stone hills  running  north-west  and  south-east  divides  Parasgarh  into  two 
nearly  equal  parts.  South-west  of  the  hills,  whose  southern  face  is  steep 
and  rugged,  is  a  plain  of  fine  black  soil  with  many  rich  villages  and 
hamlets,  which  suffered  severely  in  the  famine  of  1876-77.  The  north- 
east, which  is  broken  by  low  hills,  is  a  high  waving  plateau  overgrown 
with  bush  and  prickly  pear;  the  soil  mostly  poor  and  sandy.  In  the 
extreme  north,  the  sandstone  gives  place  to  trap,  and  the  soil  is 
generally  shallow  and  poor.  The  Malprabha,  which  flows  north-east 
through  the  middle  of  the  Sub-division,  forms  with  its  feeders  the  chief 
water-supply.  Before  the  close  of  the  hot  season,  almost  all  the  small 
streams  dry  and  stagnate ;  and  the  well  and  pond  water  is  scanty  and 
unwholesome.  In  the  north  and  east,  the  rainfall  is  scanty  and 
uncertain ;  but  in  the  south  and  west,  and  in  the  immediate  neighbour- 
hood of  the  Sahyadri  hills  it  is  plentiful.  Area,  640  square  miles ; 
contains  i  town  and  126  villages.  Population  (1872)  120,691  ;  (1881) 
91,826,  namely,  45,404  males  and  46,422  females,  dwelling  in  17,770 
houses.  Hindus  number  84,419;  ]\Iuhammadans,  6384;  and  'others,' 
1023.  Total  area,  exclusive  of  100  square  miles  occupied  by  the  lands 
of  alienated  villages,  540  square  miles.  Of  the  Government  area, 
17I5495  acres  were  returned  in  1881  as  cultivable,  1893  acres  as  uncul- 


tivabic,  ^2,  acres  grass,  and  59,080  acres  village  sites,  etc.  In  1S81-S2, 
of  152,787  acres  held  for  tillage,  12,535  were  fallow  or  under  grass. 
Total  cultivated  area  of  Government  land  in  1881-82,  140,252  acres, 
of  which  13,732  acres  were  twice  cropped.  Principal  crops — grain  crops, 
106,941  acres;  pulses,  12,013  acres ;  oil-seeds,  7901  acres;  fibres,  26,671 
acres,  of  which  26,608  were  under  cotton  ;  and  miscellaneous  crops, 
458  acres.  In  1883  tlie  Sub-division  contained  courts — civil  i,  and 
criminal  3;  police  circles  (f/idnds),  7;  regular  police,  55  men;  village 
watch  {chaukiddrs)^  469.  Land  revenue,  ;£"i8,744.  The  head-quarters 
of  the  Sub-division  is  at  Saundatti  village. 

Parasnath.  —  Hill  and  place  of  Jain  pilgrimage,  in  the  east  of 
Hazaribagh,  and  adjoining  Manbhilm  District,  Bengal.  Tat.  23°  57' 
35"  N.,long.  86°  10'  30"  E.  The  mountain  consists  of  a  central  narrow 
ridge,  with  rocky  peaks,  rising  abruptly  to  4488  feet  above  sea-level 
from  the  plains  on  the  south-west,  and  throwing  out  long  spurs, 
which  extend  towards  the  Barakhar  river  on  the  north.  A  spur  to  the 
south-east  forms  the  boundary  between  the  Districts  of  Hazaribagh  and 
Manbhiim,  and  eventually  subsides  into  an  extended  belt  of  high  land 
with  peaked  hills  in  the  latter  District. 

Parasnath  was  ascended  apparently  for  the  first  time  by  a  European, 
Colonel  Franklin,  in  1819.  He  climbed  by  a  narrow  steep  path, 
through  thick  forest,  on  the  northern  slope.  'As  you  ascend,'  he 
wrote,  '  the  mountain  presents  a  stupendous  appearance.  At  intervals 
you  perceive  the  summit,  appearing  in  bluff,  jagged  peaks,  eight  in 
number,  and  towering  to  the  clouds.  From  an  opening  in  the  forest 
the  view  is  inexpressibly  grand,  the  wide  extent  of  the  jungle  iardi 
stretching  beneath  your  feet.  The  summit,  emphatically  termed  by 
the  Jains  Asjnid  (more  correctly,  Samet)  Sikhar,  or  "  The  Peak  of  Bliss," 
is  composed  of  a  table-land  flanked  by  twenty  small  Jain  temples  on 
the  craggy  peaks.'  In  1827,  Parasnath  was  visited  by  a  Government 
officer,  in  the  course  of  his  official  tour,  who  describes  it  as  'thickly 
covered  with  magnificent  trees  from  the  plain  to  within  a  few  yards  of 
each  pinnacle.' 

Dr.  (now  Sir  Joseph)  Hooker  ascended  the  hill  from  the  Taldanga 
side  in  1848,  and  was  much  impressed  by  its  beauty:  'As  the  sun 
rose,  Parasnath  appeared  against  the  clear  grey  in  the  form  of  a  beauti- 
ful broad  cone,  with  a  rugged  peak  of  a  deeper  grey  than  the  sky.  It 
is  a  remarkably  handsome  mountain,  sufificiently  lofty  to  be  imposing  ; 
and  it  is  surrounded  by  lesser  hills  of  just  sufficient  elevation  to  set  it 
off.'  Parts  of  the  forest  have  disappeared,  and  there  is  now  a  good 
])athway  to  the  top,  but  the  hill  still  retains  much  of  its  old  wild  beauty  ; 
and  the  valleys  of  the  Barakhnr  and  Damodar  rivers,  whicli  stretch  on 
either  side,  form  a  striking  landscape. 

The   hill  is  now  easily  approached  by  the  East  Indian  Railway  to 


Giridhi  station,  and  thence  by  a  short  journey  along  a  metalled 
road,  the  distance  being  about  i8  miles.  In  1858,  Parasnath  was 
selected  as  a  convalescent  depot  for  European  troops.  The  cool- 
ness of  its  climate  (averaging  during  the  seven  hot  months  16°  F. 
below  that  of  the  plains),  the  purity  of  its  air,  its  nearness  to  Calcutta, 
and  the  abundant  building  materials  on  the  spot,  recommended  the 
hill  for  this  purpose.  Buildings  were  erected ;  but  the  water-supply 
proved  sufficient  for  only  from  60  to  80  men,  the  plateau  at  the  summit 
was  too  confined  for  exercise,  and  the  solitude  and  quiet  exerted  a 
depressing  influence  on  the  invalid  soldiers.  They  conceived  an  intense 
dislike  to  the  spot,  and  begged  to  be  allowed  to  take  their  chance  in 
hospital  on  the  plains.  This  feeling  seriously  retarded  their  recovery ; 
and  it  was  found  that,  although  the  place  was  an  'excellent  sanitarium 
for  the  robust  or  the  very  sick,  it  was  unsuitable  for  convalescents,  who 
could  not  take  exercise  beyond  the  cramped  limits  of  the  plateau. 

After  much  discussion,  Parasnath  was  given  up  as  a  sanitarium 
in  1868.  Next  year  the  buildings  had  already  fallen  into  decay,  and 
the  mountain  was  again  abandoned  to  the  forest  and  wild  beasts  and 
Jain  pilgrims.  The  building  formerly  used  as  the  officers'  quarters  is 
now  utilized  as  a  dak  bungalow.  Pilgrims  flock,  to  the  number  of 
10,000  annually,  from  distant  parts  of  India  to  this  remote  spot — the 
scene  of  A^irvdfia,  or  '  beatific  annihilation'  of  no  less  than  10  of  the 
24  deified  saints,  who  are  the  objects  of  Jain  adoration.  From  the 
last  of  these,  Parsva  or  Parsvanatha,  the  hill,  originally  called  Samet 
Sikhar,  took  its  better  known  name  of  Parasnath.  (For  a  full  account 
of  the  shrines  and  ceremonies,  see  Statistical  Account  of  Bengal^  vol. 
xvi.  pp.  216,  217.) 

Pilgrimage  to  Parasnath  is  still  as  popular  as  ever  among  the  Jains  ; 
and  new  shrines,  a  single  one  of  which  in  white  marble  cost  ^8000, 
are  from  time  to  time  erected.  The  temples  lie  well  apart  from  the 
plateau,  and  the  improved  means  of  communication  with  Calcutta  hold 
out  a  possibility  of  the  latter  being  yet  utilized  as  a  small  and  cheaply- 
reached  sanitarium. 

Paraspur-Ata. — Two  adjacent  villages  in  Gonda  District,  Gudh ; 
situated  15  miles  south-west  of  Gonda  town,  on  the  road  between 
Nawabganj  and  Colonelganj.  Joint  population  (1881)  of  the  two 
villages,  4099,  namely,  Hindus  3412,  and  Muhammadans  687. 
Paraspur  was  founded  about  400  years  ago  by  Raja  Paras  Ram 
Kalhans,  the  only  son  of  the  Gonda  Raja,  whose  destruction  by  a 
sudden  flood  of  the  Gogra  is  narrated  in  the  article  on  Gonda 
District  {q.v.)'  His  descendant,  the  present  Rajd  of  Paraspur,  and 
chief  of  the  Kalhans  of  Guwarich,  still  resides  in  a  large  mud-house  to 
the  east  of  the  village.  The  Babu  of  Ata,  representative  of  a  younger 
branch  of  the  same  family,  enjoying  a  separate  estate,  lives  in  Ata,  a 

FAR  AS  WAR  A— FAR  A  VUR,  5  9 

name  accounted  for  by  the  following  legend.  Bdbu  Lai  Sah,  the  first  of 
his  branch  of  the  family,  when  out  hunting  near  Paraspur,  met  :k  fakir 
eating  what  appeared  to  be  carrion.  The  holy  man  pressed  him  to  join, 
and  his  repugnance  yielded  to  hunger  and  a  dread  of  the  curse  which  was 
threatened  on  his  refusal.  To  his  surprise,  it  turned  out  to  be  excellent 
wheat  flour  {did)  ;  and,  at  \\\^  fakir's  bidding,  a  pot  full  of  the  deceptive 
flesh  was  buried  under  the  doorway  of  the  fort  which  Lai  Sah  was 
building.  On  the  boundary  of  the  two  villages  is  a  flourishing  school, 
attended  by  over  loo  boys.     Market  twice  a  week. 

Paraswara.— Village  in  the  highland  portion  of  Balaghat  District, 
Central  Provinces;  situated  in  lat.  22°  11'  n.,  and  long.  80°  20'  e.,  m 
the  centre  of  a  well-watered  plateau,  and  surrounded  by  30  thriving 
villages,  and  excellent  rice-fields.  Population  (1881)  692.  Police 

Paratwara. — Military  cantonment  and  civil  station  in  Ellichpur 
District,  Berar  ;  situated  in  lat.  21°  18'  n.,  and  long.  77°  33'  20"  e.,  on 
the  Bichan  stream,  about  2  miles  from  Ellichpur  town.  A  force  of 
all  arms  is  stationed  here.  The  cantonment  is  well  laid  out,  but  is 
not  considered  healthy,  the  site  being  low  and  too  much  under  the 
hills.  Schools,  police  station,  civil  jail,  court  with  treasury,  and  a 
Government  garden.  Population  (i 881)  9445.  Hindus  number  6341  ; 
Muhammadans,  2876  ;  Christians,  192  ;  and  Jains,  36  ;  but  the  number 
varies  with  the  strength  of  the  force  cantoned  here. 

Parauna.— 7^^/w//  and  town  in  Gorakhpur  District,  North-Western 
Provinces. — See  Padrauna. 

Paravanar.— River  of  South  Arcot  District,  iNLadras ;  rising  in  lat. 
11^  31'  N.,  and  long.  79°  43'  e.  After  a  course  of  about  32  miles  in  a 
generally  northerly  direction,  and  parallel  to  the  coast,  it  enters  the  sea 
at  Cuddalore  (lat.  11°  44'  n.,  long.  79°  50'  30"  e.).  It  is  navigable  fcr 
10  miles,  and  is  connected  with  the  Vellar  by  a  canal,  which,  begun 
in  1856-57,  and  stopped  at  the  time  of  the  Mutiny,  was  re-opened  as  a 
famine  work  in  1878.  The  Paravanar  is  one  of  the  three  rivers  of  the 
South  Arcot  District,  navigable  for  a  short  distance  by  boats  of  4  tons 
burthen  throughout  the  year. 

Paravur.  —  Tdhik  or  Sub-division  of  Travancore  State,  INLadras 
Presidency.  Area,  47  square  miles.  Paraviir  taluk  contains  89  karas 
or  villages.  Population  (1875)  60,156;  (1881)  61,966,  namely,  31,487 
males  and  30,479  females,  occupying  11,962  houses.  Hindus  number 
41,255;  Muhammadans,  2926;  Christians,  17,690;  and  Jews,  95. 
The  taluk  is  the  most  densely  populated  portion  of  Travancore  State, 
the  average  density  being  131 8*4  persons  per  square  mile. 

Paraviir  (/^^/n/r).— Chief  town  of  Pc4ravur  Sub-division,  Travancore 
State,  Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  10°  10'  n.,  long.  76°  16'  e.  A  busy 
trading  place,  and  formerly  a  military  station.     Population  (187 1)  3363, 

6o  FARE  A  TI—PAREL  L. 

including  a  number  of  '  White '  Jews  and  Christians.  Not  separately 
returned  in  the  Census  Report  of  1881.  At  one  time  Paraviir  town 
belonged  to  Cochin,  but  in  1762  it  was  made  over  to  Travancore.  Tipii 
destroyed  a  great  part  of  the  town. 

Parbati  {Pdrvati). — River  in  Kangra  District,  Punjab,  draining  Kiilu 
Proper ;  rises  in  Waziri  Riipi,  on  the  slopes  of  a  Mid-Himalayan  peak, 
over  20,000  feet  in  height.  Runs  in  a  generally  westerly  direction, 
and  falls  into  the  Beas  (Bias)  below  Sultanpur,  in  lat.  31°  53'  33"  N., 
and  long.  77°  11'  e.,  after  a  total  course  of  about  90  miles.  For  the 
first  50  miles  the  mountains  on  either  side  rise  bare  and  uninhabited ; 
but  a  little  above  Manikarn,  a  distance  of  40  miles,  the  valley  consists 
of  a  richly  timbered  forest  tract,  in  which  every  available  acre  has 
been  brought  under  the  plough.  This  portion  of  the  valley  produces 
particularly  fine  crops,  and  supports  a  comparatively  dense  population. 

Parbati. — A  long  but  (except  in  the  rains)  fordable  tributary  of  the 
Chambal.  Risesin  the  Vindhya  hills,  in  lat.  22°  45'  n.,  long.  76°  33'  e., 
and  after  a  northerly  course  of  220  miles  past  the  Native  States  of 
Bhopal,  Dhar,  Rajgarh,  Tonk,  and  Kotah,  falls  into  the  Chambal  in 
lat.  25°  50'  N.,  long.  76°  40'  E. 

Pardi.— Sub-division  of  Surat  District,  Bombay  Presidency.  Area, 
163  square  miles,  containing  82  villages.  Population  (1872)  51, 749  5 
(1881)  55,761,  namely,  27,336  males  and  28,425  females,  occupying 
9578  houses.  Hindus  number  28,401  ;  Muhammadans,  1481 ;  and 
'others,'  25,879.  Land  revenue,  ^12,756.  The  region  adjoins 
Portuguese  territory,  and  is  for  the  most  part  an  undulating  plain 
sloping  westwards  to  the  sea.  The  fields  are,  as  a  rule,  unenclosed. 
The  Sub-division  is  divided  into  an  unfertile  and  a  fertile  region  by  the 
Kolak  river.  Average  rainfall,  70  inches.  The  land  was  surveyed  and 
settled  in  1869-70  for  a  term  of  30  years.  In  the  year  of  survey  there 
\vere  5532  holdings,  with  an  average  area  of  14!  acres,  and  an  average 
rental  of  £2,  4s.  lojd.  Total  Government  area,  162  square  miles. 
Of  the  Government  area,  91,116  acres  were  returned  in  1881  as 
cultivable,  3915  acres  uncultivable  waste,  and  6514  acres  as  village  sites, 
etc.  In  1873-74,  of  74,096  acres  held  for  tillage,  29,901  acres  were 
fallow  or  under  grass.  Total  cultivated  area  of  Government  land  in 
1873-74,  44,195  acres.  Principal  crops — grain  crops,  32,022  acres; 
pulses,  7378  acres  ;  oil-seeds,  7428  acres  ;  fibres,  325  ;  and  miscellaneous, 
809  acres.  In  1883  the  Sub-division  contained  i  criminal  court; 
regular  police,  59  men  ;  village  watch  {chai/kiddrs),  220. 

Pardi. — Head-quarters  of  Pardi  Sub-division,  Surat  District,  Bombay 

Presidency.     Lat.  20°  31'  e.,  long.  72°  59'  n.     Population  (1872)  4545- 

Not  separately  returned  in  the  Census  of  188 1.    Post-office  ;  dispensary. 

Parell.^Northern  suburb  of  Bombay  city  ;  once  the  favourite  site  for 

the  country  houses  of  the  European   merchants,   and  still  containing 

FARELL.  6i 

the  residence  of  the  Governor  of  Bombay.  Mr.  J.  M.  Maclean,  in  his 
Guide  to  Bombay^  gives  the  following  account  of  the  history  of  this 
building,  the  only  one  of  any  special  interest  in  the  suburb: — 'At  the 
d.ite  of  Fryer's  visit  to  Bombay,  about  200  years  ago,  a  church  and  convent, 
belonging  to  the  Jesuits,  stood  on  the  site  of  the  present  Government 
House  at  Parell.  The  principal  establishment  of  the  Society  was  at 
Bandora,  at  the  other  side  of  the  Mahim  Strait,  where  the  present 
slaughter-houses  have  been  erected.  Fryer  describes  the  college  that 
stood  there  as  "  not  inferior  as  to  the  building,  nor  much  unlike  those, 
of  our  universities."  It  was,  moreover,  defended  like  a  fortress,  with  7 
cannon,  besides  small  arms.  The  Superior  possessed  such  extensive 
influence  that  his  mandates  were  respectfully  attended  to  in  the  sur- 
rounding country.  When  Bombay  was  ceded  to  the  English,  the 
Bandora  College  claimed  much  land  and  various  rights  in  the  island. 
On  the  claim  being  disallowed,  the  Jesuits  threatened  a  resort  to  arms, 
and  went  so  far  as  to  assist  the  adventurer  Cooke  in  his  impudent 
attempt  to  raise  a  force  for  the  capture  of  Bombay.  Their  crowninf^ 
act  of  hostility,  however,  was  the  support  they  gave  the  Sidi  in  his 
successful  invasion  of  the  island  in  1689-90.  They  were  suspected  of 
first  suggesting  to  him  the  practicability  of  invading  Bombay,  and  they 
certainly  had  supplied  his  army  with  provisions.  As  a  punishment 
when  the  war  was  over,  all  their  property  on  the  island,  including  the 
monastery  and  lands  at  Parell,  was  confiscated.  It  would  appear  that 
ir  was  not  till  1720  that  the  church  at  Parell  was  alienated  from  its 
original  use.  In  that  year  the  Jesuits  and  their  sympathizers  were 
expelled  from  the  island,  and  the  spiritual  oversight  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  congregations  was  transferred  by  the  P^nglish  governor  to  the 
Carmelites  {Bombay  Quarterly  Review,  iii.  pp.  61,  62).  Bishop  Heber 
states  that  the  building  afterwards  fell  into  the  hands  of  a  Parsf,  from 
whom  it  was  purchased  by  the  English  officials  about  the  year  1765. 

'The  lower  storey  of  the  desecrated  church  forms  the  present  Govern- 
ment House;  the  upper  storey  has  been  added  since  the  building 
became  Government  property.  The  outside  of  Parell  House  is  plain, 
if  not  ugly ;  but  the  interior,  so  far  as  the  State  rooms  are  concerned, 
is  handsome,  the  dining-room  on  the  ground  floor,  and  the  drawing- 
room  above,  being  80  feet  long,  and  broad  in  proportion.  The  garden 
at  the  back  is  sjjacious,  and  has  a  fine  terrace,  shaded  by  noble  trees. 
There  used  to  be  a  willow  at  Parell,  grown  from  a  slip  cut  from  the  tree 
on  Napoleon's  grave  at  St.  Helena.  Mr.  W.  Hornby  (1776)  was  the  first 
governor  who  took  up  his  residence  at  Parell.  The  original  building 
was  enlarged  and  embellished  by  the  Hon.  Mountstuart  Elphinstone 
(1819-27).  In  1737,  the  Jesuits'  College  at  Bandora,  before  referred 
to,  was  destroyed  by  the  Portuguese  to  prevent  its  falling  into  the  hands 
of  the  Marathas,  who  in  that  year  invaded  Salsette.' 


The  present  European  cemetery  at  Parell  was  opened  as  a  botanical 
garden  in  1830,  and  was  converted  into  a  cemetery  in  1867.  It  lies 
under  Flag  Staff  hill,  sheltered  by  pines  on  either  side.  By  Great 
Indian  Peninsula  Railway,  Parell  is  distant  4  miles  from  the  Bombay 

Parenddi. — Old  fortress  in  Naldrilg  District  of  Haidarabad  (Nizam's 
Dominions);  situated  in  lat.  18°  16'  20"  n.,  and  long.  75°  30'  18"  e., 
on  the  frontier  of  Ahmadnagar  District.  Parenda  is  one  of  the  many 
forts  erected  by  Mahmud  Khwaja  Gawan,  the  celebrated  minister  of 
the  Bahmani  king,  Aluhammad  Shah  11.  After  the  capture  of  Ahmad- 
nagar by  the  Mughals  in  1605,  the  capital  of  the  Nizarn  Shahi  kingdom 
was  removed  to  Parenda  for  a  short  period.  Parendd.  was  unsuccess- 
fully besieged  by  the  Emperor  Shah  Jahan's  general,  Azam  Khan,  in 
1630,  and  by  Prince  Shah  Shuja  in  1633.  The  greater  portion  of  the 
town  is  now  in  ruins,  but  the  fortifications  are  in  good  order. 

Parganas,  The  Twenty-four.— District  of  Bengal. —6"^^  Twenty- 
four  Parganas. 

PargMt. — Old  pass  or  route  across  the  Western  Ghats  leading 
from  Satara  District  to  Kolaba,  Bombay  Presidency.  Two  villages, 
Par  Par  or  Par  Proper  and  Pet  Par,  situated  5  miles  west  of  Malcolm- 
pet  and  immediately  south  of  Partabgarh,  give  their  name  to  and  mark 
the  old  route  into  the  Konkan  called  the  Parghat,  which  goes  straight 
over  the  hill  below  Bombay  Point,  and  winds  up  a  very  steep  incline 
with  so  many  curves  that  it  was  named  by  the  British  the  Corkscrew 
Pass.  Passing  through  the  two  Pars,  the  further  line  of  the  Sahyadri 
is  descended  by  an  equally  steep  path  to  the  village  of  Parghat  in 
Kolaba  District.  This  route  was  maintained  practicable  for  cattle  and 
the  artillery  of  the  period  from  very  early  times,  and  chaukis  or 
toll  stations  for  the  levy  of  transit  duties  as  well  as  for  defence  were 
stationed  at  various  points.  Afzul  Khan,  the  Muhammadan  general 
of  the  king  of  Bijapur,  brought  his  forces  by  this  pass  to  the  famous 
interview  at  Partabgarh,  where  he  was  murdered  by  Sivaji.  Until  the 
building  of  the  Kumbharli  road  in  1864  and  the  Fitzgerald  pass  road 
in  1876,  the  Parghat  was  the  only  highway  leading  to  the  Konkan. 

Pariar. — Fargand  in  Unao  tahsil,  Unao  District,  Oudh ;  bounded 
on  the  north  by  Safipur,  on  the  east  by  Unao  pargand,  on  the  south  by 
Sikandarpur,  and  on  the  west  by  the  Ganges,  which  separates  it  from 
Cawnpur  District.  A  small  parga?id,  with  an  area  of  36  square  miles, 
of  which  19  are  cultivated.  The  soil  is  chiefly  loam  and  clay,  and 
produces  wheat  and  barley  of  the  first  quality.  Watered  by  the  Kalyani, 
a  small  tributary  of  the  Ganges.  Population  (1881)  14,560,  namely, 
14,120  Hindus  and  440  ^luhammadans.  The  principal  form  of 
tenure  is  zaminddri.  Government  land  revenue,  ;£^2857,  or  an  average 
assessment  of  2s.  6|d.  per  acre.     Hindu  tradition  alleges  that  it  was 


here  that  Si'ta  was  abandoned  by  Rama,  after  he  had  recovered  her 
from  Ravana ;  hence  the  name  of  the  pargand,  corrupted  from  the 
Sanskrit  into  Parian  The  present /^r^^z//^/  was  formed  in  1785,  out  of 
28  villages  taken  from  Sikandarpur  and  Safipur, 

Pariar.  —  Town  in  Unao  tahsii,  Unao  District,  Oudh,  and  head- 
quarters of  Pariar /^r^'^^/(f ;  situated  12  miles  west  of  Unao  town,  in  lat. 
26°  37'  45"  N.,  and  long.  80°  21'  45"  e.  Population  (1881)  2254, 
namely,  2171  Hindus  and  'i^  ^lusalmans.  The  town  is  considered 
sacred  by  the  Hindus,  on  account  of  its  legendary  association  with  the 
events  of  the  RdmdyaJia.  A  great  bathing  fair,  held  on  the  occasion 
of  the  Kdrtik  Fura7wids/ii,  is  attended  by  100,000  persons. 

Parichhatgarh. — Ancient  town  in  Muwana  tahsil,  Meerut  (Merath) 
District,  North-Western  Provinces ;  situated  half-way  between  Muwana 
and  Kithor,  14  miles  from  Meerut  city.  The  fort  round  which  the 
town  is  built  lays  claim  to  great  anticjuity,  and  tradition  ascribes  its 
construction  to  Parikshit,  grandson  of  Arjun,  one  of  the  five  Pandava 
brethren  in  the  Mahdbhdmta,  to  whom  is  also  ascribed  the  foundation 
of  the  town.  The  fort  was  restored  by  Raja  Nain  Singh,  on  the 
rise  of  the  Giijar  power  in  the  last  century.  It  was  dismantled  in 
1857,  and  is  now  used  as  a  police  station.  Population  (18S1)  5182, 
namely,  Hindus,  4339;  Muhammadans,  842;  and  'others,'  i.  The 
police  and  conservancy  arrangements  of  the  town  are  met  by  a 
small  house  -  tax.  The  houses  are  chiefly  of  mud,  with  some  good 
brick  houses  and  shops  in  the  bazar.  Large  weekly  market  held 
every  Monday,  and  numerously  attended  by  inhabitants  of  neighbour- 
ing villages.  The  Anilpshahr  branch  of  the  Ganges  canal  runs  close 
to  the  town.  Post-office,  village  school,  police  station,  and  canal 

Parikud. — Group  of  islands  lying  to  the  east  of  the  Chilka  Lake, 
Bengal,  which  have  silted  up  from  behind,  and  are  now  partially 
joined  to  the  narrow  ridge  of  land  which  separates  the  Chilka  from  the 
sea.  Salt-making  is  largely  carried  on  in  the  Parikud  islands  by  the 
process  of  solar  evaporation.  The  manufacture  begins  at  the  commence- 
ment of  the  hot  season,  in  the  latter  half  of  ^Lirch.  In  the  first  place, 
a  little  canal  is  dug  from  the  Chilka  Lake,  with  sets  of  broad,  shallow 
tanks  on  either  side,  running  out  at  right  angles  from  the  canal  in  rows 
of  four.  Each  tank  is  75  feet  square,  by  from  18  inches  to  3  feet  deep. 
On  the  first  day  of  manufacture,  the  brackish  water  of  the  lake  is 
admitted  by  the  canal  into  the  first  tank  of  each  of  the  sets  of  rows. 
Here  it  stands  for  24  hours ;  and  as  the  depth  of  this  first  series  of 
tanks  is  only  18  inches,  evaporation  goes  on  very  rapidly.  Next 
morning,  the  brine  is  transferred  from  tank  No.  i  to  tank  No.  2  in 
each  of  the  sets  of  rows.  Tank  No.  2  is  24  inches  deep ;  and  each 
successive   one   deepens   by  6   inches  until   the  brine  reaches  No.  4, 


which  is  3  feet  deep.  The  water  stands  for  a  day  in  each,  gradually 
thickening  as  it  evaporates.  On  the  fourth  day  it  is  transferred  to 
tank  No.  4 ;  and  on  the  morning  of  the  fifth,  some  of  the  brine  is 
ladled  from  that  tank  into  an  adjoining  network  of  very  shallow  pools 
each  pool  being  5  feet  square  by  only  6  inches  deep.  Here  it  stands 
during  the  intense  heat  of  the  day.  By  the  afternoon  the  manufacture 
is  complete,  and  the  salt  is  raked  out  of  the  network  of  shallow  pools 
The  out-turn  of  a  Parikud  salt-working  is  about  15  tons  the  first  week  ; 
and  if  the  manufacture  goes  on  without  interruption  for  a  fortnight, 
it  may  amount  to  as  much  as  80  tons  for  the  15  days.  A  shower 
of  rain  stops  the  whole  process,  and  necessitates  its  being  begun 

Parkail. — Mountain  peak  in  Bashahr  State,  Punjab;  a  summit  of 
the  ridge  in  Kunawar,  separating  the  Spiti  from  the  Sutlej  (Satlaj)  basin. 
Thornton  states  that  it  lies  6  or  7  miles  north-east  of  the  confluence 
of  these  two  rivers,  in  lat.  31°  54'  N.,  and  long.  77°  46'  e.  Elevation 
above  sea-level,  22,488  feet. 

Parkar. — Town  in  Nagar  Parkar  taluk  of  the  Thar  and  Parkar 
District,  Sind,  Bombay  Presidency. — See  Nagar  Parkar. 

Parla  Kimedi.  —  Ancient  zaminddri  (landed  estate)  in  Ganjam 
District,  Madras  Presidency ;  the  largest  in  the  District,  extending  over 
an  area  of  764  square  miles,  including  354  sciuare  miles  of  mdliyas  or  hill 
country.  Population  of  lowland  tract  (187 1)  227,482  ;  (1881)  240,980, 
occupying  48,097  houses  and  723  villages.  Hindus  in  1881  numbered 
240,266;  Muhammadans,  497  ;  Christians,  118;  and  'others,' 99.  The 
mdliya  tract  contains  (1881)  342  villages,  and  a  population  of  39,152, 
namely,  20,218  males  and  18,934  females,  occupying  8936  houses. 
Hindus  number  38,952,  chiefly  Savars  ;  and  Muhammadans,  200.  The 
estate  pays  :\.peshkash  (fixed  quit-rent)  of  ^8782,  the  proprietary  income 
being  returned  at  ;£'53,2  74,  including  interest  on  funded  money. 

The  zaminddrs  claim  descent  from  the  royal  house  of  Orissa  Gaja- 
pattis  (Gangavansa),  and  take  precedence  in  the  District.  Eleven  hill 
chiefs  called  Bissois^  and  23  smaller  lairds  called  Doras ^  owe  feudal 
allegiance  and  pay  tribute  to  the  Raja. 

The  British  first  came  into  contact  with  the  family  in  1768, 
when  Colonel  Peach  led  a  detachment  against  Narayan  Deo,  the 
zaminddr^  and  defeated  him  at  Jalmur.  In  1799,  the  Company 
temporarily  assumed  control  of  the  estate  for  breach  of  engagement. 
Restored  to  the  family,  this  difficult  country  was  the  scene  of  continued 
disturbances  for  many  years.  In  18 16  it  was  ravaged  by  Pindaris ; 
and  in  181 9  it  was  found  necessary  to  send  a  special  commissioner, 
Mr.  Thackeray,  to  quell  a  rising.  Again,  in  1833,  a  field  force  was 
sent  into  Parla  Kimedi,  under  General  Taylor,  and  it  was  not  till  1835 
that  peace  was  restored.     Until  1856-57  no  further  disturbance  took 


place,  but  in  that  year  the  employment  of  a  small  body  of  regulars  was 
again  necessitated  to  restore  order. 

In  1830  the  zatninddri  was  placed  under  the  Court  of  Wards,  owing 
to  the  imbecility  of  the  proprietor,  and  has  since  continued  under 
Government  management.  The  estate  is  managed  by  the  Assistant 
Collector,  who  resides  at  Parla  Kimedi.  The  country  is  hilly,  with 
numerous  fertile  valleys.  The  chief  product  is  rice.  A  Survey  Settle- 
ment has  been  in  progress  since  1880.  Good  roads  and  extended 
cultivation  have  greatly  increased  the  value  of  the  estate. — See  Kimedi. 

Parla  Kimedi. — Chief  town  of  the  Parla  Kimedi  zaminddri  in 
Ganjam  District,  Madras  Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  18°  46'  40"  n., 
and  long.  84°  8'  e.  Population  (1881)  10,812,  namely,  5186  males 
and  5626  females,  occupying  2189  houses.  Hindus  number  10,621  ; 
Muhammadans,  188;  and  Christians,  3.  The  town  is  composed  of 
the  two  villages,  Parla-kasba  and  Chervuthiguva-kasba.  K  palace  is 
being  built  for  the  zaminddr  at  a  cost  of  ^40,000. 

Parlakot. — ZaviUiddri  or  chiefship  in  the  extreme  north-west  of  Bastar 
State,  Central  Provinces.  Comprising  67  villages;  area,  500  square 
miles.  Population  (1881)  3455,  dweUing  in  638  houses.  Chief  village, 
Parlakot;  lat.  19°  47'  n.,  long.  80°  43'  e. 

Parmaglidi  (or  Paravibakudi). — Busy  weaving  town  in  Ramnad 
zam'mddri^  Madura  District,  Madras  Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  9°  31' 
X.,  and  long.  78°  42'  e.  Population  (1881)  9287,  occupying  1148 
houses.  Hindus  number  8392  ;  Muhammadans,  783;  and  Christians, 
112.     Post-office. 

Parna. — Agricultural  village  in  Panahat  tahsil^  Agra  District ;  situated 
in  lat.  26°  53'  N.,  and  long.  78^  46'  32°  e.,  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
Jumna,  52  miles  south-east  from  Agra  cit)',  and  10  miles  west  of  Bah, 
the  head-quarters  of  the  tahsil.     Population  (1881)  2856. 

Parnasala.  —  A  celebrated  shrine  in  Godavari  District,  ^^ladras 
Presidency  ;  situated  about  20  miles  from  Bhadrachalam  town. 

Parner.— Sub-division  of  Ahmadnagar  District,  Bombay  Presidency. 
Area,  779  square  miles,  containing  122  villages.  Population  (1872) 
82,422;  (1881)  73,701,  namely,  37,190  males  and  36,511  females] 
Hindus  number  68,442;  Muhammadans,  2734;  and  'others,'  2525. 
The  surface  of  Parner  is  very  irregular  and  hilly,  consisting  of  a  series 
of  plateaux  or  table-lands  of  various  heights.  The  highest  is  the  Kanhur 
or  central  plateau  formed  by  the  widening  out  of  the  summit  of  one  of 
the  spurs  of  the  Sah,  which  traverses  the  Sub-division  from  north-west 
to  south-east.  The  average  height  of  the  central  plateau  is  about  2800 
feet  above  sea-level,  though  there  are  points  on  it  three  hundred  feet 
higher.  As  might  be  expected  from  the  diversified  nature  of  the  surface, 
the  soil  of  Parner  is  of  various  kinds.  On  the  whole,  the  water-supply 
is  fairly  good.     Many  of  the   smaller  streams  have  a  perennial  flow 

VOL.  XI.  E 


Sixteen  miles  of  the  x'\hmadnagar-Poona  high  road  He  in  Parner.  The 
Dhond-Manmad  State  Raihvay  skirts  the  south-east  corner,  and  has 
one  station  in  the  Sub-division.  The  manufactures  are  few,  consisting 
of  coarsely  woven  turbans,  cotton  cloth,  and  woollen  blankets.  Of 
217,629  acres,  the  actual  area  under  cultivation  in  1881-82,  grain  crops 
occupied  180,472  acres,  of  which  109,447  were  under  bdjf^a  (Pennisetum 
typhoideum),  58,884  under  Jodr  (Sorghum  vulgare) ;  pulses,  26,704 
acres;  oil-seeds,  8972  acres;  fibres,  191  acres,  the  whole  under  hemp 
(Crotalaria  juncea);  and  miscellaneous  crops,  1290  acres.  In  1883 
the  Sub  -  division  contained  2  civil  and  2  criminal  courts ;  i  police 
circle  {thdjia) ;  regular  police,  34  men;  village  watch  {chaukiddrs),  218. 
Land  revenue,  ^£1^,41']. 

Parner. — Town  in  Ahmadnagar  District,  Bombay  Presidency,  and 
head-quarters  of  Parner  Sub-division.  Lat.  19°  n.,  long.  74°  30'  e. 
Situated  20  miles  south-west  of  Ahmadnagar  town  and  15  miles  west  of 
Sarola  station  on  the  Dhond-Manmad  State  Railway.  Population  (1881) 
4058.  Parner  contains  numerous  money-lenders,  chiefly  Marwaris,  with 
a  bad  name  for  greed  and  fraud.  In  1874-75,  disturbances  arose 
between  the  husbandmen  and  the  money-lenders.  The  villagers  placed 
the  money-lenders  in  a  state  of  social  outlawry,  refusing  to  work  for 
them,  to  draw  water,  supply  necessaries,  or  shave  them.  The  watch- 
fulness of  the  police  saved  Parner  from  a  riot.  Weekly  market  on 
Sundays,  and  post-office. 

Parola. — Town  in  Khandesh  District,  Bombay  Presidency  ;  situated 
in  lat.  20°  56'  20"  N.,  and  long.  75°  14'  30"  e.,  22  miles  east  of  Dhulia, 
and  22  miles  west  of  the  Mhasawar  station  on  the  Great  Indian  Peninsula 
Railway.  Population  (1881)  12,354,  namely,  61 14  males  and  6240 
females.  Hindus  number  9997;  Muhammadans,  1743;  Jains,  468; 
and  'others,'  146.  Parola  is  a  municipality,  with  an  income  of  ^387 
in  1883-84  ;  incidence  of  taxation  per  head,  5d.  It  is  said  to  have  been 
raised  by  its  proprietor,  Hari  Sadasiva  Damothar,  from  the  position  of  a 
small  village  of  50  houses  to  that  of  a  walled  town.  He  is  also  said  to 
have  built,  about  1727,  the  spacious  fort,  one  of  the  finest  architectural 
remains  of  the  kind  in  Khandesh.  It  must  have  been  at  one  time 
a  very  strong  place ;  it  is  surrounded  by  a  moat,  and  the  entrance 
was  formerly  protected  by  a  drawbridge  and  large  flanking  towers. 
During  the  Mutiny  in  1857,  the  proprietors  proved  disloyal,  and  their 
estate  was  confiscated,  the  town  being  taken  possession  of  by  the 
British  Government,  and  the  fort  dismantled.  A  considerable  trade  is 
carried  on  in  cattle,  cotton,  higdds  (women's  robes),  and  grain.  Post- 
ofiice ;  and  dispensary,  which  relieved  7576  patients  in  1883;  and  4 
schools  with  451  pupils  in  1883-84. 

Parone. — Guaranteed  chiefship  under  the  Giina  (Goona)  Sub-Agency 
of  Central  India,  and  a  feudatory  of  Gwalior.     The  ruhng  family  are 


of  ancient  lineage,  being  descended  from  the  family  of  the  Kachwa 
Ajodhya  Rajputs,  and  were  formerly  Thakurs  of  Narwar.  Daulat  Rao 
Sindhia  deprived  Madhii  Singh  of  Narwar  of  his  hereditary  possessions, 
and  the  latter  took  to  plundering  in  Sindhia's  territories.  In  18 18, 
through  the  mediation  of  the  Resident  at  Sindhia's  court,  the  estate 
of  Parone  and  six  villages  were  granted  to  Madhii  Singh  under 
British  protection,  on  condition  of  his  promising  to  protect  Sindhia's 
territory  from  robbers.  His  successor.  Raja  Man  Singh,  joined  the 
mutineers  in  1857,  but  surrendered  in  1859  on  condition  of  a  free 
pardon  and  a  suitable  maintenance.  Man  Singh's  former  possessions 
were  consequently  restored  to  him  under  guarantee.  For  his  sub- 
sequent services  in  connection  with  the  capture  of  the  rebel  Tantia 
Topi,  Man  Singh  received  an  annual  allowance  of  j^ioo,  as  equivalent 
to  the  value  of  d.jdgir  of  one  village.  The  chief  owns  34  villages,  con- 
taining a  population  in  1881  of  7328,  and  yielding  a  revenue  of 
about  ^1200.  Hindus  number  7152  ;  Muhammadans,  156;  Jains,  4 ; 
and  aborigines,  16.  Man  Singh  died  in  January  1883,  and  will 
be  succeeded  by  his  son  Gajandar  Singh,  during  whose  minority  the 
affairs  of  the  State  are  superintended  by  the  PoHtical  Assistant  at 

Parone  town  lies  in  lat.  24°  59'  n.,  and  long.  76°  57'  e.  It  contains 
but  a  small  portion  of  arable  land,  and  more  resembles  a  wilderness 
than  the  residence  of  a  chief.  The  fort  walls  were  destroyed  by  the 
British  troops  during  the  Mutiny,  and  have  never  been  rebuilt. 

Parpori  (or  Parpondi).—K\z\i  and  well-cultivated  zaminddri  or  petty 
chiefship  attached  to  Driig  tahsil,  Raipur  District,  Central  Provinces; 
comprising  an  area  of  32  square  miles,  with  24  villages  and  1972 
houses.  Total  population  (1881)  6950,  namely,  males  3457,  and  females 
3493;  average  density  of  population,  217  persons  per  square  mile. 
The  chief  is  a  Gond.  Principal  village,  Parpori,  in  lat.  2\  35'  n., 
and  long.  81°  16'  e. 

Parseoni.  —  Town  in  Ramtek  iaiisil,  Nagpur  District,  Central 
Provinces;  situated  in  lat.  21°  22'  n.,  and  long.  79°  n' e.,  18  miles 
from  Nagpur  town.  Population  (1881)  4039,  namely,  Hindus,  3688; 
Muhammadans,  223;  Jains,  100;  and  non-Hindu  aborigines,  28. 
Manufactures,  coarse  cloth  and  pottery.  The  weekly  market  supplies 
the  hill  tracts  of  Bheogarh.  The  town  contains  tvro  fine  temples ;  and 
pan  (betel-leaf)  is  largely  cultivated  in  the  neighbourhood. 

Parshadepur.  —  Prt-r^^/M  in  Salon  tahsil,  Rai  Bareli  District, 
Oudh;  situated  north  of  the  Sai  river.  Area,  54  square  miles,  of 
which  28  are  under  cultivation.  Population  (1881)  32,026,  namely, 
29,766  Hindus  and  2260  Musalmans.  Of  the  60  villages  comprising 
Xht  pargajid,  8  are  held  under  zaminddri,  24  under  td/ukddri,  and  28 
under  pattiddri  tenure.     The  tract  originally  formed  part  of  the  jdgir 


estate  of  the  Bahu  Begam,  and  was  constituted  a  separate  pargand 
in  1783. 

Parshadepur  (or  Auhora  Rdvipur).  —  Village  in  Salon  taJisil,  Rai 
Bareli  District,  Oudh,  and  head-quarters  of  Parshadepur  pai-gaiid  ; 
situated  20  miles  from  Rai  Bareli  town,  and  i  mile  north  of  the 
Sai  river.  Population  (1881)  1232,  namely,  1036  Hindus  and  136 
Muhammadans.  Five  Hindu  temples  and  9  Muhammadan  mosques. 
Market.     Vernacular  school. 

Partabg'anj. — Pai-gaud  in  Nawabganj  tahsU,  Bara  Banki  District, 
Oudh ;  bounded  on  the  north  by  Fatehpur  ialisU^  on  the  east  by  Ram 
Sanehi  Ghat  tahsil,  on  the  south  by  '^■^\x')}^\  pargand,  and  on  the  west 
by  Nawabganj  pai'gand.  Area,  56  square  miles,  or  35,751  acres,  of 
which  24,288  acres  are  under  cultivation.  Population  (1881)  33,448, 
namely,  Hindus,  27,416;  Muhammadans,  6031 ;  and  'others,'  i.  The 
54  villages  comprising  the  pargaiid  are  held  under  the  following 
tenures  : — Tdhikddri,  26;  zaminddi'i,  15  ;  2iX\d pattiddri,  13.  Intersected 
by  the  metalled  road  to  Faizabad  (Fyzabad).  Five  schools,  two  police 
posts,  and  a  post-office.  Government  land  revenue,  ^6422,  or  at  the 
rate  of  5s.  2M.  per  acre. 

Partabgarh  {Pratdpgarh). — British  District  in  the  Rai  Bareli  Divi- 
sion of  Oudh,  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the 
North-Western  Provinces ;  situated  between  25°  34'  and  26°  10'  30" 
N.  lat.,  and  between  81°  22'  and  82°  29'  45"  e.  long.  Bounded  on  the 
north  by  Rai  Bareli  and  Sultanpur  Districts,  and  on  the  east,  south, 
and  west  by  Jaunpur  and  x\llahabad  Districts  of  the  North-Western 
Provinces.  The  Ganges,  flowing  from  south-west  to  south-east,  forms 
the  western  boundary  line,  while  the  Giimti  at  the  opposite  extremity 
marks  the  eastern  boundary  for  a  few  miles.  The  District  has  recently 
undergone  considerable  diminution  of  area,  by  the  transfer  in  1869 
of  Salon  and  Parshadepur  paj-gands  to  Rai  Bareli.  Prior  to  these 
changes,  Partabgarh  District  contained  an  area  of  1733  square  miles. 
Present  area,  1436  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  847,047.  The 
administrative  head -quarters  are  at  Bela,  4  miles  from  Partabgarh 

Physical  Aspects. — The  general  aspect  of  Partabgarh  is  that  of  a  richly 
wooded  and  fertile  plain,  here  and  there  relieved  by  gentle  undulations, 
and  in  the  vicinity  of  the  rivers  and  streams  broken  into  ravines.  The 
southern  portion  of  the  District  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Ganges 
is  perhaps  more  densely  wooded  than  other  parts.  Barren  tracts  of 
uncultivable  land,  impregnated  wnth  saline  efflorescence  {reh)^  are  met 
with  in  places,  but  do  not  extend  over  any  considerable  area.  For 
the  most  part,  Partabgarh  is  under  rich  and  varied  cultivation, 
dotted  with  neatly  built  villages  and  hamlets,  which  are  surrounded 
by  fine  groves  of  mango,  inaJmd^  or  other  trees.     The  soil  is  light,  but 


at  the  same  time  very  fertile.  The  prevaiHng  kind  is  that  known  as 
douidt^  a  mixture  of  clay  and  sand  in  about  equal  parts.  Where  the 
sand  largely  preponderates,  the  donidt  degenerates  into  poor,  sterile 
bhur^  found  especially  in  the  uplands  near  the  Ganges,  Sai  and  Giimti. 
The  stiff  and  rich  loamy  soil  styled  viatiar  occurs  chiefly  in  the  vicinity 
of  large  swamps  ox  jhils. 

The  one  important  river  of  Partabgarh,  properly  speaking,  is  the 
Sai,  as  the  Ganges  and  Giimti  nowhere  enter  the  District,  but  only 
impinge  on  its  western  and  eastern  boundary  respectively.  The  Sai 
rises  in  Hardoi,  and  after  crossing  Rai  Bareli  District  flows  through 
Partabgarh  in  an  exceedingly  tortuous  south-easterly  course,  and  finally 
falls  into  the  Giimti  in  Jaunpur  District,  This  river  runs  chiefly 
between  high  banks  at  a  considerable  depth  below  the  level  of  the 
surrounding  country.  It  is  navigable  during  the  rains,  when  it 
swells  into  a  considerable  stream ;  but  in  the  hot  season  it  runs 
nearly  dry.  It  receives  several  tributary  rivulets,  both  on  its  north 
and  south  bank ;  and  in  general  the  line  of  drainage  is  towards  this 
river.  There  are  many  natural  lakes  or  jhils  which  in  the  rains 
measure  several  miles  in  circumference.  They  average  about  3  feet 
in  depth,  but  are  practically  of  no  use  for  navigation. 

The  only  mineral  products  are  salt,  saltpetre,  and  kankar  or  nodular 
limestone.  The  manufacture  of  salt  and  saltpetre  from  the  saliferous 
tracts  is  prohibited  by  Government. 

Tigers  and  leopards  are  hardly  ever  met  with  in  Partabgarh ;  but 
wolves  still  abound  in  the  ravines  and  grass  lands,  and  frequently  commit 
depredations  on  the  flocks  of  the  shepherds.  A  reward  is  paid  for 
their  destruction,  and  their  numbers  are  yearly  diminishing.  Nilgai^ 
wild  cattle,  hog,  and  monkeys  do  much  damage  to  the  crops.  Snakes 
are  not  numerous.  Small  game,  such  as  hares,  pea-fowl,  partridges, 
snipe,  quail,  geese,  and  ducks,  abound. 

Population. — The  population  of  Partabgarh  District,  as  at  present 
constituted,  after  the  transfer  of  parga?tds  Salon  and  Parshadepur  to 
Rai  Bareli  District,  is  returned  in  the  Oudh  Census  Report  for  1869 
at  782,681  persons,  residing  in  2209  villages  or  towns  and  156,250 
houses.  The  Census  of  1881  disclosed  a  population  of  847,047, 
showing  an  increase  of  population  in  the  twelve  years  from  1869  to 
1 88 1  of  64,366,  or  8*2  per  cent.  The  results  arrived  at  by  the  Census 
of  1 88 1  may  be  summarized  as  follows  : — Area  of  District,  1436 "5 
square  miles,  with  2214  towns  and  villages,  and  194,308  houses. 
Total  population,  847,047,  namely,  males  420,730,  and  females  426,317. 
Density  of  population,  589  persons  per  square  mile;  villages  per  square 
mile,  i"54;  persons  per  village,  382;  houses  per  square  mile,  135; 
persons  per  house,  4*3.  Classified  according  to  sex  and  age,  the  popu- 
lation consists   of — under   15   years  of  age,   boys   168,380,  and  girls 


152,876;  total  children,  321,256,  or  37-9  per  cent,  of  the  population: 
15  years  of  age  and  upwards,  males  252,350,  and  females  273,441; 
total  adults,  525,791,  or  62-1  per  cent. 

Religion. — Classified  according  to  religion,  the  population  consists  of 
— Hindus,  763,054,  or  90-1  per  cent. ;  Muhammadans,  83,944,  or  9-9 
per  cent.;  Christians,  48;  and  Parsi,  i.  Of  the  Hindu  population, 
about  70  per  cent,  are  cultivators,  which  proportion  is  pretty  evenly 
maintained  throughout  the  District.  The  higher  castes,  including 
Brahmans  (119,096),  Rajputs  (57,628),  Vaisyas  (20,797),  and  Kayasths 
(91 13),  form  nearly  a  fourth  of  the  total  population.  The  Brahmans 
are  the  most  numerous  caste  in  the  District.  In  the  Manikpur  and 
Bihar  pargafids  there  are  a  great  many  families  of  spurious  Brah- 
mans, whose  ancestors  belonged  to  the  lower  castes  of  Hindus,  and 
w^ere  invested  with  the  sacred  thread  by  Raja  Manik  Chand,  a  brother 
of  Jai  Chand,  the  last  Hindu  king  of  Kanauj.  Of  the  lower  castes, 
Ahirs  (104,897),  Kurmis  (93,518),  Chamars  (87,803),  Basis  (51,569), 
Gadarias  (37,091),  and  Kachhis  (31,577)  predominate.  The  Kurmis 
and  Kachhis,  who  are  the  best  cultivating  castes,  are  almost  to  a 
man  agriculturists ;  and  in  regard  to  the  number  of  the  former,  Partab- 
garh  ranks  third  among  the  Oudh  Districts.  The  majority  of  the  Ahirs, 
Chamars,  Basis,  and  Gadarias  are  also  cultivators.  There  are  more 
Lobars  or  blacksmiths  (15,845)  in  Bartabgarh  than  in  any  other  District 
in  Oudh,  but  comparatively  few  are  engaged  in  agricultural  pursuits. 
Lonias  are  also  a  numerous  (12,109)  caste.  They  are  salt-makers  by 
hereditary  profession  ;  now  that  their  normal  occupation  has  gone,  they 
have  been  forced  to  seek  new  employment,  and  are  almost  exclusively 
cultivators.  The  other  important  Hindu  castes  include  the  following — 
Telis,  oil-sellers,  14,682;  Nais,  barbers,  12,474;  Kalwars,  spirit-sellers 
and  distillers,  11,030;  Kahars,  palanquin-bearers  and  domestic  servants, 
10,981;  Kumbhars,  potters,  10,513;  Bhurjis,  grain  parchers,  9105; 
Dhobis,  washermen,  8264;  Bhats,  genealogists,  5610;  Mallahs,  boat- 
men, 5102;  and  Tamulis,  betel-growers,  5100. 

The  Muhammadans,  who  number  83,994,  are  chiefly  found  in  Manik- 
pur, Bartabgarh,  and  W\\\ir  pa7-ga?ids,  and  are  fewest  in  Dhingwas  and 
Rampur  pargands  ;  they  are  nearly  evenly  divided  between  agricultural 
and  non-agricultural,  the  former  class  slightly  preponderating.  The 
most  respected  classes  are  Shaikhs  and  Bathans.  The  Muhammadan 
converts  or  descendants  of  converts  from  higher  castes  of  Hindus 
number  only  225.  The  lower  classes,  who  for  the  most  part  pursue 
some  distinctive  trade,  include  the  Julaha  or  weaver,  the  Dhunia  or 
cotton-corder,  the  Darzi  or  tailor  and  tent-maker,  the  Manihar  or  lac- 
bangle  maker,  and  the  Kunjra  or  fruiterer. 

Tow?i  and  Rural  Population ;  Occupations.  —  The  population  of 
Bartabgarh  District  is  entirely  rural,  the  only  place  with  a  population 


exceeding  5000  being  the  civil  station  of  Bela  or  MacAndrewganj,  as 
it  is  also  called  after  a  former  District  officer  (jjopulation  in  1881, 
5S51),  which  is  also  the  sole  municipality.  Of  the  2214  towns  and 
villages  comprising  the  District,  867  contain  less  than  five  hundred 
inhabitants  ;  845  from  two  hundred  to  five  hundred ;  369  from  five 
hundred  to  a  thousand;  113  from  one  to  two  thousand;  16  from  two 
to  three  thousand  ;  3  from  three  to  five  thousand ;  and  i  upwards  of 
five  thousand.  As  regards  occupation,  the  Census  divides  the  male 
population  into  the  following  six  classes: — (i)  Professional  class,  in- 
cluding Government  servants  of  all  grades,  3205;  (2)  domestic  servants, 
332  ;  (3)  commercial  class,  including  merchants,  traders,  carriers,  etc., 
2102  ;  (4)  agricultural  and  pastoral  class,  including  gardeners,  203,978  ; 
(5)  industrial  class,  including  all  manufacturers  and  artisans,  34,265; 
and  (6)  indefinite  and  non-productive  class,  comprising  general  labourers 
and  male  children,  176,858. 

Agriculture. — There  are  two  principal  harvests  in  the  year,  the  rahi 
or  spring  crop  and  the  kharif  or  autumn  crop,  the  latter  being  sub- 
divided into  three  minor  harvests,  known  as  bhadoi,  kudri,  and  aghdni^ 
after  the  months  in  which  the  several  crops  ripen.  The  principal  grain 
crop  is  barley,  which  yields  an  average  out-turn  of  about  16  maunds, 
or  ii|  cwts.  per  acre.  Wheat,  both  the  white  and  red  variety,  is 
largely  grown  in  Partabgarh.  It  requires  abundant  irrigation,  and  the 
fields  are  flooded  at  least  three  times  during  the  cold  season.  The 
average  out-turn  of  wheat  from  all  kinds  of  land  throughout  the  District 
is  set  down  at  197 1  bushels  per  acre.  Four  varieties  of  rice  are 
cultivated,  known  2j;>kudi'i  dhdn,  jethi  dhdn,  sdthi  dJubi,  2in6.jarhafi  dJuhi. 
The  principal  rice  growing  localties  are  the  low-lying  lands  in  Patti 
tahsil,  and  the  neighbourhood  of  the  large  jhils  and  swamps  in  Kiinda 
tahsil.  The  yield  of  the  different  sorts  of  rice  varies  a  good  deal,  from 
9  or  10  niaunds,  or  from  6  J  to  7  J  cwts.  per  acre  for  sdthi  rice,  to  double 
that  out-turn  for  jethi  rice.  The  other  food  crops  are  gram,  peas, 
arhar,  jodr,  and  bdjra,  the  three  first  being  most  largely  cultivated. 
Sugar-cane  cultivation  has  been  rapidly  extending  of  late  years,  and  yields 
a  greater  profit  than  is  obtained  from  grain  crops.  Poppy  is  cultivated 
under  the  superintendence  of  the  Opium  Department.  Miscellaneous 
crops  include  tobacco  of  excellent  quality,  indigo,  fibres,  pan.,  etc. 

By  far  the  greater  portion  of  the  cultivated  area  is  do-fasli 
or  two-crop  land.  The  kharif  crop  is  no  sooner  off  the  ground 
than  preparations  are  at  once  made  for  sowing  the  rabi.  A  heavy 
khar'if  Qxo^,  \\V^  jodr  or  bdjra,  is  followed  by  a  light  spring  crop,  such 
as  peas  or  barley.  This  is  repeated  a  second  year ;  in  the  third 
year  no  autumn  crop  is  sown,  but  the  land  is  well  w^orked  up, 
and  prepared  for  wheat  or  sugar-cane.  The  number  of  ploughings 
the  land  requires  for  different  crops  varies  very  much.     For  instance, 


wheat  is  held  to  require,  on  an  average,  i8  or  20  ploughings;  tobacco, 
sugar-cane,  peas,  and  barley,  15  or  16  ploughings;  poppy,  12 
ploughings ;  cotton,  8 ;  and  so  on.  Three  or  four  ploughings  are 
sufficient  for  the  autumn  crop.  Irrigation  is  extensively  carried  on, 
and  manure  is  made  use  of  wherever  procurable.  Rents  have  steadily 
increased  since  the  introduction  of  British  rule,  and  still  have  a 
tendency  to  rise.  The  average  rate  for  all  varieties  of  land,  over 
an  area  of  100  villages,  was  found  in  1868  to  be  3s.  ijd.  per  local 
bighd,  equal  to  |ths  of  an  English  acre.  Rents  in  kind  largely  pre- 
vailed prior  to  annexation,  and  were  chiefly,  if  not  entirely,  levied  on 
poor  and  un irrigated  lands,  where  the  produce  was  more  or  less  pre- 
carious, in  the  proportion  of  one-half.  Now,  however,  they  have  been 
almost  everywhere  commuted  into  money  rents.  Skilled  labourers 
have  much  improved  in  circumstances  of  late  years ;  but  this  has  not 
been  the  case  with  the  agricultural  classes,  who  are  paid  in  kmd  at 
about  the  same  rates  that  prevailed  under  native  rule.  The  average 
daily  payment  for  out-door  agricultural  labour  is  3  lbs.  of  grain  for  a 
man,  and  2\  lbs  for  women  or  children.  The  District  is  mostly  held 
under  tdlukddri  tenure,  there  being  1702  tdliikddri  villages,  against  512 
held  either  as  zaviinddii,  pattiddri,  or  bhdydchdra. 

Means  of  Communication,  ^/r.— Partabgarh  District  is  now  well  opened 
up  by  roads.  Exclusive  of  22^  miles  of  the  imperial  road  connectmg 
the  military  stations  of  Faizabad  (Fyzabad)  and  Allahabad,  which 
passes  through  Bel£,  the  civil  station,  there  are  342  miles  of  good 
second-class  roads.  These  have  been  entirely  bridged,  save  at  four 
points,  where  the  Sai,  Sakrui,  Pareya,  and  Bhaklahi  respectively  would 
require  large  and  solid  masonry  bridges  to  withstand  the  force  of  the 
current  in  the  rains.  The  four  principal  lines  of  country  road  are  the 
following:— (i)  From  Bela  to  Rai  Bareli  town,  running  44  miles 
through  Partabgarh  District;  (2)  from  Bela  to  Guthni  Ghat  on  the 
Ganges,  39  miles ;  (3)  from  Bela  to  Patti,  15 J  miles;  (4)  from  Bela  to 
Badshahpur  in  Jaunpur  District,  21  miles,  of  which  20  miles  lie  within 
Partabgarh.  Water  communication  is  afforded  by  64  miles  of  navigable 
rivers.  No  line  of  railway  runs  through  the  District.  Four  large  ferries 
are  maintained  on  the  Ganges,  and  two  on  the  Giimti.  Ferries  for  foot- 
passengers  across  the  Sai  are  kept  up  by  the  zaminddrs  in  the  rainy 
months,  the  stream  being  easily  fordable  at  most  places  during  eight 
months  of  the  year.  Wheeled  carriage  is  scarce  and  difficult  to  procure. 
Great  reluctance  is  everywhere  manifested  by  the  owners  to  hiring  out 
their  carts ;  and  when  it  is  known  that  troops  are  on  the  move,  and 
that  carriage  will  be  impressed,  the  carts  are  frequently  taken  to  pieces 
and  concealed  in  houses,  the  bullocks  at  the  same  time  being  sent 
to  a  neighbouring  village.  Bullocks,  buffaloes,  and  ponies  afford  the 
ordinary  means  of  transport. 


Track  and  Covunerce,  Manufactures^  etc. — Partabgarh  is  a  great  grain- 
exporting  District.  Tobacco,  sugar,  molasses,  opium,  oil,  ghi,  cattle, 
sheep,  hides,  and  horns  also  form  important  articles  of  export.  The 
imports  consist  mainly  of  salt,  cotton,  metals  and  hardware,  country 
cloth,  and  dyes.  English  stuffs  and  piece-goods  are  also  becoming 
every  year  more  common  in  the  local  bazars.  The  exports  of  grain  in 
1872  were  reported  at  349,000  inaiifids.,  value  ;j^79,ooo,  the  other 
items  making  up  the  total  value  of  exports  to  ;£97,7oo.  The  imports 
in  1872  were  valued  at  ;^40,8oo,  cotton  and  salt  forming  the  principal 
items.  In  1873,  ^^^  exports  amounted  in  value  to  ;2^io5,562,  of 
which  ^£^65,517  was  returned  as  the  value  of  305,671  mauuds  of  grain; 
the  imports  in  the  same  year  amounted  in  value  to  ;£'4o,569.  Trade 
returns  are  not  available  for  later  years.  The  principal  market  towns 
and  villages  are  the  following: — (i)  Lalganj,  4  miles  south  of  Bihar  on 
the  Allahabad  road  ;  a  numerously  attended  bi-weekly  market,  with 
trade  in  cattle,  English  piece-goods,  and  country  fabrics ;  annual  value 
of  sales,  about  ^30,000  :  (2)  Derwa  bazar  in  Sabalgarh,  a  grain  mart 
twice  a  week;  annual  sales,  about  ;£"i5,ooo:  (3)  Jalesarganj  in  Dharu- 
pur  village ;  trade  in  EngHsh  and  country  cloth,  sweetmeats,  grain, 
matting,  etc. ;  annual  value,  ;^i  0,000  :  (4)  Mac  Andre  wganj,  the  bazar 
of  the  civil  station,  a  thriving  and  rapidly  increasing  mart ;  trade  in 
grain  and  cloth  to  the  extent  of  ^^6000.  Other  markets  are  Kalakankar, 
Gadwara,  Prithwiganj,  and  Nawabganj  Bawan  Burji.  Several  local  fairs 
are  held  on  occasions  of  religious  festivals,  at  which  trade  is  also  carried 
on.  Sugar  of  excellent  quality  is  manufactured  at  Partabgarh  town. 
Glass  beads,  bracelets,  water-bottles,  etc.  are  made  at  Sawansa  and  a 
few  other  places  in  Patti  talisil.  The  only  other  manufacture  is  that  of 
woollen  blankets  woven  by  shepherds  from  the  fleece  of  their  flocks, 
which  are  bought  up  by  petty  traders  from  the  North  -  Western 

Adminisiratioi7.  —  Partabgarh  is  administered  by  a  Deputy  Com- 
missioner, aided  by  5  or  6  Assistant  and  extra-Assistant  Commissioners, 
and  4  tahsilddrs.  The  total  revenue,  imperial  and  local,  of  the  District 
in  1871-72  was  ;£"iii,iio,  of  which  the  land-tax  contributed  ^86,261. 
The  expenditure  in  the  same  year  amounted  to  ;2^24,49o.  By  1883-84 
the  total  revenue  of  Partabgarh  District  had  risen  to  ;£^i75'735j 
of  which  ^98,219  was  derived  from  the  land-tax.  The  District 
contains  10  civil  and  revenue,  and  11  magisterial  courts.  Eor  the 
protection  of  person  and  property  there  is  a  regular  District  and 
municipal  police  of  a  total  strength  of  402  men;  maintained,  in  1883, 
at  a  total  cost  of  ^4355,  of  which  ^4206  was  paid  from  provincial 
revenues,  and  ^149  from  other  sources.  There  is  also  a  village  watch  or 
rural  police,  numbering  2557  in  1883,  and  maintained  by  the  land- 
holders and  villagers  at  an  estimated  cost  of  ;z^2  765.     Total  police 


force  2959,  or  one  policeman  to  every  "48  square  mile  of  District  area, 
or  one  to  every  286  of  the  population.  Total  estimated  cost,  ^^7120, 
or  ;£"4,  19s.  id.  for  every  square  mile  of  area,  or  2^d.  per  head  of  the 
population.  The  average  number  of  prisoners  in  jail  in  1883  was  192, 
of  whom  16  were  females.  Education  is  afforded  by  a  high  school  at 
the  civil  station,  and  89  other  inspected  schools  in  the  District,  attended 
on  March  31,  1884,  by  3604  pupils.  The  Census  Report  of  1881 
returned  3069  boys  and  47  girls  as  under  instruction;  besides  14,443 
males  and  2 1 5  females  able  to  read  and  write,  but  not  under  instruc- 
tion.    There  is  a  charitable  dispensary  at  the  head-quarters  town. 

Medical  Aspects. — The  climate  is  healthy,  with  a  mean  range  of 
temperature  of  30°  F.  The  average  rainfall  for  the  14  years  ending 
1881  was  38-5  inches,  the  fall  in  the  latter  year  being  40-3  inches.  No 
thermometrical  returns  are  available.  Of  endemic  diseases,  intermittent 
fever,  skin  affections,  and  ophthalmia  are  the  most  common.  In  the 
cold  season  of  1868-69,  the  District  suffered  from  an  epidemic  of  small- 
pox, immediately  followed  by  a  severe  and  general  outbreak  of  cholera. 
These  epidemics  were  rendered  more  virulent  by  the  distress  which 
resulted  from  the  total  failure  of  the  autumn  harvest  of  1868  and  the 
partial  failure  of  the  spring  crops  of  1869.  The  vital  statistics  for  1883 
show  a  total  of  22,578  registered  deaths  in  that  year,  equal  to  a  rate  of 
26-65  P^^  thousand.  The  average  death-rate  for  the  previous  five  years 
was  29-31  per  thousand.  Fevers  are  the  great  cause  of  mortality,  and  in 
1883  deaths  from  these  diseases  amounted  to  21-82  per  thousand,  that 
from  all  other  causes  being  only  returned  at  4*83  per  thousand.  Inter- 
mittent fever  is  most  prevalent  at  the  close  of  the  rainy  season,  and 
generally  disappears  with  the  cool  weather  and  westerly  winds  of 
November.  Though  primarily  caused  by  local  malaria,  this  disease  is 
intensified  by  exposure  alternately  to  cold,  damp,  and  the  hot  sun,  and 
by  the  poorer  classes  being  unable  to  obtain  sufficiently  nourishing  food. 
[For  further  information  regarding  Partabgarh,  see  the  Gazetteer  of  the 
Province  of  Ondh,  published  by  authority  (Government  Press,  xA.llahabad, 
1877),  vol.  ii.  pp.  65-148.  Also  the  Settlement  Report  of  Partabgarh 
District,  by  Captain  W.  E.  Forbes  (Lucknow,  1877) ;  \he  North-  Western 
Provinces  and  Oudh  Census  Report  for  1881 ;  and  the  several  Adminis- 
tration and  Departmental  Reports.] 

Partabgarh  {Pratdpgarh). — Tahsil  or  Sub-division  of  Partabgarh 
District,  Oudh,  lying  between  25°  42'  30"  and  26°  10'  30"  n.  lat.,  and 
between  81°  33'  15"  and  82°  6'  e.  long.  Bounded  on  the  north  by 
Sultanpur  and  Kadipur  tahsils,  on  the  east  and  south  by  Jaunpur 
and  Allahabad  Districts  of  the  North-Western  Provinces,  and  on  the 
west  by  Patti  tahsil.  This  tahsil  comprises  the  two  parga?ids  of 
Partabgarh  and  Ateha.  Area,  434  square  miles,  of  which  233  were 
cultivated    at    the    time  "-of    the    revenue     survey    of    the    District. 


Population  (1869)  264,630;  (1S81)  280,685,  namely,  males  138,003, 
and  females  142,682,  showing  an  increase  of  population  in  thirteen 
years  of  16,055,  or  6*07  per  cent.  Classified  according  to  religion, 
there  were  in  1881— Hindus,  250,315;  Muhammadans,  30,326;  and 
'others,'  44.  Of  the  702  villages  comprising  the  tahsil,  537  con- 
tain less  than  five  hundred  inhabitants;  120  from  five  hundred  to 
a  thousand  ;  44  from  one  to  five  thousand ;  and  i  upwards  of  five 
thousand  inhabitants.  Total  Government  revenue  at  the  time  of 
survey,  ^32,246  ;  estimated  rental  paid  by  cultivators,  £(iAA^'^-  I^ 
1S83,  Partabgarh  iahsil  contained  2  civil  and  6  magisterial  courts, 
including  District  head-quarters ;  number  of  police  circles  {thdnds\  2  ; 
strength  of  regular  police,  56  men  ;  rural  police  {chaukidd7's),  660. 

Partabgarh  {Pratdpgarh).—Pargand  in  Partabgarh  District,  Oudh ; 
situated  in  the  south-east  of  the  District,  and  extending  for  many 
miles  along  both  sides  of  the  river  Sai.  Area,  355  square  miles,  of  which 
192  were  under  cultivation  at  the  time  of  survey.  Population  (1881) 
235,533,  of  whom  208,041  are  returned  as  Hindus  and  27,492  as 
Muhammadans.  Government  land  revenue,  ^26,445.  Of  the  634 
villages  comprising  the  pargand,  508  are  held  by  Sombansi  Rajputs, 
w^ho  form  the  dominant  caste  among  the  population. 

Partabgarh  {Pratdpgarh).—To\Nri  in  Partabgarh  District,  Oudh; 
situated  on  the  metalled  road  to  Allahabad,  4  i^ii^es  from  Bela,  the 
civil  head-quarters  of  the  District,  36  miles  from  iVUahabad,  and  24  from 
Sultanpur,  in  lat.  25°  53'  25"  N.,  and  long.  81°  59'  10"  £.  Founded  in 
1 61 7-1 8  by  Raja  Partab  Singh,  who  named  it  after  himself.  The  fort 
built  by  the  Raja  is  still  extant.  It  was  seized  by  the  native  Govern- 
ment about  ninety  years  ago,  but  after  annexation  was  sold  to  Raja 
Ajit  Singh,  a  relative  of  the  ancient  owner.  It  was  of  considerable  size, 
but  its  outer  walls  and  flanking  works  were  destroyed  after  the  Mutmy  ; 
an  inner  keep  and  little  walled  garden  still  remain.  Population  (1881) 
5851,  namely,  Hindus,  3870;  Muhammadans,  1944;  Christians,  36 ; 
'other,'  I.  Municipal  income  (1883-84),  ^592,  of  which  ^368  was 
derived  from  taxation;  average  incidence  of  taxation,  is.  3d.  per  head. 
Six  mosques  and  four  Hindu  temples.  Sugar  of  good  quality  is 
manufactured  here.     Government  high  school  and  normal  school. 

Partabgarh  {Pratdpgarh).—^?X\\^  State  in  Rajputana  under  the 
political  superintendence  of  the  Mewar  Agency;  lying  between  23° 
17'  and  24°  18'  N.  lat.,  and  between  74°  31'  and  75°  3'  e.  long. 
Bounded  on  the  north-west  and  north  by  Mewar  (Udaipur) ;  on  the 
north-east  and  east  by  Sindhia's  Districts  of  Nimach  and  Mandisor,  and 
the  States  of  Jaora,  Piploda,  and  Radam ;  and  on  the  south-west  by 
Banswara.  Its  extreme  length  from  north  to  south  is  67  miles,  and 
extreme  breadth  from  east  to  west  33  miles,  with  a  total  area  of 
about    1460  square   miles,  and   a   population,   as   ascertained  by  the 


Census  of  iSSi,  of  79,568.  Of  the  total  population,  75^050  ^^'^re 
returned  as  Hindus,  4243  as  Muhammadans,  270  Bhils,  i  Christian, 
and  4  'others.'  Classified  according  to  sex,  the  males  numbered 
41,118,  the  females  38,180.  The  sex  of  the  Bhils  were  not  deter- 
mined. The  State  contains  i  town  and  568  villages.  Number  of 
houses,  18,622  ;  number  of  persons  per  square  mile,  54'49-  The 
total  revenue  is  about  ;^6o,ooo,  of  which  about  ^25,000  is  enjoyed 
by  feudatories,  and  ^5688  is  paid  as  tribute  to  the  British  Government 
and  accounted  for  by  it  to  Holkar. 

The  country  is  mostly  open  except  in  the  north-west,  which  portion 
is  wild  and  hilly,  and  inhabited  almost  entirely  by  Bhils.  Here  the  hills 
attain  an  elevation  of  1900  feet.  To  the  south  of  Deolia  is  an  old  fortified 
hill  called  Junagarh,  with  a  small  tank  and  well  at  the  summit.  Little 
is  known  about  the  geology  of  Partabgarh,  nor  have  any  minerals  been 
found  in  the  State,  but  good  stone  quarries  are  said  to  have  been 
formerly  worked  at  Dakor,  near  Deolia.  The  climate  is  generally  good 
and  the  temperature  moderate  ;  the  average  rainfall  is  about  32  inches. 
The  State  possesses  no  particular  forest  tracts  nor  rivers  of  any  import- 
ance. There  are  a  few  good  -  sized  tanks,  of  which  one  at  Raipur, 
called  Sarpatta,  is  the  largest.  Water  is  generally  found  within  40  or  50 
feet  of  the  surface.  Grain,  opium,  and  country  cloth  are  the  principal 
articles  of  trade.  No  made  roads  exist  in  the  State,  but  the  country 
roads — to  Nimach,  32  miles  to  the  north;  Mandesar,  19  miles  to  the 
east ;  and  Jaora,  35  miles  to  the  south-east  through  the  open  country — 
are  fair  of  their  kind.  A  cart-road  to  Banswara,  through  the  Kangarh 
ghdt^  or  pass,  has  been  opened  out. 

The  Maharawal  of  Partabgarh  is  a  Sesodia  Rajput,  descended  from 
a  junior  branch  of  the  Udaipur  house.  From  the  time  of  the  estab- 
lishment of  the  Maraiha  power  in  Malwa,  the  Chief  of  Partabgarh 
had  paid  tribute  to  Holkar.  In  181S,  Partabgarh  was  taken  under 
the  protection  of  the  British  Government.  Under  the  4th  article 
of  the  Treaty  of  Mandesar,  the  British  Government  acquired  a  right 
to  the  tribute  levied  by  Holkar  from  Partabgarh ;  but,  in  considera- 
tion of  the  political  influence  lost  by  Holkar  under  that  treaty,  it  was 
resolved  to  account  to  him  annually  for  the  amount  of  the  tribute, 
which  is  therefore  paid  over  from  the  British  treasury.  The  late  chief, 
Dalpat  Singh,  who  succeeded  in  1844,  was  grandson  of  the  former 
chief  of  Partabgarh,  and  had  inherited  the  State  of  Dungarpur  on  the 
deposition  of  Jaswant  Singh,  by  whom  he  had  been  adopted.  On  his 
succession  to  Partabgarh  he  relinquished  Diingarpur.  He  died  in  1864, 
and  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Udai  Singh,  the  present  Maharawal, 
who  was  born  about  1839.  The  chief  of  Partabgarh  receives  a  salute 
of  15  guns.  There  are  fifty  Jdgirddrs,  large  and  small,  in  the  State, 
possessing  altogether  116  villages,  with  an  aggregate  annual  income  of 


about  ;£"24,66o,  paying  a  tribute  of  ^3230  to  the  Darbar.  The 
administration  of  the  State  is  carried  on  almost  entirely  under  the 
personal  supervision  and  direction  of  the  chief,  who  has  the  power  of 
life  and  death  over  his  own  subjects.  The  military  force  consists  of 
12  guns,  40  gunners,  275  cavalry,  and  950  infantry. 

Partabgarh. — Chief  town  of  Partabgarh  State,  Rajputana.  Lat. 
24°  22'  30"  N.,  long.  74°  52'  15"  E.  Population  (1881)  12,755,  namely, 
6556  males  and  6199  females.  Hindus  number  10,329;  Muhamma- 
dans,  2421;  and  'others,'  5.  The  town,  situated  at  a  height  of  1660 
feet  above  sea-level,  was  founded  by  Maharawal  Partab  Singh  at  the 
commencement  of  the  i8th  century,  on  a  spot  at  the  crest  of  a  gorge, 
formerly  known  as  Dhoderia-Khera.  It  lies  rather  in  a  hollow,  and  is 
defended  by  a  loopholed  wall  with  8  gates  built  by  Salam  Singh,  when 
he  ascended  the  throne  in  1758.  On  the  south-west  is  a  small  fort 
in  which  the  Maharawal's  family  reside.  The  palace  stands  in  the 
centre  of  the  town ;  it  is  not  of  any  size,  and  is  generally  un- 
occupied, the  present  chief  having  built  a  new  residence  about  a 
mile  to  the  east  of  the  town.  There  are  three  temples  to  Vishnu 
in  the  town,  and  three  to  Siva  outside ;  also  4  Jain  temples.  Par- 
tabgarh is  celebrated  for  its  enamelled  work  of  gold  inlaid  on 
emerald-coloured  glass,  and  carved  to  represent  hunting  and  mytho- 
logical scenes.  The  art  of  making  this  jewellery,  for  which  there  is  a 
considerable  demand,  is  now  confined  to  two  families,  the  secret  being 
zealously  guarded. 

The  old  capital  of  the  State,  Deolia,  now  almost  deserted,  lies 
7^  miles  due  west  of  Partabgarh.  Dispensary,  school,  post-office,  and 

Partabgarh  (Pratdfgar/i). — x\ncient  fortress  in  the  Jaoli  fdhik  of 
Satara  District,  Bombay  Presidency.  Situated  in  lat.  17°  56'  x.,  and 
long.  73°  38'  30"  E.,  8  miles  south-west  of  Mahabaleshwar,  on  a 
summit  of  the  Western  Ghats  commanding  the  Par  Ghat,  and 
dividing  one  of  the  sources  of  the  Savitri  from  the  Koina,  an  affluent 
of  the  Kistna.  The  fort,  3543  feet  above  sea-level,  looks  from  a 
distance  like  a  round -topped  hill,  the  walls  of  the  lower  fort  forming 
a  sort  of  band  or  crown  round  the  brow.  The  western  and  northern 
sides  of  the  fort  are  gigantic  cliffs  with  an  almost  vertical  drop  in 
many  places  of  seven  or  eight  hundred  feet.  The  towers  and  bastions 
on  the  south  and  east  are  often  30  to  40  feet  high,  while  there  is  in 
most  places  a  scarp  of  naked  black  rock  not  much  lower. 

In  1656,  Sivaji,  the  founder  of  the  Marathd  power,  selected  this 
almost  impregnable  position  as  one  of  his  principal  forts.  Partdbgarh 
was  the  scene  of  his  treacherous  murder  of  the  Muhammadan  general, 
Afzul  Khan,  who  had  been  sent  against  him  by  the  King  of  Bijapur. 
In    1659,    Sivaji   decoyed    Afzul    Khan    to    a    personal    interview   by 

78  PAR  UR—PAR  WAN, 

a  pretended  submission,  the  two  leaders  being  each  attended  by  a 
single  armed  follower.  Sivaji  stabbed  the  INlusalman  general,  and 
gave  the  signal  to  his  ambushed  army  to  attack  the  Muhammadan 
troops,  who,  bewildered  by  the  loss  of  their  chief,  were  utterly 
routed.  For  an  interesting  account  of  the  murder  of  Afzul  Khan, 
and  the  defeat  of  the  Muhammadan  army,  the  reader  is  referred  to 
Grant  Duffs  History  of  the  Mardthds,  vol.  i.  pp.  124-126  (Bombay, 
1863).  In  the  Maratha  war  of  1818,  Partabgarh  was  surrendered 
to  the  British  by  private  negotiation,  though  it  was  an  important 
stronghold  and  was  held  by  a  large  garrison. 

Panir.  —  Town  in  Vomdachalam  taluk,  South  Arcot  District, 
Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  12°  24'  20"  n.,  long.  79°  33'  e.  Population 
(1881)  4593,  residing  in  635  houses.  Hindus  number  4449; 
Muhammadans,  28;  and  Christians,  116.  Interesting  on  account 
of  the  fossil  beds  of  the  '  Upper  Green  Sand  and  Gault '  formation 
found  here,  which  are  described  in  vol.  iv.  part  i  of  the  Records  of  the 
Geological  Department. 

Pariir. — Town  in  Paravur  Sub-division,  Travancore  State,  Madras 
Presidency. — See  Paravur. 

Parvatipur. — Town  in  Vizagapatam  District,  Madras  Presidency; 
situated  in  lat.  18°  47'  n.,  and  long.  83°  28'  10"  e.  Head-quarters  of 
the  senior  Assistant  Agent,  with  magistrate's  court,  police  and  post 
offices.  A  centre  of  trade  between  the  hills  and  the  plains,  being  at 
the  junction  of  three  roads  from  Palkonda,  Jaipur,  and  Vizianagaram. 
Population  (1881)  9933,  namely,  4766  males  and  5167  females, 
dwelling  in  1976  houses.  Hindus  number  9783,  and  Muhammadans 
150.     Parvatipur  is  the  centre  of  the  Belgam  zamuiddri. 

Parvatipur.  —  Agency  tract  in  Vizagapatam  District,  Madras 
Presidency.  Population  (1881)  37,552,  namely,  19,655  males  and 
17,897  females;  all  but  43  were  Hindus.  Number  of  houses,  8827, 
and  of  villages,  260. 

Parwan. — River  of  Bhagalpur  District,  Bengal;  rising  in  the  south- 
east corner  of  Naridgar  pargajid,  not  far  from  the  source  of  the  Dhasan. 
The  two  streams  pursue  different  courses,  about  2  J  or  3  miles  apart, 
until  their  waters  mingle  at  Singheswarsthan,  where  there  is  a  temple 
built  to  Siva  Mahadeo.  This  spot  is  considered  very  holy ;  and  several 
thousand  Hindus  resort  to  the  shrine  in  February  to  pay  their  devotions, 
bringing  with  them  small  quantities  of  Ganges  water,  which  they  throw 
over  the  image  of  the  god.  At  this  place  the  Dhasan  loses  its  own  name  ; 
and  the  mingled  waters,  under  the  name  of  the  Parwan,  flow  on  towards 
the  south.  The  river,  after  a  tortuous  course  of  nearly  30  miles,  forms 
the  Sahsal  swamp,  the  outlet  from  which  assumes  the  name  of  the 
Katna,  and  flows  into  pargand  Pharkiya,  a  mile  and  a  quarter  below 
the  triple  junction  of  that  pargand  with  Chhai  and  Nisankpur  Kiira. 



The  Paruan  is  navigable  for  boats  of  50  viaunds  (less  than  2  tons) 
burthen  up  to  the  village  of  Mdnpur,  a  few  miles  south-east  of  the 
Sub-divisional  head-quarters  of  Madahpiira.  In  their  upper  courses  the 
Parwan  and  Dhasan  are  dry  during  the  hot  months,  and  are  only 
navigable  during  the  rainy  season.  Below  their  point  of  junction,  the 
Parwan  is  navigable  by  small  boats  all  the  year  round. 

Pasgawan.— /'-srr^^wi  in  Nighasan  iahsil,  Kheri  District,  Oudh  ; 
bounded  on  the  north  by  Aluhamdi  pan::;and^  on  the  east  by  the  Giimti 
river,  on  the  south  by  Hardoi  District,  and  on  the  west  by  Shahjahanpur 
District,  from  which  it  is  separated  by  the  Sukheta  river.  Area,  r2i 
square  miles,  of  which  58  are  cultivated.  Population  (1881)  49,775, 
ofwhom  42,099 are  Hindus,  7378  Muhammadans,  and  298  'others.'  No 
towns  or  important  bdzdi'S.  Land  revenue,  ;^6o8o.  The  present/^r^'d;«i 
was  formed  as  recently  as  1869,  by  the  amalgamation  of  the  two  older 
pargands^  Pasgawan  and  Barwar.  After  the  breaking  up  of  the  great 
Barwar  estate,  the  land  settlement  was  made  with  small  independent 
zaniinddrs  ;  and  of  the  163  villages  comprising  the  pargand,  142  are  held 
by  small  proprietors  under  za?ninddn  tenure,  while  21  are  tdlukddri. 

Pa -shin.  —  River  in  Henzada  District,  Pegu  Division,  Lower 
Burma. — See  Pa-ta-shin. 

Pasriir. — Central  tahsil  of  Sialkot  District,  Punjab,  lying  between 
32°  6'  15"  and  32°  20'  30"  n.  lat.,  and  between  74°  28'  45"  and  74°  46' 
45"  E.  long.  Area,  543  square  miles,  with  575  towns  and  villages, 
26,732  houses,  and  67,717  families.  Population  (1881)  251,928, 
namely,  males  134,180,  and  females  117,748.  Classified  accord- 
ing to  religion — Muhammadans  number  181,161,  or  71*9  per  cent.  • 
Hindus,  57,886,  or  22-9  per  cent.;  Sikhs,  12,547,  or  4-9  per  cent.; 
Jains,  406;  and  Christians,  18.  Density  of  population,  464  persons 
per  square  mile.  Of  the  575  towns  and  villages,  437  contain  less  than 
five  hundred  inhabitants ;  93  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand ;  34 
from  one  to  two  thousand;  10  from  two  thousand  to  five  thousand; 
and  I  upwards  of  five  thousand  inhabitants.  The  average  cultivated 
area  for  the  five  years  1877-78  to  1881-82  is  returned  at  349  square 
miles,  or  223,386  acres;  the  area  under  the  principal  crops  being — 
wheat,  108,055  acres;  barley,  35,754  acres;  rice,  11,656  acres;  Indian 
corn,  11,496  acres  ;7Wr,  6503  acres;  gram,  4505  acres;  other  food- 
grains,  1520  acres.  Of  non-food  crops,  sugar-cane  occupied  10,207 
acres;  cotton,  11,947  acres;  and  vegetables,  2247  acres.  Revenue  of 
the  tahsil,  ^'20,229.  The  administrative  staff  consists  of  i  tahsilddr, 
I  munsif,  and  2  honorary  magistrates,  presiding  over  4  civil  and  3 
criminal  courts.  Number  of  police  circles  {t/idnds),  3,  namely,  Pasriir, 
Satrah,  and  Kila  Sobha  Singh.  Strength  of  regular  police,  67  men; 
village  watch  or  rural  police  {chaukiddrs),  471. 

Pasriir.  —  Decayed   town   in   Sialkot  District,  Punjab,  and   head- 


quarters  of  Pasrdr  tahsil ;  situated  in  lat.  32°  16'  n.,  long.  74°  42'  30"  E., 
on  the  Amritsar  road,  about  18  miles  south  of  Sialkot  town.  Pasriir 
was  once  a  place  of  greater  size  than  at  present,  and  is  said  to  have 
been  founded  by  a  Bajwa  Jdt  in  the  reign  of  the  Emperor  Babar. 
Traces  of  its  former  prosperity  remain,  including  a  tank  constructed 
during  the  reign  of  Jahangir ;  a  canal  to  supply  the  town  with  water, 
built  by  Prince  Dara  Sheko,  brother  of  Aurangzeb ;  and  a  bridge 
erected  by  Shah  Daula.  Many  handsome  houses  of  Sikh  gentlemen 
and  other  notabilities.  The  shrine  of  Miran  Barkhurdar,  a  Muham- 
madan  saint,  is  the  scene  of  a  religious  gathering  during  the  Muhari-am. 
Population  (1881)  8378,  namely,  Muhammadans,  5954  ;  Hindus,  1889  ; 
Jains,  375;  Sikhs,  159;  and  Christian,  i.  Number  of  houses,  1309. 
Municipal  income  (1883-84),  £,Z^^,  or  an  average  of  io|d.  per  head 
of  the  population.  Pasrur  is  a  centre  of  local  trade,  consisting  prin- 
cipally of  grain,  which  it  receives  from  neighbouring  villages,  and 
exports  to  different  parts  of  the  District.  No  manufactures.  Besides 
the  usual  Sub -divisional  courts,  Pasrur  contains  a  police  station, 
post-office,  dispensary,  schools  for  boys  and  girls ;  sardi  or  rest-house, 
zailghar  or  tavern  for  the  use  of  head-men  of  villages ;  and  an  encamp- 
ing ground.  A  large  cattle  fair  is  held  at  Koreke,  a  village  about  6 
miles  from  Pasrur,  at  the  shrine  of  a  Muhammadan  saint  named  Gulii 

Pata  Cuddapah. — Suburb  of  Cuddapah  Town,  Cuddapah  District, 
Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  14°  29'  45"  n.,  long.  78°  53'  30"  e.  Popula- 
tion (1871)  6616,  inhabiting  1822  houses;  and  (1881)  5364,  inhabiting 
131 2  houses.  Divided  into  4  hamlets.  Hindus  number  5133  ;  ]\Iuham- 
madans,  220;  and  Christians,  11. 

Patamari. — Village  in  Goalpara  District,  Assam,  9  miles  south  of 
Dhubri  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Brahmaputra,  with  considerable 
exports  of  jute.     Post-office  ;  large  weekly  market. 

Patan. — Parga?id  in  Purwa  tahsil,  Unao  District,  Oudh ;  bounded 
on  the  north  by  Magrayar,  Purwa,  and  V ^xnhixi  pargands,  on  the  east  by 
Panhan  and  Bihar,  on  the  south  by  Bhagwantnagar,  and  on  the  west 
by  Magrayar  parga7id.  Area,  1 1  square  miles,  of  which  4  are  under 
cultivation.  Population  (1881)  5740,  namely,  5543  Hindus  and  197 
Muhammadans.  The  parga?id  comprises  15  villages,  of  which  12  are  held 
under  idliikddri  and  3  under  zaminddri  tenure.  The  chief  proprietary 
body  are  Brahmans  and  Bais  Rajputs  among  the  higher,  and  Kurmis 
among  the  lower  castes. 

Patan. — Town  in  Purwa  tahsil,  Unao  District,  Oudh,  and  head- 
quarters of  Patan  pargand ;  situated  on  the  banks  of  the  small  river 
Lon.  Population  (1881)  2238.  Two  annual  fairs  are  held  near  the 
tomb  of  a  famous  Muhammadan  saint,  one  of  which,  in  December,  is 
attended  by  as  many  as  300,000  persons.     The  holy  man  is  supposed 



to  exercise  a  beneficial  influence  over  the  insane ;  and  on  the  occasions 
of  the  festival  these  unfortunates  are  brought,  sometimes  to  the  number  of 
hundreds,  and  tied  up  to  trees  opposite  the  tomb,  where  they  are  left 
all  night.     Village  school. 

Patan.  —  Sub-division  of  Satara  District,  Bombay  Presidency. 
Situated  in  the  south-east  corner  of  the  District,  Patan  is  hilly.  The 
chief  feature  in  the  west  is  the  south-running  Koina  valley  with  its  lofty 
flanking  hills.  On  the  east  the  valleys  of  the  Koina,  Tarle,  and  Kole 
open  into  the  plains  of  the  Kistna.  The  soil  of  the  eastern  valleys 
is  good,  and  yields  both  early  and  late  crops,  chiefly  jodr  (Sorghum 
vulgare)  and  ground  nuts,  and,  when  watered,  sugar-cane.  The  rest 
of  the  soil  is  red,  and  except  in  the  hollows  where  rice  and  sometimes 
sugar-cane  are  grown,  is  under  nomadic  cultivation.  The  Koina,  the 
Tarle,  and  their  feeders  furnish  abundance  of  water  to  the  villages  on 
and  near  their  banks.  Away  from  the  rivers,  both  on  the  tops  of  the 
hills  and  in  the  valleys,  especially  during  March,  April,  and  May, 
water  is  scarce.  The  climate  is  cool  and  healthy  in  the  hot  weather, 
but  the  chilly  damp  of  the  rains  makes  it  feverish.  Area,  536  square 
miles,  containing  i  town  and  201  villages.  Population  (1872)  115,491  ; 
(1881)  112,414,  namely,  57,235  males  and  55,179  females,  occupying 
14,869  houses.  Hindus  number  110,598;  Muhammadans,  1626; 
and  'others,'  190.  In  1882-83,  the  number  of  holdings,  including 
alienated  lands  in  Government  villages,  was  15,021,  with  an  average 
area  of  7*57  acres.  In  1881-82,  of  85,814  acres  held  for  cultivation, 
38,464  acres  were  fallow  or  under  grass.  Of  the  remaining  47,350 
acres,  5498  were  twice  cropped.  Grain  crops  occupied  43,154  acres; 
pulses,  7563  acres  ;  oil-seeds,  505  acres ;  fibres,  97  acres  ;  and  miscel- 
laneous crops,  1529  acres.  In  1883  the  Sub-division  contained  i  civil 
and  3  criminal  courts;  i  police  circle  {thdnd) ;  regular  police,  54  men; 
village  watch  {chaiikiddrs)^  61.     Land  revenue,  ;^24,954. 

Patan.  —  Head-quarters  of  Patan  Sub-division,  Satara  District, 
Bombay  Presidency.  Lat.  17°  22'  n.,  and  long.  73°  38'  e.  Situated  at 
the  junction  of  the  Koina  and  Kerla  rivers,  about  25  miles  south-west  of 
Satara  town.  Population  (1881)  3548.  The  town  consists  of  two  parts, 
the  upper  part  containing  the  Sub-divisional  and  post  offices,  school, 
market,  and  the  mansion  of  the  i?idmddr  Nagojirao  Patankar,  a  second 
class  j-^r^^?V and  honorary  magistrate,  with  civil  jurisdiction  in  his  villages. 
The  other  part  consists  of  a  beautifully  wooded  suburb  called  Ramdpur 
on  the  left  bank  of  the  Koina.  A  specially  fine  grove  of  mango  and 
jack  trees  lies  at  its  south-east  corner.  A  broad  market  street  and  a 
number  of  artisans'  and  traders'  shops  connect  the  two  parts. 

Patan. — Sub-division  of  Baroda  State  (Gaekwar's  territory),  Gujarat. 
Area,  469  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  120,830,  namely,  61,914 
males  and  58,916  females,  dwelling  in  138  towns  and  villages.     Hindus 

VOL.  XI.  F 


number  105,896  ;  Muhammadans,  9252  ;  and  Jains,  5682.  The 
number  of  holdings  was  13,771  in  1882,  each  holding  having  an  average 
area  of  nine  and  one-fifth  acres.  The  region  is  a  fairly  wooded  plain, 
with  the  river  Saras wati  running  through  the  centre.  Rainfall,  20  inches. 
Land  revenue,  ;£4i)778. 

Pdtan  (or  A?ihilwdra  Pattan).  —  Chief  town  of  the  Patau  Sub- 
division, Baroda  State,  Gujarat;  situated  in  lat.  23°  51'  30"  n.,  and 
long.  72°  10'  30"  E.,  on  the  small  river  Saraswati,  a  tributary  of  the 
Banas.  In  187 1  the  population  was  returned  at  31,523;  (1881)  32,712, 
namely,  15,540  males  and  17,172  females,  of  whom  about  one-eighth 
are  Jains,  who  have  no  fewer  than  108  temples.  There  are  also 
extensive  Jain  libraries  in  the  city,  consisting  mostly  of  palm-leaf 
manuscripts,  which  are  very  jealously  guarded.  Many  remains  of 
considerable  architectural  beauty  are  still  to  be  seen  outside  the  city. 
Anhilwara  Patau  is  one  of  the  oldest  and  most  renowned  towns  of 
Gujarat.  It  was  the  capital  of  successive  dynasties  of  Rajput  kings  from 
746  to  1 194  A.D. ;  and  during  the  whole  time  of  ]\Iusalman  supremacy, 
it  maintained  a  position  of  some  importance.  Swords  and  spears  are 
manufactured  in  the  town,  and  some  pottery;  and  silk  and  cotton  weav- 
ing is  carried  on.  The  modern  town  is  mostly  of  Maratha  construction, 
and  is  entirely  surrounded  by  a  wall  of  great  thickness  and  considerable 
height.  Post-office,  hospital;  Anglo-vernacular,  Gujarathi,  and  Marathi 

Patan  {Fattana,  or  Fatan  SomndtJi). — Ancient  historic  town  and 
shrine  in  the  Sorath  Division,  Junagarh  State,  Kathiawar,  Bombay 
Presidency.  Lat.  22°  4'  n.,  and  long.  71°  26'  e.  Population  (1881) 
6644.     Hindus  number  2985;   Muhammadans,  3357;  and  Jains,  302. 

— See  SOMNATH. 

Patan  {Keshordi  Fdtan). — Next  to  the  capital,  the  most  important 
village  of  Biindi  (Boondee)  State,  Rajputana  ;  situated  in  lat.  25°  17'  x., 
and  long.  75'  59'  e.,  at  a  bend  of  the  Chambal,  12  miles  below  Kotah, 
where  the  river,  running  in  a  north-easterly  direction,  suddenly  turns 
almost  at  right  angles,  and,  after  a  straight  reach  of  5  miles,  turns  back 
still  more  abruptly  to  its  former  direction.     Population  (1881)  3937. 

Keshorai  Patan  claims  a  very  remote  antiquity,  local  historians 
affecting  to  trace  its  traditions  back  to  the  mythological  period  of  the 
Mdhdbhdrata.  In  the  present  aspect  of  the  town,  however,  there  is 
little  that  testifies  to  any  great  age.  Two  ancient  inscriptions  alone 
remain.  One  is  in  a  sati  temple  on  the  Breham  Ghat,  which  bears  date 
Samvat  35.  The  other,  in  an  adjoining  temple,  is  dated  Samvat  152. 
Long  before  these  periods,  however,  and  before  the  existence  of  any 
town  at  all,  it  is  said  that  one  Parasuram  built  a  temple  here  sacred  to 
Mahadeo,  or  Siva.  This  temple  gradually  fell  into  decay,  but  was  rebuilt 
during  the  reign  of  Chattar  Sal;  to  whom  also  is  due  the  completion 



of  the  larger  temple  of  Keshordi,  for  which  the  town  of  Patan  is 
now  famous.  The  foundations  of  this  latter  temple  were  laid  during 
the  reign  of  Chattar  Sal's  grandfather,  Maharao  Ratanji ;  but  he  died 
before  anything  more  than  the  supporting  platform,  which  stands  close 
to  the  river  bank,  had  been  constructed.  On  the  accession  of  his 
grandson,  the  work  was  resumed,  and  the  temple  finished  as  it  now 
stands.  It  contains  an  image  of  Keshorai,  a  name  for  Vishnu,  and 
attracts  yearly  a  large  crowd  of  worshippers.  The  temple  has  an 
endowment  of  ^looo  yearly  from  Biindi,  and  ^300  from  Kotah. 
The  managers  and  attendants  are  hereditary,  counting  now  about 
300  persons,  the  descendants  of  one  family.  The  temple  itself,  though 
large,  does  not  possess  any  marked  architectural  beauties ;  and  it  has 
been  so  incessantly  covered  with  fresh  coats  of  whitewash,  that  it 
now  looks  not  unlike  a  huge  piece  of  fretwork  in  wax  or  sugar,  which 
heat  or  moisture  had  partially  melted. 

Patan.— One  of  the  chief  towns  of  Nepal ;  situated,  approximately, 
m  lat.  27°  38'  N.,  and  long.  85°  13'  e.,  on  rising  ground,  a  short  distance 
from  the  southern  bank  of  the  Baghmati,  about  2  miles  south-east  of 
Khatmandu.  Patan  is  thus  described  by  Dr.  Wright,  formerly  surgeon 
to  the  British  Residency  in  Nepal : — 

'  It  is  an  older  town  than  Khatmandu,  having  been  built  in  the  reign 
of  Raja  Bir  Deva  in  the  Kaligat  year  3400  (299  a.d.).  It  is  also 
known  by  the  names  of  Yellondesi  and  Lalita  Patan.  The  latter 
name  is  derived  from  Lalit,  the  founder  of  the  city.  Its  general  aspect 
is  much  the  same  as  that  of  the  capital.  The  streets  are  as  narrow 
and  dirty,  the  gutters  as  offensive,  and  the  temples  even  more  numerous  ; 
but  it  appears  much  more  dilapidated  than  Khatmandu,  many  of  the 
houses  and  temples  being  in  ruins.  The  main  square,  however,  in 
the  centre  of  the  town,  is  very  handsome.  On  one  side  is  the  old 
Darbar,  with  a  fine  brazen  gateway,  guardian  lions,  and  endless  carvings. 
In  front  of  this  are  monoliths,  with  the  usual  figures  on  them,  and 
behind  these  a  row  of  handsome  old  temples  of  every  description.  The 
parade-ground  lies  to  the  south-east  of  the  town,  the  road  to  it  passing 
through  a  suburb  abounding  in  pigs.  The  parade-ground  is  extensive, 
and  there  are  several  large  tanks  to  the  west,  while  on  the  southern  side 
stands  a  huge  Buddhist  temple  of  the  most  primitive  description.  This 
temple  is  merely  a  mound  or  dome  of  brickwork,  covered  with  earth. 
There  is  a  small  shrine  at  each  of  the  cardinal  points,  and  on  the  top 
what  looks  like  a  wooden  ladder.  Many  similar  mound-temples  or 
chaityas  exist  in  and  around  Patan.  The  population  of  the  town  is  said 
to  be  about  30,000.' 

Patan  is  connected  with  Khatmandu  by  a  bridged  road.  A  brigade 
of  regular  troops  is  quartered  to  the  south  of  the  town.  The  people  are 
mainly  Buddhists,  and  comprise  the  superior  artisan  classes  of  Nepal. 


Pditan. — Tributary  chiefsbip  in  Tourwati  District  of  Jaipur  State, 
Rajputana.  This  chiefship  is  interesting  from  the  fact  of  its  rulers 
being  the  direct  Hneal  descendants  of  a  very  ancient  house,  the  Tuar 
kings  of  Delhi,  who  Avere  expelled  that  place  some  eight  centuries  ago, 
on  its  capture  by  the  Ghor  dynasty.  The  family  settled  at  Patan,  and 
have  since  ruled  there  undisturbed.  Population  (1881)  of  the  chief 
town,  Patan,  11,886,  namely,  6430  males  and  5456  females.  Hindus, 
11,365,  and  Muhammadans,  521. 

Patan. — Village  in  Jabalpur  (Jubbulpore)  iahsil,  Jabalpur  District, 
Central  Provinces.  Population  (1881)  3171,  namely,  Hindus,  2532; 
Muhammadans,  383;  Jains,  88;  non-Hindu  aborigines,  168.  Small 
trade  in  grain.     Government  school  and  police  outpost. 

Patana. — Village  in  Bhabua  Sub-division,  Shahabad  District,  Bengal, 
which,  in  the  opinion  of  Dr.  Buchanan-PIamilton,  was  once  the  residence 
of  the  chief  ruler  of  the  Suar  or  Sivira  tribe.  Sometimes  called  Sriram- 
pur,  from  a  hamlet  of  that  name  which  now  occupies  part  of  the  ruins 
to  the  south-west  of  the  village.  In  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of 
Patana  is  a  linga^  surrounded  by  a  wall  and  some  broken  images,  the 
largest  of  which  represents  Mahavira,  or  the  warlike  monkey.  Many 
other  remains  are  scattered  about. 

Patan  Saongi. — Town  in  Ramtek  tahsil,  Nagpur  District,  Central 
Provinces;  situated  in  lat.  21°  19'  30"  n.,  and  long.  79°  4'  k,  on  a 
fertile  and  elevated  plain  by  the  river  Kolar,  14  miles  from  Nagpur  city. 
Population  (1881)  4810,  namely,  Hindus,  4485;  Muhammadans,  258; 
Kabirpanthis,  21 ;  Jains,  10  ;  non-Hindu  aborigines,  36.  Chief  products 
— cotton  stufis  and  tobacco.  In  1742,  during  the  struggle  between 
Wall  Shah  and  the  legitimate  princes,  12,000  men  were  massacred  by 
the  victorious  party  in  the  now  ruined  fort.  Up  to  the  death  of  the  late 
Raja,  a  troop  of  horse  was  stationed  in  the  town ;  and  till  lately  it  was 
the  head-quarters  of  a  iahsil.  It  has  a  good  market-place  and  sai'di 
(native  inn),  with  metalled  roads  and  streets. 

Pa-ta-shin  {Pa-shin). — River  in  Henzada  District,  Pegu  Division, 
Lower  Burma.  It  rises  in  the  Arakan  range,  and  at  first  is  known  as 
the  San-da  ;  after  an  easterly  course  of  about  40  miles,  it  falls  into  the 
Irawadi.  The  Pa-ta-shin  drains  an  area  of  100  square  miles;  its  principal 
tributaries  are  the  Pa-daw  and  the  A-lun.  It  is  navigable  in  the  rains 
for  a  distance  of  30  miles. 

Pataudi. — Native  State  under  the  political  superintendence  of  the 
Governmeiit  of  the  Punjab,  lying  between  28°  14'  and  28°  22'  n.  lat., 
and  between  76°  42'  and  76°  52'  30"  e.  long.  Area,  48  square  miles, 
with  40  villages,  2537  houses,  and  4136  families.  Total  popula- 
tion (1881),  17,847,  namely,  males  9510,  and  females  8337.  Average 
density  of  the  population,  372  persons  per  square  mile.  Classified 
according  to  religion,  Hindus  number  14,473;  Muhammadans,  3286; 


FA  TERA~PA  THANK  O  7.  85 

Jains,  81  ;  and  Christians,  7.  Estimated  gross  revenue  of  the  State, 
^10,000  per  annum.  Principal  products — grain,  cotton,  sugar,  and 
spices.  The  Rajputdna  State  Railway  from  Delhi  to  Bandikui  junction 
passes  through  the  State  about  40  miles  south-west  of  Delhi. 

The  i)resent  Nawab  of  Pataudi,  Muhammad  Mumtaz  Husain  AH 
Khan,  a  Paliichi  by  race,  was  born  in  1874.  The  State  was  formed  by  a 
grant  from  Lord  Lake  in  1806  of  Pataudi  in  perpetual /^f^'/r  to  Faiztalab 
Khdn,  brother  of  the  Jhajjar  Nawab.  Faiztalab  Khan  was  severely 
wounded  in  an  action  with  Holkar's  troops,  and  they^'^V  was  granted 
to  him  in  recognition  of  his  services.  The  estimated  military  force  of 
the  State,  including  police,  is  94  men. 

Patera. — Large  rent-free  estate  in  Deori  tahsi\  Sagar  District,  Central 
Provinces. — See  Pitihra. 

Patera. — Village  in  Hatta  tahsil,  Damoh  District,  Central  Provinces; 
situated  18  miles  north  of  Damoh  town.  Population  (1881)  2238, 
namely,  Hindus,  1940;  Muhammadans,  215;  Jains,  67;  Christians, 
4  ;  and  non-Hindu  aborigines,  12.  Trade  in  grain,  and  manufacture  of 
brass-work.     Good  market. 

Patgram.  —  Estate  in  Jalpdiguri  District,  Bengal,  comprising  the 
police  division  of  the  same  name.  Dr.  Buchanan-Hamilton,  in  his 
MS.  account  of  Rangpur,  thus  described  it  in  1809  : — '  It  belongs  to  the 
Raja  of  Kuch  Behar,  and  contains  68  mauzds^  or  collections  of  villages. 
More  than  half  the  estate  is  let  to  large  farmers,  some  of  whom  hold 
under  leases  called  upanchaki,  which  are  granted  for  a  certain  specified 
farm,  and  not  according  to  a  particular  area ;  their  rent  cannot  be  in- 
creased nor  their  lands  measured.  Thiuty  jotddrs  pay  their  rent  directly 
to  the  Raja's  collector ;  the  average  rent  paid  by  them  is  only  6|d.  per 
Calcutta  bighd.     The  people  are  very  poor,  shy,  and  indolent.' 

Pathankot. — North-eastern  tahsil  of  Gurdaspur  District,  Punjab  ; 
lying  between  32°  5'  30"  and  32°  23'  30"  n.  lat.,  and  between  75°  22' 
and  75°  44'  15"  E.  long.,  and  including  a  hill  and  plain  portion. 
Area,  357  square  miles,  with  412  towns  and  villages,  20,775  houses, 
and  33,616  families.  Total  population  (1881),  140,825,  namely, 
males  78,060,  and  females  62,765 ;  average  density  of  population, 
394  persons  per  square  mile.  Classified  according  to  religion,  Hindus 
number  92,426,  or  657  per  cent.;  Muhammadans,  46,630,  or  33-1  per 
cent.  ;  Sikhs,  1475,  o^  ^'o  P^^  ctnt. ;  and  Christians,  294,  of  whom  279 
are  Europeans  or  Eurasians.  Of  the  412  towns  and  villages,  327  con- 
tain less  than  five  hundred  inhabitants;  52  from  five  hundred  to  a 
thousand;  27  from  one  to  two  thousand;  5  from  two  to  five  thousand; 
and  I  upwards  of  five  thousand  inhabitants.  The  average  cultivated 
area  for  the  five  years  1877-78  to  1881-82  is  returned  at  185  square 
miles,  or  118,209  acres;  the  area  under  the  principal  crops  being — rice, 
35,227  acres;  wheat,  32,155  acres;  sugar-cane,  7184  acres;  y^£?>,  6938 


acres;  gram,  6567  acres;  barley,  6344  acres;  tobacco,  2765  acres; 
Indian  corn,  1755  acres;  vioth^  1461  acres;  and  vegetables,  1357  acres. 
Revenue  of  the  tahsil,  ;£^i9,875.     The  administrative  staff  consists  of 

1  extra  Assistant  Commissioner,  i  tahstlddr,  i  miinsif,  and  i  honorary 
magistrate  exercising  criminal  powers  only.     These  officers  preside  over 

2  civil  and  2  criminal  courts.  Number  of  police  circles  {t/id?ids), 
6,  namely,  Pathankot,  Shahpur,  Dunera,  Dalhousie,  Parmanand,  and 
Narot  Number  of  regular  police,  no  men;  village  watch  or  rural 
police  (chaukiddrs),  302. 

Pathankot. — Town  and  municipality  in  Gurdaspur  District,  Punjab; 
situated  in  lat.  32°  16'  45"  n.,  and  long.  75°  42'  e.,  near  the  head  of 
the  Bari  Doab,  and  23  miles  north-east  of  Gurdaspur  town,  at  the  point 
where  the  trade  route  from  the  hills  of  Chamba,  Niirpur,  and  Kangra 
unite  and  enter  the  plains.  Pathankot  is  a  flourishing  town,  increasing 
in  commercial  importance.  The  population,  which  in  1868  numbered 
2818,  had  increased  to  4344  in  1881.  Classified  according  to  religion, 
there  were  in  1881 — Muhammadans,  2316  ;  Hindus,  1991 ;  Sikhs,  32  ; 
and  Christians,  5.  Number  of  houses,  852.  Municipal  income 
(1883-84),  ^483,  derived  chiefly  from  octroi  duties;  average  incidence 
of  taxation,  2s.  2|d.  per  head,  Pathankot  is  the  terminus  of  the 
carriage  road  from  Amritsar  to  Dalhousie  and  Kangra,  the  remaining 
distance  lying  through  the  hills,  and  being  performed  on  horseback  or 
by  dhulL  The  town  itself  is  a  collection  of  brick-built  houses,  well 
drained,  and  with  paved  streets.  It  is  the  seat  of  a  considerable 
shawMveaving  industry.  Besides  the  usual  Sub-divisional  courts,  the 
town  contains  a  police  station,  post-office,  two  bdzdrs,  school-house, 
dispensary,  municipal  hall,  ddk  bungalow,  sa?'di  or  native  inn,  and 
encamping  ground.  For  an  account  of  the  antiquities  of  Pathankot, 
see  General  Cunningham's  Reports  of  the  Archaeological  Stin^ey,  vol.  v. 
pp.  145-155,  and  vol.  xiv.  pp.  11 5-1 19,  and  135,  136;  also  his  Ancie?it 
Geography  of  India,  pp.  143,  144. 

Pd,thardi. — Town  in  Ahmad nagar  District,  Bombay  Presidency  ; 
situated  in  lat.  19°  10'  25"  n.,  and  long.  75°  13'  31"  e.,  about  30  miles 
east  of  Ahmadnagar  town.  Population  (1881)  6734.  Hindus  number 
5968;  Muhammadans,  603;  Jains,  148;  and  'others,'  15.  The  town 
lies  picturesquely  on  the  side  of  a  steep  hill  which  rises  in  the  midst  of 
a  barren  tract,  skirted  on  the  north  and  east  by  a  range  of  hills  which 
pass  from  Dongargaon  into  the  Nizam's  territory.  Post-oflice,  and  two 
schools  with  247  pupils  in  1883-84. 

Pathari. — Native  State  under  the  Bhopal  Agency  of  Central  India, 
adjoining  the  British  District  of  Sagar  (Saugor),  and  lying  south-west  of 
Rahatgarh.  The  chief,  Nawab  Abdul  Karlm  Khan,  an  Afghan  by  race, 
was  born  about  1852.  He  belongs  to  a  younger  branch  of  the  Bhopal 
family,  being  descended  from  its  founder.  Dost  Muhammad.     In  1807, 


Nawab  Haidar  Muhammad  Khan,  the  father  of  the  present  chief,  was 
deprived  of  his  patrimony  by  Sindhia  ;  but  eventually,  through  the 
mediation  of  the  British  Government,  he  obtained  the  present  estate  in 
exchange  for  certain  villages  he  heM  in  Rahatgarh.  Area  of  Pathari, 
22  square  miles.  Population  (1875)  4330;  (1881)  6393.  Hindus 
number  5410;  Muhammadans,  965;  Sikhs,  10;  and  aborigines,  8. 
Revenue,  about  ^1200.  The  chief  town,  Pathari,  lies  in  lat.  23°  56'  n., 
and  long.  78°  15'  e. 

Patharia.  —  Hill  range  in  the  south  of  Sylhet  District,  Assam. 
Estimated  area,  47  square  miles  ;  height  above  sea-level,  600  feet.  In 
this  tract,  a  peculiar  perfume  called  agar  attar  is  manufactured.  It  is 
distilled  from  the  resinous  sap  of  the  pitdkard  (Aquilaria  agalocha, 
Roxb.),  and  is  said  to  be  exported  via  Calcutta  as  far  as  Arabia  and 

Patharia.  —  Village  in  Damoh  ta/isit,  Damoh  District,  Central 
Provinces;  situated  in  lat.  23°  53'  n.,  and  long.  79°  14'  e.,  17  miles 
west  of  Damoh  town,  on  the  main  road  between  Jabalpur  (Jubbulpore) 
and  Sagar  (Saugor).  Population  (1881)  2326,  namely,  Hindus,  2075  ; 
Muhammadans,  125;  Jains,  99;  and  Kabirpanthis,  27.  Under  the 
Marathas,  an  Amil  was  stationed  at  Patharia,  which  appears  to  have 
once  been  a  much  larger  place.  Government  school,  dispensary,  police 
station,  and  travellers'  bungalow. 

Pathri. — Village  in  Khairagarh  State,  attached  to  Raipur  District, 
Central  Provinces.  Population  (1881)  2093,  namely,  Hindus,  1544; 
Kabirpantliis,  322;  Satnamis,  10;  Muhammadans,  96;  and  non-Hindu 
aborigines,  121. 

Pathrot. — Town  in  Ellichpur  District,  Berar.  Population  (1881) 
5271,  of  whom  4646  were  Hindus,  617  Musalmans,  and  8  Jains. 

Patiala. — Native  State,  under  the  political  superintendence  of  the 
Punjab  Government.  Patiala  belongs  to  the  group  known  as  the 
cis-Sutlej  States  ;  and  is  situated  between  29°  23'  15"  and  30°  54'  N.  lat., 
and  between  74^^  40'  30"  and  76°  59'  15"  e.  long.  The  State  is  divided 
into  two  portions,  of  which  the  larger  is  situated  in  the  plain  south  of 
the  Sutlej  (Satbj),  while  the  other  portion  is  hill  country  stretching  up 
to  Simla,  which  latter  place  formerly  belonged  to  Patiala,  but  has  been 
exchanged  for  territory  in  the  district  of  Barauli. 

Within  the  confines  of  the  State  are  situated  a  slate  quarry  near 
Simla,  and  a  lead  mine  near  Subathu  ;  the  latter  is  worked  by  a  company, 
and  yields  about  40  tons  of  ore  a  month,  containing  from  16  to  72  per 
cent,  of  lead.  There  are  also  marble  quarries  and  copper  mines  in 
Narnaul.    The  usual  cereals  are  produced  in  the  tracts  under  cultivation. 

Area  of  the  State,  5887  square  miles,  wdth  2601  towns  and  villages, 
282,063  houses,  and  328,668  families.  Total  population  (1881) 
1,467,433,    namely,    males    806,984,    and    females    660,449;    density 

88  P ATI  A  LA. 

of  population,  249  persons  per  square  mile.  Classified  according  to 
religion,  the  population  consists  of — Hindus,  734,902  ;  Muhammadans, 
321,354;  Sikhs,  408,141;  Jains,  2997;  and  Christians,  39.  Estimated 
gross  revenue  of  the  State,  ;^468,956. 

History.— ^\\(t  ruling  families  of  Patiala,  of  Jind  (Jheend),  and  ot 
Nabha,  are  called  '  the  Phulkian  houses,'  because  they  are  descended 
from  Phul,  a  Chaudhari,  or  agricultural  notable,  who  in  the  middle  of  the 
1 7th  century  founded  a  village  in  the  Nabha  territory  called  after  his 
name.  The  Rajas  of  Jind  and  Nabha  are  descended  from  Tiloka,  the 
eldest  son  of  Phul ;  the  Maharaja  of  Patiala  is  descended  from  Rama, 
the  second  son,  and  is  a  Sikh  of  the  Sidhu  Jat  tribe. 

Like  most  of  the  Jat  tribes,  the  Sidhus  claim  a  Rajput  origin,  and 
trace  their  descent  from  Jaisal,  a  Bhatti  Rajput,  and  founder  of  the  State 
and  city  of  Jaisalmer,  who  was  driven  from  his  kingdom  by  a  successful 
rebellion  in  1180  a.d.  From  Jaisal  descended  Sidhu;  from  Sidhu 
descended  Saughar,  who  aided  Babar  at  the  battle  of  Panipat,  and 
whose  son  Bariam  was  made  by  the  victor  a  Chaudhari,  or  head-man  of 
a  District,  responsible  for  its  revenues.  Phul  was  descended  from 
Bariam,  and  as  a  boy  received  the  blessing  of  Giirii  Har  Govind,  the 
sixth  Sikh  gurii,  who  said  of  him,  '  His  name  shall  be  a  true  omen,  and 
he  shall  bear  many  blossoms.'  From  the  Emperor  Shah  Jahan  he 
obtained  2ifarmd?i  granting  him  the  chaudhriyat  so  long  held  by  his 
ancestors.  He  died  in  1652  a.d.  From  him  are  descended  not  only 
the  chiefs  of  Jind  and  Nabha,  but  also  the  Laudhgharia  families,  and 
those  of  Bhadaur  and  Malod, — in  all,  thirteen  houses  ;  and  these  were 
at  one  time  equal  in  point  of  rank. 

Ala  Singh,  son  of  Rama  and  grandson  of  Phul,  succeeded  in  defeating 
the  Nawab  Sayyid  A  sad  Ali  Khan,  the  imperial  general  commanding  in 
the  Jalandhar  dodb^  at  the  battle  of  Barnala,  and  obtained  many  other 
successes  over  the  Bhattis  and  other  foes.  He  built  a  fort  at  Patiala, 
and,  after  being  utterly  defeated,  with  other  Sikh  leaders,  at  the  battle 
of  the  Barnala  in  1762  by  Ahmad  Shah  Durani,  he  submitted  to  the 
Afghan  invader,  and  received  from  him  the  title  of  Rajd.  After  the 
departure  of  Ahmad  Shah,  however,  Raja  Ala  Singh  put  himself  at 
the  head  of  his  Sikhs,  and  boldly  attacked  the  Afghan  governor  of  Sir- 
hind,  whom  he  defeated  and  killed.  The  city  of  Sirhind  was  never 
rebuilt,  and  is  held  accursed  to  this  day  by  the  Sikhs ;  but  a  consider- 
able portion  of  the  population  was  removed  to  the  rising  town  of 
Patiala.'  .Ahmad  Shah,  when  he  again  invaded  India,  not  only  forgave 
Ala  Singh  for  his  attack  on  Sirhind,  but  actually  received  him  into 
favour,  on  the  payment  of  a  subsidy;  and,  on  the  return  of  the  Durani 
monarch,  Ala  Singh  accompanied  him  as  far  as  Lahore.  Ala  Singh 
died  at  Patiala  in  1765,  having  firmly  established  the  foundations  of  this 
the  most  important  of  the  cis-Sutlej  States. 


F ATI  A  LA.  89 

Ala  Singh's  successor  was  Amar  Singh,  who  obtained  from  Alimad 
Shah  Durani,  in  1767,  the  title  of  Raja-i-Rajgan  Bahadur,  and  the 
insignia  of  a  flag  and  a  drum.  About  the  year  1772  he  was  threatened 
with  an  attack  of  the  Marathas  under  Janka  Rdo,  and  sent  off  all  his 
treasures  and  family  jewels  to  Bhatinda ;  and  subsequently  he  was  in 
great  danger  from  a  rebellion  of  his  brother  Himmat  Singh,  who  seized 
the  fort  of  Patiala ;  but  he  was  finally  successful  in  defending  himself 
from  all  his  enemies,  and  largely  increased  his  power  at  the  expense  of 
his  neighbours  and  of  the  crumbling  Delhi  Empire.  He  died  in  1781  ; 
and  for  a  long  time  afterwards  the  chiefship  of  Patiala  was  in  feeble 
liands,  and  its  importance  waned  before  the  growing  power  of  Ranjit 
Singh  at  Lahore. 

The  terrible  and  unprecedented  famine  of  1783  did  much  to  cripple 
the  power  and  resources  of  Patiala.  Sir  Lepel  Griffin  says  of  this 
famine  {Punjab  Rdjds,  1870,  p.  57) :— '  The  year  previous  had  been  dry, 
and  the  harvest  deficient;  but  in  1783  it  entirely  failed.  The  country 
was  depopulated,  the  peasants  abandoning  their  villages,  and  dying  in 
thousands  of  disease  and  want.  But  little  revenue  could  be  collected  ; 
the  country  swarmed  with  bands  of  robbers  and  dakdits  ;  and  the  state 
of  anarchy  was  almost  inconceivable.  The  neighbouring  chiefs  began 
to  seize  for  themselves  the  Patiala  villages,  and  all  who  dared  threw  off 
Patiala  authority,  and  declared  themselves  independent.'  The  Raja  of 
Patiala  was,  however,  saved  by  the  courage  and  energy  of  the  Diwan, 
and  of  certain  ladies  of  the  ruling  family,  which  has  always  been 
famous  for  the  talents  of  its  female  members.  These  formed  an  alliance 
with  the  Marathas,  and  by  their  aid  subdued  all  those  who  had  attacked 
the  Raj ;  but  they  received  little  gratitude  from  the  Raja  Sahib  Singh, 
and  finally  died  in  disgrace  or  exile. 

During  the  concluding  years  of  the  century,  the  State  suffered  much 
from  the  famous  adventurer  George  Thomas;  but  at  last  the  Sikhs, 
with  the  aid  of  Perron  and  Bourquin,  were  able  to  drive  him  off. 
After  the  capture  of  Delhi  by  General  Lake  in  1803,  and  the  sub- 
sequent submission  of  the  Marathas  under  the  treaty  of  Sarji 
Anjengaon,  the  English  became  the  paramount  power  in  this  part  of 
India;  and  when,  in  1807  and  180S,  the  Maharaja  Ranjit  Singh 
seemed  to  be  entertaining  designs  on  the  cis-Sutlej  country,  an  appeal 
was  made  to  the  English  Governor-General  for  protection.  This  was 
eventually  accorded;  and  a  treaty  was  made  with  Ranjit  Singh  in 
1809,  in  which  he  engaged  not  to  commit  or  suffer  any  encroachments 
on  the  possessions  or  rights  of  the  cis-Sutlej  chiefs. 

In  the  Nepal  war  of  1815,  when  the  Gurkhas  were  expelled  from  the 
hill  country  above  the  Punjab,  the  Patiala  chief  aided  the  British 
Government  with  troops,  and  received,  in  recognition  of  his  services, 
an  accession  to  his  territory  in  the  hill  country.     Again,  when  the  Sikh 


army  invaded  the  cis-Sutlej  States  in  1845-46,  the  Maharaja  of  Patiala 
cast  in  his  lot  with  the  British,  and  obtained,  for  his  services  during  the 
campaign,  the  gift  of  an  adcHtional  portion  of  territory.  During  the 
Mutiny  of  1857,  Maharaja  Narendra  Singh  aided  the  British  Govern- 
ment by  furnishing  an  auxihary  force  which  proceeded  to  Delhi,  and 
kept  open  the  communication  on  the  Grand  Trunk  Road.  He  also 
helped  the  Government  with  money.  For  these  services  he  received 
from  the  British  Government  the  Narnaul  division  of  the  Jhajjar 
territory,  besides  other  rewards.  Narendra  Singh  was  succeeded  in 
1862  by  his  son  Mahendra  Singh,  who  died  in  1876,  and  was  succeeded 
by  his  infant  son,  Rajendra  Singh,  the  present  Maharaja. 

The  Maharaja  of  Patiala  furnishes  a  contingent  of  100  horse  for 
general  duty.  He  is  entitled  to  a  salute  of  17  guns.  The  military 
force  consists  of  about  2750  cavalry,  600  infantry  including  police,  31 
field  and  78  other  guns,  and  238  artillerymen. 

Patiala. — Capital  of  the  Patiala  State,  Punjab.  Lat.  30°  20'  n.,  long. 
76°  25'  E.  Founded  in  1752  by  Sardar  Ala  Singh.  Population  (1881) 
53,629,  namely,  males  30,858,  and  females  22,771.  Hindus  number 
24,963;  Muhammadans,  21,119;  Sikhs,  7101 ;  Jains,  435;  and 
Christians,  11.     Number  of  houses,  11,692. 

Patiali. — Ancient  town  in  Ali'ganj  tahsil^  Etah  District,  North- 
Western  Provinces,  situated  on  the  old  high  bank  of  the  Ganges,  22 
miles  north-east  of  Etah  town,  with  which  it  is  connected  by  a  broad 
unmetalled  road.  The  present  towai  is  built  on  a  mound  of  ancient 
debris^  marking  the  site  of  the  ancient  city,  which  dates  from  the  time 
of  the  Mahdbhdraia.  A  ruined  fort,  built  by  Shahab-ud-din  Ghori,  still 
stands,  but  the  greater  part  of  its  block  kankar  walls  have  been  carried 
away  by  the  inhabitants  as  building  materials  for  their  houses,  or  by 
Government  officials  for  the  erection  of  bridges  and  public  buildings. 
Population  (1881)  4798.  For  the  support  of  the  police  and  for  the 
conservancy  and  sanitation  of  the  town,  a  small  house-tax  is  raised. 
Patiali  was  a  flourishing  town  in  the  days  of  the  Rohilla  power,  but 
is  now  decayed  into  a  mere  village  with  no  trade  or  manufactures. 
It  was  the  scene  of  a  brilliant  victory  over  the  rebels  during  the  Mutiny 
of  1857-58. 

Patkulanda. — Ancient  zaininddri  or  chiefship  attached  to  Sambal- 
pur  District,  Central  Provinces,  35  milts  south-west  of  Sambalpur  town. 
Population  (1881)  1292,  chiefly  agricultural,  residing  in  6  villages; 
area,  10  square  miles,  the  whole  of  which  is  cultivated,  for  the  most 
part  with  rice.  The  chief  is  a  Gcnd,  belonging  to  a  branch  of  the 
Bheran  zaminddrs  family,  whose  estate  it  adjoins.  The  chief  was  out- 
lawed for  having  joined  in  the  rebellion  of  1858,  but  was  afterwards 
amnestied  and  restored  to  his  estate. 

Patna. — Division  or  Commissionership    under   the   jurisdiction   of 

PATNA.  91 

the  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Bengal,  lying  between  24"  17'  15"  and 
27°  29'  45"  N.  lat.,  and  between  83°  23'  and  86'  46'  e.  long.  Area, 
23,726  square  miles.  It  comprises  the  Districts  of  Patna,  Gaya, 
Shahabad,  Darbhangah,  Muzaffakpur,  Saran,  and  Champaran, 
all  of  which  see  separately.  The  Division  is  bounded  on  the  north 
by  Nepal ;  on  the  east  by  Bhdgalpur  and  Monghyr  ;  on  the  south 
by  Lohardaga  and  Hazdribdgh  Districts;  and  on  the  west  by  the 
Districts  of  Mirzapur,  Ghazipur,  and  Gorakhpur  in  the  North-Western 

The  population  of  Patna  Division  was  returned  in  the  Census  Report 
of  1872  at  13,120,817.  The  last  enumeration  in  1881  disclosed  a 
population  of  15,063,944,  showing  a  total  increase  of  1,943,127,  or  14-8 
per  cent.,  in  nine  years.  This  increase,  though  largely  due  to  natural 
causes,  is  partly  fallacious,  and  due  to  under-enumeration  in  1872,  as  is 
shown  by  subsequent  Censuses  of  two  Sub-divisions  of  Darbhangah 
District  in  1874  and  in  1876,  both  of  which  disclosed  a  very  large 
increase  of  population  over  the  Census  of  1872,  that  could  not  be 
attributable  to  any  natural  increase. 

The  results  of  the  Census  of  1881  may  be  summarized  as 
follows : — Area  of  the  Division,  23,647  square  miles,  with  67  towns 
and  44,524  villages;  number  of  houses,  2,241,533.  Total  popu- 
lation, 15,063,944,  namely,  males  7,368,185,  and  females  7,695,759; 
proportion  of  males,  48-9  per  cent.  Average  density  of  population, 
637*03  persons  per  square  mile,  varying  from  450-15  per  square  mile 
in  Shahabad  to  86971  per  square  mile  in  Saran  District;  number  of 
persons  per  town  or  village,  338  ;  inmates  per  house,  67.  Classi- 
fied according  to  sex  and  age,  the  Census  shows — under  15  years 
of  age,  males  2,995,288,  and  females  2,868,095;  total  children, 
5,863,383,  or  38-9  per  cent,  of  the  population:  15  years  and  upwards, 
males  4,372,897,  and  females  4,827,664  ;  total  adults,  9,200,561,  or  6i-i 
per  cent. 

i?^4V^//.— Classified  according  to  religion,  Hindus  number  13,327,728, 
or  88*4  per  cent,  of  the  population  ;  Muhammadans,  i,730j0935  or  11-5 
percent. ;  Christians,  5875  ;  Brahmos,  16;  Jains,  22;  Jews,  14 ;  Parsi,  i  ; 
and  'others,'  195.  Of  the  higher  caste  of  Hindus,  Brahmans  number 
865,034,  and  Rajputs  968,342  :  intermediate  castes  include — Babhans, 
750,304;  Kayasths,  287,977;  and  Baniyas,  242,879.  Of  the  lower  or 
Sudra  castes,  the  most  important  (numerically)  are — Gwala,  1,844,463, 
the  most  numerous  caste  in  the  Division  ;  Koeri,  909,084 ;  Dosadh, 
829,295;  Chamar,  689,840;  Kurmf,  681,860;  Tell,  436,324 ;  Kundu, 
426,885;  Kahar,  357,167;  Mallah,  328,712;  Musahar,  274,974; 
Dhanuk,  258,496;  Nuniya,  231,124;  Napit,  219,702;  Lobar,  186,306; 
Kumbhar,  172,215  ;  Barhai,  157,951  ;  Tatwa,  149,941  ;  Sonar,  134,664; 
Dhobi,    131,460;    Kalwar,    126,558;    Pasi,    121,356;    Bind,    98,780; 

92  PATNA, 

Gareri,  84,277;  Madak,  83,241  ;  Sunri,  78,641  ;  Tdnti,  69,207;  Barui, 
57,245;  Dom,  56,571;  Rajwar,  55,399;  ^^ut  or  Kewat,  54,650;  and 
Mali,  54,245.  The  non-Hindu  aborigines  number  only  195,  while  the 
Hindus  of  aboriginal  descent  are  returned  at  21  t,i  73,  namely — Bhuinya, 
103,015;  Gond,  29,723;  Kharwar,  12,549;  and  'others,'  65,886. 
The  Muhammadan  population,  divided  according  to  sect,  consists  of 
Sunnis,  1,541,235;  Shias,  31,251;  Wahabis,  27;  and  unspecified, 
157,580.  Of  the  5875  Christians,  Europeans  number  2199;  Eurasians, 
541 ;  natives  of  India,  2772;  and  all  others,  363.  By  sect,  the  Chris- 
tians include — Church  of  England,  1689  ;  Protestants,  unspecified  as  to 
sect,  686;  Roman  Catholics,  2641  ;  Church  of  Scotland,  99;  Baptists, 
89;    Lutherans,    72;  and   Methodists,   67;  other  sects  or  unspecified, 


Toivn  and  Rural  Population.  —  The  following  are  the  thirteen 
principal  towns  in  Patna  Division  with  a  population  exceeding  15,000 
— Patna  city,  170,654;  Gaya,  76,415;  Darbhangah,  65,955;  Chapra, 
51,670;  Behar,  48,968;  Arrah,  42,998;  Muzaffarpur,  42,460;  Dinapur, 
37,898;  Hajipur,  25,078;  Bettiah,  21,263;  Dumraon,  17,429;  Buxar, 
16,498;  and  Lalganj,  16,431.  Total  of  thirteen  largest  towns,  633,717. 
Besides  the  foregoing,  there  are  54  minor  towns  or  municipalities,  with 
an  aggregate  population  of  371,789.  The  total  urban  population  there- 
fore amounts  to  1,005,506,  or  6-67  per  cent,  of  the  total.  Patna  Division 
contains  forty-five  municipalities,  wnth  an  aggregate  population  of 
910,026  ;  total  municipal  income  (1883-84),  ^45,136,  of  which  ;£34,309 
was  derived  from  taxation  ;  average  incidence  of  taxation,  9d.  per  head 
of  the  municipal  population.  The  Census  Report  thus  classifies  the 
44,591  towns  and  villages —  23,037  villages  contain  less  than  two 
hundred  inhabitants;  13,413  from  two  to  five  hundred;  5890  from  five 
hundred  to  a  thousand;  1819  from  one  to  two  thousand;  291  from 
two  to  three  thousand ;  84  from  three  to  five  thousand ;  33  from  five 
to  ten  thousand;  11  from  ten  to  fifteen  thousand;  and  13  upwards  of 
fifteen  thousand. 

As  regards  occupation,  the  male  population  are  thus  returned — ■ 
(i)  Professional  class,  including  all  military  and  civil  officials,  89,595; 
(2)  domestic  class,  271,588;  (3)  commercial  class,  215,967;  (4)  agri- 
cultural and  pastoral  class,  2,614,109  ;  (5)  manufacturing  and  industrial 
class,  494,040;  (6)  indefinite  and  non-productive  class,  comprising 
general  labourers  and  male  children,  3,682,886. 

Adnwiictration. — The  six  main  items  of  Government  revenue  in 
1883-84  aggregated  ;^i, 404,091,  made  iip  as  follows: — Land  revenue, 
;^8ii,6o7;  excise,  ^270,748;  stamps,  ^^169,165;  registradon, 
^^16,362;  road  cess,  ;^ioi,90o;  and  municipal  taxes,  ;£^34,309.  The 
charges  for  civil  administration,  as  represented  by  the  cost  of  the 
officials  and  police,  amounted  in  1883-84  to  ^^2 13,041.     The  land 



revenue  is  derived  from  4g,2gy  estates,  held  by  361,399  individual 
registered  proprietors;  average  land  revenue  paid  by  each  estate, 
;^i6,  9s.  4d.  ;  by  each  proprietor,  ^2,  4s.  lod.  The  Division  contains 
49  civil  and  71  criminal  courts,  with  80  police  circles  {Ihdnds).  Strength 
of  regular  and  municipal  police,  4518  men,  besides  a  rural  police  or 
village  watch  of  30,433  chaukiddrs. 

Patna. — British  District  in  the  Lieutenant-Governorship  of  Bengal, 
lying  between  24°  58'  and  25°  42'  n.  lat.,  and  between  84°  44'  and 
86°  5'  E.  long.  Area,  2079  square  miles.  Population  (18S1)  1,756,856. 
Patna  forms  the  south  central  District  of  the  Patna  Division.  It  is 
bounded  on  the  north  by  the  river  Ganges,  which  separates  it  from 
Saran,  Muzaffarpur,  and  Darbhangah;  on  the  east  by  Monghyr;  on  the 
south  by  Gaya;  and  on  the  west  by  the  river  Son  (Soane),  which 
separates  it  from  Shahabad  District.  The  chief  town  is  Patna,  which 
adjoins  on  the  east  the  administrative  head-quarters  at  Baxkipur,  and 
is  situated  on  the  south  or  right  bank  of  the  Ganges. 

Physical  Aspects. — Patna  District  is,  throughout  the  greater  part  of  its 
extent,  a  dead  level ;  but  towards  the  south  the  ground  rises  into  hills. 
The  soil  is  for  the  most  part  alluvial ;  and  the  country  along  the  bank  of 
the  Ganges  is  peculiarly  fertile,  producing  the  finest  crops  of  all  descrip- 
tions. The  general  line  of  drainage  is  from  west  to  east ;  and  high 
ground  along  the  south  of  the  Ganges  forces  back  the  rivers  flowing 
from  the  District  of  Gaya.  The  result  is  that,  during  the  rains,  nearly 
the  whole  interior  of  the  District  south  of  a  line  drawn  i^arallel  to  the 
Ganges,  and  4  or  5  miles  from  its  bank,  is  flooded.  There  are  no 
forests  or  jungles  of  any  extent,  but  fine  groups  of  trees  are  found  in 
many  places.  In  the  south-east  the  District  is,  for  some  30  miles, 
divided  from  Gaya  by  the  Rajagriha  Hills,  which  consist  of  two 
parallel  ridges  running  south-west,  with  a  narrow  valley  between,  inter- 
sected by  ravines  and  passes.  These  hills,  which  seldom  exceed  1000 
feet  in  height,  are  rocky  and  clothed  w^ith  thick  low  jungle.  They 
possess  a  special  interest  for  the  antiquary,  as  containing  some  of 
the  earliest  memorials  of  fjuddhism.  To  the  north  of  this  ridge 
rises  an  isolated  hill,  which,  being  composed  of  the  same  materials  as 
the  Rajagriha  Hills,  may  be  considered  as  an  outlying  spur  of  that 
range ;  it  has  been  identified  by  General  Cunningham  with  the 
*  Kapotika '  of  Hiuen  Tsiang.  Hot  springs  are  common  on  the 
Rajagriha  Hills. 

The  chief  rivers  of  Patna  are  the  Ganges  and  the  Son  (Soane), 
which  form,  as  has  been  said,  the  northern  and  western  boundaries  of 
the  District  respectively.  The  total  length  of  the  Ganges  along  the 
boundary  of  Patna  District  is  93  miles.  The  Son  first  touches  the  Dis- 
trict near  Mahibalipur  village,  and  flows  in  a  northerly  direction  for  41 
miles,  till  it  joins  the  Ganges ;  during  this  part  of  its  course  it  receives 


no  tributaries.  The  Patna  Canal  (^/.z\),  one  of  the  most  important 
branches  of  the  Son  Canal  system,  passes  through  the  west  of  the 
District.  The  only  other  river  of  any  consequence  is  the  Punpun,  which, 
though  described  as  one  of  the  navigable  rivers  of  Bengal,  is  in  this 
District  chiefly  remarkable  for  the  number  of  petty  irrigation  canals 
which  it  supplies  with  water.  So  much  of  the  river  is  thus  diverted, 
that  only  a  small  portion  of  its  water  ever  reaches  the  Ganges.  The 
course  of  the  Punpun  is  north-easterly  until  it  reaches  Naubatpur, 
where  it  takes  a  bend  to  the  east,  crossing  the  Patna  and  Gaya 
Railway  about  9  miles  from  Bankipur,  and  joins  the  Ganges  at  Fatwa. 
The  total  length  of  the  Punpun  in  this  District  is  stated  to  be  54 
miles ;  about  9  miles  from  its  junction  with  the  Ganges,  it  is  joined 
by  the  Murhar.  Great  changes  have  from  time  to  time  taken  place 
in  the  course  of  the  Ganges,  and  the  point  at  which  the  Son  joined 
this  river  was  once  several  miles  east  of  its  present  position  {see 

Forests,  jungles,  marshes,  or  pasturage  grounds,  do  not  exist  in 
Patna  District,  which  is  cultivated  over  almost  its  entire  area.  The 
mineral  products  consist  of  building  stone,  which  may  be  dug  from 
the  hill  at  Behar;  silajit,  a  medicinal  substance  which  exudes  from 
the  rock  at  Tapoban  and  Rajgir ;  ka?ikar  or  calcareous  limestone ;  and 
saline  efflorescence. 

Large  game  is  not  abundant  in  Patna  District,  there  being  no  jungles 
except  on  the  Rajagriha  Hills.  Among  these  hills  bears  are  found. 
Wolves  and  jackals  are  common,  hyaenas  are  sometimes  seen,  and  the 
small  Indian  fox  is  not  unknown ;  a  leopard  was  killed  near  Behar 
town  in  1876.  Of  smaller  game,  duck,  quail,  and  ortolan  are  abundant; 
and  partridges  and  wild  geese  are  also  found.  Birds  of  prey  are 
numerous,  and  hawking  was  formerly  a  favourite  amusement  among 
rich  natives. 

History. — The  history  of  Patna  District  is  so  intimately  interwoven 
with  that  of  Patna  City  that  it  is  unnecessary  to  anticipate  what  the 
reader  will  find  in  the  historical  sections  of  that  article.  The  District 
possesses  special  interest,  both  for  the  historian  and  the  archaeologist. 
Patna  City  has  been  identified  with  Pataliputra  (the  Palibothra  of 
Megasthenes),  which  is  supposed  to  have  been  founded  six  hundred 
years  before  the  Christian  era  by  Raja  Ajata  Satru,  a  contemporary  of 
Gautama,  the  founder  of  the  Buddhist  religion ;  and  in  the  south- 
eastern portion  of  the  District  are  found  some  of  the  earliest  remains 
of  Buddhism.  Here,  too,  is  situated  the  town  of  Behar,  the  early 
Muhammadan  capital  which  gave  its  name  to  the  Province;  and 
throughout  the  District  are  places  which  were  visited  and  have  been 
described  by  the  Chinese  Buddhist  pilgrims,  Fa-Hian  and  Hiuen 
Tsiang.      The  name  of  Patna  is  derived  from  patana^  literally  ^  the 


town  ' ;  and  Behar  is  simply  the  vernacular  form  of  the  Sanskrit  vihdra, 
""a  Buddhist  monastery. 

i^"  In  the  modern  history  of  the  District,  two  events  of  special  interest 
to  Englishmen  stand  prominently  out,  and  demand  separate  notice. 
The  one  is  known  as  "the  Massacre  of  Patna  (1763),  and  the  other  is 
the  outbreak  of  the  Sepoy  Mutiny  of  1857.  The  former  occurrence, 
which  may  be  said  to  have  sealed  the  fate  of  Muhammadan  rule  in 
Bengal,  was  the  result  of  a  quarrel  between  Mir  Kasim,  at  that  time 
Nawab  of  Murshidabad,  and  the  English  authorities.  The  Nawab, 
after  much  negotiation,  had  agreed  to  a  convention  which  was  also 
accepted  by  Mr.  Vansittart,  the  Governor,  that  a  transit  duty  of  only  9 
per  cent,  should  be  paid  by  Englishmen,  which  was  far  below  the  rate 
exacted  from  other  traders.  This  Convention,  however,  was  repudiated 
by  the  Council  at  Calcutta,  and  Mir  Kasim,  in  retaliation,  resolved  to 
abandon  all  duties  whatever  on  the  transit  of  goods,  and  to  throw  the 
trade  of  the  country  perfecdy  open — a  measure  still  less  agreeable  to 
the  Company's  servants. 

In  April  1763,  a  deputation,  consisting  of  Messrs.  Hay  and  Amyatt, 
was  despatched  from  Calcutta  to  Monghyr,  where  the  Nawdb  had 
taken  up  his  residence ;  but  it  was  now  too  late  for  negotiation. 
Numerous  and  fierce  disputes  had  arisen  between  the  giimdshtds 
of  the  English  and  the  Muhammadan  officers  ;  and  there  was  much 
hot  blood  on  both  sides.  An  occurrence  which  happened  at  Monghyr, 
while  Messrs.  Hay  and  Amyatt  were  there,  hastened  the  rupture.  Mir 
Kasim  seized  and  detained  some  boat-loads  of  arms  which  were  passino- 
up  the  Ganges  to  Patna,  on  the  ground  that  the  arms  were  destined 
to  be  used  against  himself.  On  the  24th  June,  Mr.  Ellis,  the  Com- 
pany's chief  of  the  factory  at  Patna,  ordered  his  sepoys  to  occupy 
Patna  city,  which  was  done  the  following  morning.  In  reven^^e,  the 
Nawab  sent  a  force  in  pursuit  of  Mr.  Amyatt,  who  had  been  allowed 
to  return  to  Calcutta,  Mr.  Hay  having  been  detained  as  a  hostage. 
Mr.  Amyatt  w^as  overtaken  and  murdered  near  Kasimbazar.  In  the 
meantime  the  Company's  sepoys,  who  had  been  plundering  the  city, 
were  driven  back  to  the  factory  by  the  Muhammadans  at  Patna,  a 
large  number  of  them  being  killed.  The  remainder,  only  about  300 
out  of  2000  men,  after  being  besieged  for  two  days  and  nights, 
tied  in  their  boats  to  the  frontier  of  Oudh,  where  they  ultimately  laid 
down  their  arms.  They  were  then  brought  back  to  Patna,  to  which 
place  had  been  conveyed  Mr.  Hay  from  Monghyr,  the  entire  staff  of 
the  Kasimbazar  factory,  who  had  also  been  arrested  at  the  first  out- 
break of  hostilities,  and  some  other  prisoners. 

As  soon  as  regular  warfare  commenced,  however,  Mir  Kasim's  successes 

came  to  an  end.     He  was  defeated  in  two  battles  by  Major  Adams at 

Gheria  on  the  2nd  August,  and  at  Udha-nala  on  the  5th  September. 


These  defeats  roused  Mir  Kasim  to  exasperation,  and  on  the  9th 
September  he  wrote  to  Major  Adams  :  '  If  you  are  resolved  to  proceed 
in  this  business,  know  for  a  certainty  that  I  will  cut  off  the  heads  of 
Mr.  Ellis  and  the  rest  of  your  chiefs,  and  send  them  to  you.'  This 
threat  he  carried  out,  with  the  help  of  a  Swiss  renegade  Samru  (whose 
original  name  had  been  Walter  Reinhardt),  on  the  evening  of  the  6th 
October.  Mr.  Ellis  and  others,  according  to  a  contemporary  letter, 
were  decoyed  one  by  one  out  of  the  room  where  they  were  drinking 
tea  at  seven  o'clock,  and  instantly  cut  down.  The  remainder  took 
alarm,  and  defended  themselves  as  best  they  could  with  bottles  and 
plates,  their  knives  and  forks  having  been  already  removed.  About 
60  Englishmen  were  thus  murdered,  their  bodies  being  thrown  into 
a  well  in  the  compound  of  the  house  in  which  they  were  confined. 
It  is  said  that  200  Englishmen  were  killed  at  this  time  throughout 

On  the  news  of  the  massacre  reaching  Calcutta,  a  general  deep 
mourning  was  ordered  for  the  space  of  fourteen  days,  and  minute- 
guns  were  fired  from  the  fort  and  the  fleet.  A  lakh  of  rupees 
(;£io,ooo)  was  offered  for  the  person  of  Mir  Kasim,  and  ^4000  for 
Samru.  The  subsequent  war  with  the  Wazir  of  Oudh,  which  was 
prolonged  till  May  1765,  was  to  some  extent  occasioned  by  the 
refusal  of  the  Wazi'r  to  surrender  these  persons,  who  had  placed 
themselves  under  his  protection.  Mir  Kasim  is  said  to  have  died  in 
great  indigence  at  Delhi. 

Samru  took  refuge  with  a  succession  of  new  masters,  and  was  ulti- 
mately presented  with  the  jagir  of  Sardhana  in  Meerut  District ;  he 
died  at  Agra  in  1778,  leaving  as  his  widow  and  heir  the  notorious 
Begam  Samru.  This  lady  endeavoured  in  her  old  age  to  make  amends 
by  charities  for  a  long  life  of  wickedness.  She  died  in  1834,  and  by 
her  will  she  devoted  ^15,000  to  the  foundation  of  a  Clergy  Fund  and 
Poor  Fund ;  and  her  name  now  stands  first  in  Archdeacon  Pratt's 
'  Endowments  of  the  Diocese  of  Calcutta.'  The  litigation  connected 
with  her  property  was  not  finally  settled  till  more  than  a  third  of  a 
century  after  her  death. 

The  other  important  event  in  the  modern  history  of  the  District  is 
the  outbreak  of  the  Mutiny  at  Dinapur,  the  military  station  attached 
to  Patna  city.  For  a  full  account  of  the  events  connected  with  the 
outbreak,  the  reader  must  be  referred  to  the  history  of  the  period; 
only  a  very  brief  narrative  can  be  given  here.  The  three  Sepoy 
regiments  at  Dinapur  in  1857  were  the  7th,  8th,  and  40th  Native 
Infantry,  regarding  whom  General  Lloyd,  commanding  at  Dinapur, 
wrote  expressing  his  confidence.  They  were  accordingly  not  dis- 
armed ;  but  as  the  excitement  increased  throughout  Behar,  and  stronger 
measures  seemed  in  the  opinon  of  the  Commissioner,  Mr.  Tayler,  to 



be  necessary,  the  General,  while  still  apparently  relying  on  the  trust- 
worthiness of  the  men,  was  unwilling  to  disregard  the  remonstrances 
of  the  European  residents,  and  in  July  made  a  half-hearted  attempt 
at  disarming  the  Sepoys.  The  result  was  that  the  three  regiments 
revolted  and  went  off  in  a  body,  taking  with  them  their  arms  and 
accoutrements,  but  not  their  uniforms.  Some  took  to  the  Ganges, 
where  their  boats  were  fired  into  and  run  down  by  a  steamer  which  was 
present,  and  their  occupants  shot  or  drowned.  But  the  majority  were 
wiser,  and  hastened  to  the  river  Son,  crossing  which  they  found  them- 
selves safe  in  Shahabad,  a  friendly  country,  with  nothing  to  oppose 
them  but  a  handful  of  civilians,  indigo-planters,  and  railway  engineers, 
with  a  few  Sikh  soldiers,  who  might  or  might  not  prove  faithful  to  their 

The  story  of  what  took  place  in  Shahabad  will  be  found  in  the  article 
on  Shahabad  District.  The  news  that  the  rebels,  headed  by  Kunwdr 
(or  Kudr)  Singh,  the  natural  leader  of  the  Rajputs  of  Behar,  had  sur- 
rounded the  Europeans  at  Arrah,  reached  Bankipur  about  the  same 
time  that  the  Commissioner  was  informed  of  the  assassination  of  Major 
Holmes  and  his  wife  at  Sagauh',  in  Champaran,  by  his  regiment  of 
irregular  horse,  in  whom  he  had  rashly  placed  implicit  trust.  An 
attempt  was  made  to  rescue  the  Europeans  at  Arrah,  but  ill-luck 
attended  the  effort.  A  steamer,  which  was  sent  on  the  2  7ch  up  the 
river  from  Dinapur,  stuck  on  a  sandbank.  Another  steamer  was 
started  on  the  29th  ;  but  the  expedition  was  grossly  mismanaged. 
While  there  was  abundance  of  food  on  board,  the  men  wTre  left  fasting. 
They  were  landed  at  the  nearest  point  to  Arrah  at  about  7  p.m.;  and 
though  the  men  were  tired  and  hungry,  they  were  pushed  on  till  they 
fell  into  an  ambuscade  about  midnight.  The  commander  of  the 
expedition.  Captain  Dunbar,  was  speedily  shot  down.  The  enemy  were 
concealed  in  a  mango  grove,  while  the  European  troops,  marching  on  a 
raised  causeway,  were  terribly  exposed.  All  was  soon  in  confusion. 
When  morning  dawned,  a  disastrous  retreat  had  to  be  commenced  by 
the  survivors  of  this  ill-fated  expedition.  The  enemy  were  all  round 
them,  the  retreat  became  a  rout,  and  had  not  the  ammunition  of  the 
insurgents  run  short,  hardly  an  Englishman  would  have  escaped.  As 
it  was,  out  of  the  400  men  who  had  left  Dinapur,  fully  half  were  left 
behind  ;  and  of  the  survivors,  only  about  50  returned  unwounded. 

But  disastrous  as  was  the  retreat,  it  was  not  disgraceful.  Individual 
acts  of  heroism  saved  the  honour  of  the  British  character.  Two 
volunteers,  Mr.  M'Donell  and  Mr.  Ross  Mangles,  both  of  the  Civil 
Service,  besides  doing  excellent  service  on  the  march,  made  themselves 
remarkable  by  acts  of  conspicuous  daring.  The  former,  though  wounded, 
was  one  of  the  last  men  to  enter  the  boats.  The  insurgents  had  taken 
the  oars  of  his  boat  and   had  lashed  the  rudder,  so  that  though  the 

VOL.  XI.  G 


wind  was  favourable  for  retreat,  the  current  carried  the  boat  back  to 
the  river  bank.  Thirty-five  soldiers  were  in  the  boat,  sheltered  from 
fire  by  the  usual  thatch  covering ;  but  while  the  rudder  was  fixed,  the 
inmates  remained  at  the  mercy  of  the  enemy.  At  this  crisis,  Mr. 
M'Donell  stepped  out  from  the  shelter,  climbed  on  to  the  roof  of  the 
boat,  perched  himself  on  the  rudder  and  cut  the  lashings,  amidst  a 
storm  of  bullets  from  the  contiguous  bank.  Strangely  enough,  not  a 
ball  struck  him  ;  the  rudder  was  loosened,  the  boat  answered  to  the 
helm,  and  by  Mr.  M'Donell's  brilliant  act  the  crew  were  saved  from 
certain  destruciion.  Mr.  Ross  Mangles'  conduct  was  equally  heroic. 
During  the  retreat,  a  soldier  was  struck  down  near  him.  He  stopped, 
lifted  the  man  on  to  his  back,  and  though  he  had  frequently  to  rest  on 
the  way,  he  managed  to  carry  the  wounded  man  for  6  miles  till  he 
reached  the  stream.  He  then  swam  with  his  helpless  burden  to  a  boat, 
in  which  he  deposited  him  in  safety.  Both  these  civilians  afterwards 
received  the  Victoria  Cross  as  a  reward  for  their  heroism. 

Population. — Several  early  estimates  have  been  made  of  the  popula- 
tion of  Patna  District ;  among  them,  one  by  Dr.  Buchanan-Hamilton 
in  1807,  which  is  interesting  as  corresponding  in  a  remarkable  degree 
with  the  results  obtained  by  the  Census  of  1872.  He  estimated  the 
population  of  nine  police  circles,  which  nearly  correspond  with  the 
present  area  of  the  District,  at  1,308,270  souls.  In  1857  it  was 
estimated  at  1,200,000;  and  a  later  calculation  reduced  this  figure  to 
900,000.  The  first  regular  Census  in  1872  disclosed  a  total  population 
of  1,559,638  persons.  The  latest  enumeration  in  188 1  returned  the 
population  of  Patna  District  at  1,756,856,  showing  an  increase  of 
197,218,  or  12*64  per  cent.,  above  that  returned  by  the  Census  of 
1872.  The  pressure  of  the  population  on  the  soil  is  greater  in  Patna 
(845  per  square  mile)  than  in  any  District  of  Bengal  Proper,  except 
the  metropolitan  District  of  the  Twenty-Four  Parganas  and  the  suburban 
District  of  Howrah ;  and  very  little  less  than  in  the  adjacent  Bchar 
District  of  Saran  (869  per  square  mile). 

The  results  of  the  Census  of  1881  may  be  summarized  as  fol- 
lows : — Area  of  District,  2079  square  miles,  with  11  towns  and  5624 
villages,  and  319,167  houses,  of  which  279,455  were  occupied.  Total 
population,  1,756.856,  namely,  males  858,783,  and  females  898,073; 
proportion  of  males,  48*9  per  cent.  Average  density  of  population, 
845  persons  per  square  mile;  towns  or  villages  per  square  mile,  271  ; 
persons  per  town  or  village,  312,  or  excluding  the  11  towns,  252; 
houses  per  square  mile,  i53'5;  inmates  per  house,  6*3.  Classified 
according  to  age  and  sex,  the  population  consists  of — under  15  years 
of  age,  boys  330,872,  and  girls  321,670;  total  children,  652,542, 
or  37-1  per  cent,  of  the  population:  15  years  and  upwards,  males 
527,911,  and  females  576,403;  total  adults,  1,104,314,  or  62-9  per  cent. 



HeligioiL — Classified  according  to  religion,  the  population  consists  of 
— Hindus,  1,541,061,  or  8771  per  cent,  of  the  total  population  of  the 
District;  Muhammadans,  213,141,  or  12-13  P^r  cent.;  Christians, 
2588;  Brahmos,  16;  Jains,  22;  Jews,  14;  Parsi,  i;  and  'others,'  13. 
Of  high-caste  Hindus,  there  are  47,041  Brahmans  and  64,332  Rajputs. 
Ranking  next  after  these  two  castes  are  the  Babhans,  who  are  very 
numerous  throughout  the  Patna  Division,  and  number  in  this  District 
121,381.  Their  origin  is  much  disputed.  They  claim  in  Patna  to  be 
Sarivarid  Brdhmans,  and  they  are  also  called  Bhuinhar,  and  zani'ui- 
ddri  or  military  Brahmans.  Intermediate  castes  include  Baniyas, 
34,538  ;  and  Kayasths,  29,864.  Among  the  lower  or  Sudra  castes,  the 
most  numerous  are  the  Goalas  or  Ahi'rs,  the  great  herdsman  class,  of 
whom  there  are  217,845;  and  the  Kiirmis,  the  principal  agricultural 
caste,  who  number  194,222.  Other  Hindu  castes  include — Dosadh, 
99,976  ;  Koeri,  86,738  ;  Kahar,  85,824  ;  Chamar,  56,867  ;  Teli, 
52,880;  Pasi,  37,146;  Musahar,  36,858;  Dhanuk,  36,530;  Kandu, 
32,177;  Ncipit,  29,165;  Barhai,  26,360;  Kumbhar,  24,069;  Sonar, 
23,313;  Mallah,  19,099;  Dhobi,  13,534;  Nuniya,  12,389;  Tatwa, 
12,333;  Madak,  10,148;  Kalwar,  8749;  Gararia,  8355;  Lobar,  8131  ; 
Sunri,  7899;  Tanti,  7158;  Mali,  561 1;  Dom,  5594;  and  Tambuli, 
5024.  The  total  number  of  Hindus  in  the  District  who  do  not 
recognise  caste  is  4791. 

The  Wahabi's  form  the  most  interesting  section  of  the  Musalman 
communit5\  They  are  a  numerous  body  (although  only  27  returned 
themselves  as  such  at  the  time  of  the  last  Census),  among  whom 
are  said  to  be  included  a  few  wealthy  traders,  though  the  majority 
belong  to  the  lower  classes.  IMany  of  them  are  fanatical  in  their 
opposition  to  both  Sunnis  and  Shias,  though  Wahabi-ism  is  really 
but_  a  branch  of  the  Sunni  faith.  Patna  was  first  visited  by  Sayyid 
Ahmad,  the  leader  of  the  Wahabi  movement  in  India,  about  the  year 
1820.  The  Patna  Wahabi's  were  involved  in  treasonable  practices  in 
1864-65  ;  eleven  persons  were  arrested  and  sentenced  to  transportation. 
For  the  Wahabi  movement  and  State  Trials,  see  the  present  author's 
India?i  Musalindns^  3rd  ed.  p.  105,  etc. 

The  Christians,  according  to  the  Census  of  iSSr,  number  2588,  or 
•15  per  cent,  of  *the  total  population.  E^uropeans  number  1539, 
including  the  troops  at  Dinapur;  Eurasians,  366;  natives  of  India, 
420 ;  and  '  others,'  263.  By  sect,  the  Christians  include — Church  of 
England,  1265  ;  Protestants,  without  distinction  of  sect,  321  ;  Roman 
Catholics,  640;  Church  of  Scotland,  71;  Baptists,  63;  Methodists, 
62  ;  and  '  others,'  166. 

Toivn  and  Rural  Population.  —  Ten  municipal  towns  in  Patna 
District  contain  a  population  exceeding  five  thousand  inhabitants — 
Patna  City,  population  (1881)  170,654;  Beiiar,  48,968;  Dixapur, 


37,893  ;  Barh,  14,689  ;  Khagaul,  14,075  ;  Mukama,  13,052  ;  Faiwa, 
10,919  ;  Muhammadpur,  8479  •  Kaikunthpur,  6424;  and  Rasulpur- 
MoNER,  5769.  Nawada  (population  3323)  is  also  a  municipality. 
Total  urban  population,  334,245,  or  19  per  cent.,  leaving  1,422,611, 
or  81  per  cent.,  as  the  rural  population  of  the  District.  Detailed 
accounts  of  the  above  mentioned  towns  will  be  found  under  their 
respective  names.  The  municipalities  of  the  District  contain  a  total 
population  of  336,842  ;  municipal  income  (1883-84),  ;£i6,9i3,  of 
which  ^13,879  was  derived  from  taxation ;  average  incidence  of 
taxation,  9|d.  per  head.  Patna  city,  in  which  the  whole  interest  and 
importance  of  the  District,  and,  indeed,  of  the  Division,  centres,  is, 
after  Calcutta,  the  largest  river-mart  in  Bengal.  It  forms  a  busy 
changing-station,  where  the  piece-goods,  salt,  and  miscellaneous  manu- 
factures of  Europe  which  come  up  from  Calcutta  by  rail  are  trans- 
ferred into  country  boats  to  be  distributed  throughout  the  neighbour- 
ing tracts,  and  where  the  agricultural  produce  of  a  wide  area  is  collected 
for  despatch  to  the  seaboard.  Trade,  however,  has  decreased  of  late 
years,  since  the  opening  of  the  Tirhiit  and  Gaya  lines  of  railway  have 
rendered  w^arehousing  at  Patna  unnecessary.  Reference  has  already 
been  made  to  the  historical  interest  of  the  city,  and  to  its  identification 
with  the  ancient  Pataliputra.  The  civil  station  of  Bankipur  and  the 
military  cantonment  of  Dinapur  are  situated  within  a  few  miles  of 
the  city  of  Patna  proper.  Among  the  numerous  places  of  historic 
interest  in  the  District  may  be  mentioned  : — Rajagriha  or  Rajgir,  the 
site  of  the  capital  of  the  ancient  kingdom  of  Magadha ;  the  hills  of 
the  same  name,  with  their  Buddhist  remains ;  Giriyak,  a  place  full 
of  archaeological  interest ;  and  Sherpur,  the  scene  of  a  large  fair, — 
all  of  which  see  separately. 

Of  the  5635  towns  and  villages  in  Patna  District,  3301  contain 
less  than  two  hundred  inhabitants;  1609  from  two  to  five  hundred; 
561  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand  ;  129  from  one  to  two  thousand; 
18  from  two  to  three  thousand;  7  from  three  to  five  thousand; 
3  from  five  to  ten  thousand ;  4  from  ten  to  fifteen  thousand ;  and  3 
upwards  of  fifteen  thousand  inhabitants. 

As  regards  occupation,  the  Census  classifies  the  male  population  of 
the  Districts  into  six  main  divisions  as  follow — (i)  Professional  class, 
including  all  Government  servants,  civil  and  military,  16,804;  (2) 
domestic  servants,  inn  and  lodging-house  keepers,  etc.,  49,408  ;  (3) 
commercial  class,  including  bankers,  merchants,  traders,  carriers,  etc., 
35,585;  (4)  agricultural  and  pastoral  class,  including  gardeners,  233,950; 

(5)  manufacturing  and  industrial  class,  including  all  artisans,   76,230; 

(6)  indefinite  and  non-productive  class,  comprising  general  labourers 
and  male  children,  446,806. 

Agriculture. — Rice,  which  forms  the  staple  of  the  District,  is  divided 


into  two  great  crops — the  kartika  or  early  rice,  sown  broadcast  in  June 
or  July,  and  reaped  in  October  or  November;  and  the  ag/uini  or  winter 
rice,  sown  after  the  commencement  of  the  rains,  and  reaped  in  November 
or  December.  The  boro  or  spring  rice  is  also  cultivated  to  a  limited 
extent,  being  sown  in  November  or  December,  and  reaped  in  April 
or  May.  By  far  the  most  important  of  these  is  the  aghdni  crop,  of 
which  46  varieties  are  named.  This  rice  is  sown  broadcast  on  land 
which  has  been  previously  i)loughed  three  or  four  times ;  and  after  a 
month  or  six  weeks,  when  the  seedlings  are  about  a  foot  high,  they 
are  generally  transplanted.  The  crop  requires  irrigation.  Among  the 
other  principal  crops  of  the  District  are  wheat  and  barley,  Indian 
corn  {;nakdi),  khesdri^  gram,  peas,  cotton,  tobacco,  sugar-cane,  a  little 
mustard,  several  other  oil-producing  plants,  and  poppy.  The  last- 
named  crop  is  one  of  the  most  important  in  the  District,  and  will  be 
referred  to  in  detail  in  another  section  of  this  article  (infra).  All  the 
poppy  grown  in  the  Province  of  Behar  is  manufactured  at  Patna  city ; 
and  the  area  cultivated  with  poppy  in  Patna  District  amounted  in  1881-82 
to  25,314  acres.  The  out-turn  in  that  year  was  177  tons;  average 
produce  per  acre,  about  10  lbs.  The  rent  of  early  rice  lands  producing 
also  a  second  crop  varies  from  8s.  to  12s.  pd.  an  acre;  that  of  late  or 
winter  rice  lands,  which  produce  in  general  one  crop  only,  from  9s.  6d. 
to  19s.  an  acre.  All  lands  are  irrigated,  wherever  possible;  rotation  of 
crops  is  not  practised,  except  in  the  case  of  sugar-cane,  which  is  never 
grown  on  the  same  field  in  two  successive  years. 

Wages  are  low  in  Patna,  as  compared  with  Bengal  generally.  Day- 
labourers  receive  3d.  a  day ;  agricultural  labourers  are  paid  in  grain, 
representing  a  money  wage  of  about  id.  a  day;  smiths  and  carpenters 
earn  from  3|d.  to  6d.  a  day.  Prices  are  said  to  have  increased  during 
the  last  twenty  or  thirty  years,  but  the  early  figures  are  not  available. 
The  price  of  the  best  cleaned  rice  in  1870-71  was  6s.  lod.  a  cwt., 
and  of  common  rice,  4s.  id.  In  1883-84,  prices  of  food  were  higher 
than  usual,  owing  to  scanty  crops  due  to  unequal  distribution  of  the 
rainfall.  The  average  price  of  common  rice  throughout  the  year  was 
i6^th  sers  per  rupee,  or  6s.  6Jd.  per  cwt.;  and  of  wheat,  i9}fth  sers 
per  rupee,  or  5s.  7d.  per  cwt. 

Natural  Calamities.  —  Patna  is  subject  to  blights,  floods,  and 
droughts.  Blights  occur  seldom,  and  on  a  small  scale.  Floods  are 
caused  by  the  overflowing  of  the  Ganges  and  the  Son  (Soane) ;  they 
are  of  frequent  occurrence,  but  usually  cause  only  partial  damage.  In 
1842  and  1869,  however,  inundations  caused  extensive  loss.  The 
District  was  affected  by  the  famine  of  1866,  but  not  to  any  serious 
extent ;  the  maximum  price  of  the  best  cleaned  rice  in  that  year  was 
15s.  per  cwt.,  and  of  common  rice,  9s.  6d.  Long-continued  drought 
during  the  rainy  season,  followed  by  an  almost  total  loss  of  rice  in  the 


winter  harvest  and  absence  of  rain  when  the  spring  crop  is  being 
sown,  should,  according  to  an  official  statement  made  in  187 1,  be  con- 
sidered as  a  warning  of  impending  famine.  If  paddy  were  to  sell  in 
January  or  February  at  from  3s.  6d.  to  4s.  3d.  per  cwt.,  it  would  be  an 
indication  of  the  approach  of  famine  later  in  the  year.  There  are 
abundant  facilities  for  the  importation  of  grain  in  case  of  distress. 

Co?n7?ie?'ce  and  Trade,  etc. — The  trade  of  the  District  centres  in  Patna 
city,  which  is,  as  has  been  already  stated,  riext  to  Calcutta,  the  largest 
river-mart  in  Bengal.  Its  central  position  near  the  junction  of  three 
great  rivers,  the  Son,  the  Gandak,  and  the  Ganges,  where  the  traffic 
of  the  North-Western  Provinces  meets  that  of  Bengal,  gives  it  great 
natural  advantages.  It  is  also  conveniently  situated  for  the  purpose 
of  transport,  either  by  river  or  railway,  having  a  river  frontage  during 
the  rains  of  from  7  to  8  miles,  and  in  the  dry  months  of  4  miles. 
The  trade  statistics  will  be  found  in  the  article  on  Patna  City. 
The  total  length  of  District  and  Provincial  roads  is  454  miles  ;  total 
annual  expenditure  on  all  roads  under  the  Department  of  Public 
Works,  ^9607.  The  East  Indian  Railway  traverses  the  whole  length 
of  the  District,  entering  it  west  of  Barhiya  station,  and  leaving  it  at  the 
Son  bridge,  a  distance  of  86  miles.  During  the  scarcity  of  1873-74, 
siding  lines  were  laid  down  at  Fatwa,  Barh,  and  Mukama,  to  assist  in 
the  transport  of  grain.  Of  these  the  one  at  Barh  still  remains,  but  the 
others  have  been  taken  up.  Three  newspapers  are  published  at  Patna ; 
the  most  important  is  the  Beha?-  Herald,  appearing  weekly,  and  con- 
ducted by  the  native  pleaders  of  the  Patna  bar. 

Opium  Alamifachire. — Patna  is  one  of  the  two  places  in  British  India 
where  opium  is  manufactured  by  Government.  The  cultivation  of  the 
poppy  is  confined  to  the  large  central  Gangetic  tract,  about  600  miles  in 
length  and  250  miles  in  breadth  ;  it  extends  on  the  north  to  the  borders 
of  Nepal,  on  the  east  to  Bhagalpur,  on  the  south  to  Hazaribagh,  and  on 
the  west  to  Bareli  District  in  the  North-Western  Provinces.  This  tract 
is  divided  into  the  two  agencies  of  Behar  and  Benares,  the  former  being 
under  the  charge  of  an  agent  stationed  at  Bankipur,  and  the  latter 
of  an  agent  at  Ghazipur ;  both  agencies  are  under  the  control 
of  the  Board  of  Revenue  in  Calcutta.  In  the  Behar  Agency  in 
1881-82,  poppy  was  cultivated  on  an  area  of  297,162  acres,  which 
yielded  an  out-turn  of  1816  tons  of  opium.  The  Benares  Agency, 
including  the  Oudh  tract,  into  which  poppy  cultivation  has  recently 
been  introduced,  had,  in  1881-82,  an  area  of  249,049  acres  under 
poppy,  which  yielded  an  out-turn  of  1896-^  tons  of  opium.  The 
poppy  cultivated  is  exclusively  the  white  variety  (Papaver  somniferum 
album),  and  the  crop  requires  great  attention.  The  ground  having 
been  carefully  prepared,  the  seed  is  sown  broadcast  in  November ;  and 
by  February  the  plant  is  generally  in  full  flower,  having  reached  a  height 


of  from  3  to  4  feet.  Towards  the  middle  of  that  month  the  petals  are 
stripped  off;  and  four  or  five  days  after  their  removal,  when  the  capsules 
have  attained  their  utmost  development,  the  collection  of  the  juice 
commences — a  process  which  extends  from  about  the  20th  of  February 
to  the  25th  of  March.  A  detailed  account  of  the  cultivation  of  the 
plant  and  the  manufacture  of  the  drug  would  occuj^y  more  space  than 
can  be  here  given,  but  the  reader  will  find  the  subject  exhaustively 
dealt  with  in  TJie  Statistical  Account  of  Bengal,  vol.  xi.  pp.  146-154, 
where  the  i)rocesses  of  testing  and  examination,  and  the  usual  methods 
of  adulteration,  are  described.  The  amount  of  produce  from  various 
lands  differs  considerably.  Under  very  favourable  circumstances  of 
soil  and  season,  the  out-turn  per  acre  may  be  as  high  as  41  lbs.  of 
standard  opium  {i.e.  containing  70  j)er  cent,  of  pure  opium  and  30  per 
cent,  of  water),  paid  for  at  the  rate  of  5s.  per  lb.  ;  but  the  average  is 
from  10  to  16  lbs.  per  acre.  The  opium  is  made  up  into  cakes  weigh- 
ing about  4  lbs.,  and  containing  about  3  lbs.  of  standard  opium. 
These  cakes  are  packed  in  chests  (40  in  each),  and  sent  to  Calcutta 
for  exportation  to  China.  The  price  which  they  fetch  varies  every 
year;  the  average  for  the  five  years  ending  1882  was  ^129,  ics.  per 
chest,  the  cost  as  laid  down  in  Calcutta  being  ^35,  los.  The  varia- 
tions in  price  were  formerly  excessive,  but  the  Government  is  now 
careful  to  regulate  the  supply  according  to  the  demand. 

Administration. — It  is  difficult  to  compare  the  revenue  and  expendi- 
ture of  Patna  for  different  years,  because  not  only  do  the  balance-sheets 
contain  many  items  of  account  and  transfer,  but  the  changes  which 
have  taken  place  in  the  constitution  of  the  District  render  comparison 
misleading  or  impossible.  The  net  revenue  in  1870  was  ^230,998, 
and  the  civil  expenditure  ^72,228.  In  1877-78  the  revenue  amounted 
to  ^253,707.  In  1883-84  the  six  main  items  of  Government  revenue 
aggregated  ^290,758,  made  up  as  follows  : — Land  revenue,  ^£"146,054  ; 
excise,  ^78,854  ;  stamps,  ;£"33»297  ;  registration,  ^3204;  road  cess, 
^15,470;  municipal  taxes,  ^13,879.  The  civil  expenditure  of  the 
District,  as  shown  by  the  cost  of  officials  and  police,  amounted  in 
1883-84  to  ^64,826. 

The  land-tax  forms  by  far  the  most  important  item  of  revenue, 
amounting  in  1877-78  to  ^146,564,  or  57  per  cent,  of  the  total. 
Sub-division  of  estates  has  been  carried  out  to  a  remarkable  extent. 
In  1790  there  were  1232  separate  estates  on  the  rent-roll  of  Patna 
District  as  then  constituted,  held  by  1280  registered  proprietors  or 
coparceners  paying  revenue  direct  to  Government ;  the  total  land 
revenue  in  that  year  amounted  to  ;£43,343.  In  1800  the  number  of 
estates  had  already  increased  to  1813,  the  proprietors  to  1976,  and  the 
land  revenue  to  ;£5o,28o.  In  1850,  when  the  area  of  the  District  hod 
been    considerably  increased,    there   were    4795    estates   and    25,600 


registered  proprietors;  the  land  revenue  amounted  to  ^121,352,  or  an 
average  payment  of  ;£"25,  6s.  2d.  from  each  estate,  and  of  ;2f  4,  14s.  gd. 
from  each  proprietor  or  coparcener.  In  1866,  the  Sub-division  of 
Behar,  containing  796  estates,  was  attached  to  Patna;  and  in  1869,  19 
estates  were  transferred  from  Patnd  to  Tirhut.  IncUiding  the  net  total 
of  777  new  estates  obtained  by  these  changes,  the  number  of  estates 
on  the  rent-roll  of  the  District  in  1870-71  amounted  to  6075  ;  the 
number  of  registered  proprietors  had  increased  to  37,500,  and  the  land 
revenue  to  ;^i 50,798,  or  an  average  payment  of  ^^24,  i6s.  4d.  from 
each  estate,  and  of  ;^4,  os.  5d.  from  each  proprietor.  By  1883-84 
the  number  of  estates  had  further  increased  to  8318,  and  the  regis- 
tered proprietors  to  67,287 ;  total  land  revenue,  ;^i46,o54,  or  an 
average  payment  of  ^17,  iis.  2d.  from  each  estate,  and  £,2,  3s.  5d. 
from  each  individual  proprietor.  Allowing  for  the  increase  in  the 
size  of  the  District  by  the  addition  of  the  Behar  Sub-division,  the 
number  of  estates  has  multiplied  nearly  five  times  since  1790;  the  land 
revenue  has  more  than  trebled ;  and  where  there  was  formerly  one 
proprietor,  there  are  now  over  fifty.  There  is  reason  to  believe  that 
the  increase  in  the  value  of  each  estate  during  the  same  period  has  in 
all  cases  been  large,  and  may  in  some  instances  amount  to  more  than 
fifty  times  the  estimated  rental  of  1790. 

For  police  purposes,  the  District  is  divided  into  18  thdnds  or  police 
circles.  The  regular  police  consisted  in  1883  of  1300  men  of  all  ranks, 
including  751  municipal  and  44  cantonment  police,  maintained  at  a 
total  cost  to  Government  of  ^18,373.  In  addition,  there  was  in  that 
year  a  village  watch  or  rural  police  numbering  3124  men,  maintained 
by  the  villagers  and  landholders  at  an  estimated  cost  in  money  or 
lands  of  ^9124.  The  total  machinery,  therefore,  for  the  protection 
of  person  and  property  consisted  of  4424  officers  and  men,  or  i  man 
to  every  -47  square  mile  of  the  area  or  to  every  397  of  the  popula- 
tion. The  total  cost  of  maintaining  this  force  was  estimated  at 
^27,497,  equal  to  a  charge  of  ^£^13,  4s.  7d.  per  square  mile  of  area,  or 
3|d.  per  head  of  population.  The  District  jail  at  Patna,  and  subordi- 
nate prisons  at  Behar  and  Barh,  contained  in  1883  a  daily  average  of 
256  prisoners,  of  whom  14  were  females.  Convicts  numbered  230; 
under-trial  prisoners,  21  ;  and  civil  prisoners,  5. 

Education  has  progressed  rapidly  in  Patna.  The  number  of 
Government  and  aided  schools  in  the  District  in  1856-57  was  12,  with 
583  pupils;  in  1860-61  the  number  of  such  schools  was  10,  and  of 
pupils  515  ;  and  in  1870-71  there  were  23  such  schools,  attended 
by  1530  pupils.  Since  that  year  education  has  rapidly  advanced, 
owing  principally  to  Sir  George  Campbell's  system  of  grants-in-aid  to 
primary  schools.  In  1874-75  there  were,  exclusive  of  Patna  College, 
309  Government  and  aided  schools,  with  9003  pupils;  and  in  1877-78 


the  number  of  such  schools  was  816,  attended  by  16,396  pupils.  By 
1883-84  the  total  number  of  schools  in  Patna  District  had  risen  to 
2027,  attended  by  about  27,000  })upils.  The  lower  primary  schools 
numbered  1452,  with  19,658  pupils,  and  the  unaided  schools  512,  with 
5065  i)upils.  The  Patna  College  was  founded  in  1862,  and  is  the  only 
institution  for  superior  instruction  in  the  whole  of  Behar.  The  number 
of  pupils  on  the  rolls  in  1873-74  was  92,  and  in  1883-84,  165.  The 
total  expenditure  on  the  College  in  1883-84  amounted  to  ^4664,  of 
which  ;^34ii  was  paid  by  Government,  and  the  remainder,  viz.  ^1253, 
was  contributed  by  fees,  etc.  The  total  cost  of  each  student  in  that 
year  was  ^."28,  5s.  4d.,  of  which  the  Government  paid  ;£^2o,  13s.  5d. 
The  Collegiate  school  attached  to  the  College  was  attended  by  639 
pupils  in  1883-84.  Special  schools  comprise — a  normal  school,  with 
90  pupils  in  1883-84;  a  law  school  with  53  pupils;  a  surveying  school 
with  54  pupils  ;  and  a  vernacular  medical  school  with  145  pupils.  No 
details  are  available  with  regard  to  girls'  schools.  Of  the  boys  of 
school-going  age,  i  in  every  4*2  was  attending  school  in  1883-84. 
The  Census  Report  of  1881  returned  24,528  boys  and  3874  girls  as 
under  instruction,  besides  57,760  males  and  7907  females  able  to  read 
and  write,  but  not  under  instruction. 

Medical  Aspects^  etc. — The  climate  of  Patna  is  considered  remarkably 
healthy.  The  prevailing  winds  are  east  and  west,  in  almost  equal  pro- 
portion. The  average  annual  rainfall  for  a  period  of  over  25  years  is 
returned  at  41  "81  inches,  the  average  for  each  month  being  as  toUows  : 
— January,  071  inch;  February,  0*57  inch;  March,  0*37  inch;  April, 
0-32  inch;  May,  i*6o  inch;  June,  6*72  inches;  July,  10*42  inches; 
August,  9-61  inches;  September,  8-33  inches;  October,  2-82  inches; 
November,  0*21  inch;  and  December,  o"i3  inch.  In  1883-84  the 
total  rainfall  at  Patna  was  3975  inches,  of  which  278  inches  fell  from 
January  to  May,  36*57  inches  from  June  to  September,  and  0*40  inch 
from  October  to  December.  The  annual  mean  temperature  of  Patna 
is  77*8°  F.,  the  monthly  mean  being  as  follows: — January,  60*9°; 
February,  66 '0° ;  March,  77*3°;  April,  86*8°;  May,  88*6°;  June,  88*4°; 
July,  84*8°;  August,  84*1"';  September,  83-9°;  October,  79*7°; 
November,  70*3°;  and  December,  62*3°.  In  1883  the  thermometer 
ranged  from  a  maximum  of  110°  F.  in  May  to  a  minimum  of  43*5° 
in  December.  The  prevailing  endemic  diseases  of  the  District  are 
cholera  in  and  about  the  city  of  Patna,  and  stone  in  the  bladder. 
Small-pox  and  fever  are  also  prevalent.  There  are  5  charitable 
dispensaries  in  the  District,  which  in  1883  afforded  medical  relief 
to  2288  in-door  and  47,205  out -door  patients.  The  registered 
mortality  of  Patna  District  in  1883  was  at  the  rate  of  21*98  per 
thousand,  the  total  number  of  recorded  deaths  being  38,633.  [For 
further   information    regarding    Patna,   see   The   Statistical  Account  of 


Bengal^  by  W.  W.  Hunter,  vol.  xi.  pp.  1-222  (London,  Triibner  & 
Co.,  1877);  General  Cunningham's  Ancient  Geography  of  India,  vol.  i. 
pp.  452-454  (London,  187 1) ;  the  Bengal  Census  Rep07't  for  1881  ;  and 
the  several  Administration  and  Departmental  Reports  of  the  Bengal 
Government  from  1880  to  1884.] 

Patna.  —  Sadr  or  head-quarters  Sub-division  of  Patnd  District, 
Bengal,  lying  between  25°  12'  30"  and  25°  39'  n.  lat,  and  between 
84°  44' and  85°  19' E.  long.  Area,  617  square  miles;  villages,  17 14; 
houses,  96,028.  Population  (1872)  521,336;  (1881)  585,887,  namely, 
males  285,895,  and  females  299,992,  showing  an  increase  of  64,551, 
or  12*38  per  cent.,  in  nine  years.  Classified  according  to  religion, 
the  population  in  1881  consisted  of — Hindus,  504,061,  or  86*2  per 
cent.;  Muhammadans,  81,264,  or  137  per  cent.;  Christians,  523; 
Brahmos,  12;  Jains,  8;  Jews,  5;  Parsi,  i;  non-Hindu  aborigines,  13. 
Proportion  of  males  in  total  population,  48*8  per  cent. ;  number  of 
persons  per  square  mile,  949;  villages  per  square  mile,  278;  persons 
per  village,  342;  houses  per  square  mile,  i77'63;  persons  per  house, 
6'r.  Patna  Sub-division  consists  of  the  six  police  circles  of  Patna 
municipality,  Patna,  Bankipur,  Naubatpur,  Masaudhi,  and  Paliganj. 
In  1883  it  contained  8  civil  and  10  magisterial  courts,  including  the 
District  head-quarter  courts,  a  general  police  force  of  779  men,  and  a 
village  watch  of  998  men. 

Patna  City  (known  to  the  natives  as  Az'imdbdd). — Chief  city  of 
Patna  District,  Bengal;  situated  in  lat.  25°  37'  15"  n.,  and  long.  85°  12' 
31"  E.,  on  the  right  or  south  bank  of  the  Ganges;  adjoining  on  the 
east  Bankipur,  the  civil  station  and  administrative  head-quarters  of  the 
District.     Area,  6184  acres.     Population  (1881)  170,654. 

Early  History. — The  following  section  on  the  early  history  of  Patna 
city  is  based  upon  General  Cunningham's  Ancient  Geography  of  India, 
vol.  i.  pp.  452-454  (London,  187 1).  Patna  has  been  identified  with 
Pataliputra,  which,  in  spite  of  Dr.  Buchanan-Hamilton's  opinion  to 
the  contrary,  is  undoubtedly  the  same  town  as  Palibothra,  mentioned 
by  the  Greek  historian  Megasthenes,  who  came  as  ambassador  from 

Seleukos  Nikator  to  jhe  court,  of  _Sandra.cottus  or  Chandra  Gupta,  at 

Pataliputra,  about  the  year_^oo_Rx:.  ^  The  foundation  of  the  city  is 
attributed  by  Diodorus  to  Herakles,  by  whom  he  may  perhaps  mean 
Balaram,  the  brother  of  Krishna ;  but  this  early  origin  is  not  claimed 
by  the  native  authorities.  According  to  the  Vdya  Purdna,  the  city  of 
Pataliputra,  or  Kusumapura,  was  founded  by  Raja  Udayaswa,  the 
grandson  of  Ajata  Satru.  This  Ajata  Satru  was  the  contemporary  of 
Gautama,  the  founder  of  the  Buddhist  religion,  who  died  about  543  b.c. 

According  to  Buddhist  accounts,  when  Buddha  crossed  the  Ganges 
on  his  last  journey  from  Rajagriha  to  Vaisali,  the  two  ministers  of 
Ajata  Satru,  King  of  Magadha,  were  engaged  in  building  a  fort  at  the 

PATXA   CITY,  107 

village  of  Pdtali,  as  a  check  upon  the  ravages  of  the  Wajjians,  or  the 
people  ofVriji.  At  that  time,  Buddha  predicted  that  the  fort  would 
become  a  great  city.  Upon  this  evidence,  General  Cunningham  con- 
cludes that  the  building  of  Patna  was  begun  then,  but  finished  later,  in 
the  time  of  Udaya,  about  4^0  r-c.  According  to  the  Hindu  chrono- 
logies, Udaya  was  the  thirty-seventh  king  of  Magadha,  dating  from 
Sahadeva,  who  was  contemporary  with  the  great  war  of  the  Mahd- 
bJidrata.  Tiie  thirteenth  in  succession  from  Udaya  was  Chandra 
Gupta,  who  was  reigning  at  Pataliputra  when  Megasthenes,  whose 
account  of  the  city  has  been  preserved  by  Arrian,  visited  the  city.  He 
savs  that  the  distance  of  Palibothra  from  the  Indus  is  10,000  stadia, 
that  is,  1 149  miles,  or  only  6  miles  in  excess  of  the  actual  distance. 
He  proceeds  to  describe  Palibothra  as  the  capital  city  of  India,  on 
the  confines  of  the  Prasii,  near  the  confluence  of  the  two  great  rivers 
Erannoboas  and  Ganges.  The  Erannoboas,  he  says,  is  reckoned  the 
third  river  throughout  all  India,  and  is  inferior  to  none  but  the  Indus 
and  the  Ganges,  into  the  last  of  which  it  discharges  its  waters.  Now 
Erannoboas  is  the  Greek  form  of  Hiranya-baha,  v.-hich  has  been  identi- 
fied with  the  Son  ;  and  the  confluence  of  this  river  was  formerly  much 
nearer  Patnd  than  now.  Megasthenes  adds  that  the  length  of  the  city 
of  Palibothra  was  80  stadia,  the  breadth  15  ;  that  it  was  surrounded  by 
a  ditch  30  cubits  deep;  and  that  the  walls  were  adorned  with  570 
towers  and  64  gates.  According  to  this  account,  the  circumference  of 
the  city  would  be  190  stadia,  or  24  miles.  Strabo,  Pliny,  and  Arrian 
call  the  people  Prasii,  the  Greek  corruption  of  Palasiya  or  Parasiya,  the 
men  of  Palasa  or  Parasa,  which  is  a  well-known  name  for  Magadha, 
derived  from  \\\^  palds  tree  (Butea  frondosa). 

The  next  description  that  we  have  of  Patna  is  supplied  by  Hiuen 
Tsiang,  the  Chinese  pilgrim,  who  entered  the  city  after  his  return  from 
Nepal,  about  20th  February  637  a.d.  At  that  time  the  kingdom  of 
Magadha  was  subject  to  Harsha  Varddhana,  the  great  king  of  Kanauj. 
It  was  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Ganges,  on  the  west  by  Benares, 
on  the  east  by  Hiranya  Parvata  or  Monghyr,  and  on  the  south  by 
Kirana  Savarna  or  Singhbhiim.  Hiuen  Tsiang  informs  us  that  the  old 
city,  called  originally  Kusumapura,  had  been  deserted  for  a  long  time 
and  was  in  ruins.  He  gives  the  circumference  at  70  //',  or  iig  miles, 
exclusive  of  the  new  town  of  Patalij^tutrapura. 

Little  is  known  of  the  mediaeval  history  of  Patna.  In  the  early  years 
of  Muhammadan  rule,  the  governor  of  the  Province  resided  at  the 
city  of  Behar.  During  Sher  Shah's  revolt,  Patnd  became  the  capital 
of  an  independent  State,  which  was  afterwards  reduced  to  subjection  by 
Akbar.  Aurangzeb  made  his  grandson  Azim  governor,  and  the  city 
thus  acquired  the  name  of  Azimabad.  The  two  events  in  the  modern 
history  of  Patna  city,  namely,  the  massacre  of  1763,  and  the  mutiny  of 

io8  PATNA  CITY. 

the  troops  at  Dlnapur  cantonments  in  1857,  have  been  described  in  the 
account  of  Patna  District. 

Description  of  the  City. — Dr.  Buchanan-Hamilton,  in  his  ms.  account 
of  Patna  city  (1810),  includes  the  whole  of  that  part  of  Y^IVik  pargaiia 
which  was  under  the  jurisdiction  of  a  kotwdl  and  15  darogahs,  who  were 
appointed  to  superintend  the  police  of  the  16  wards  {mahdllas)  into 
which  this  area  was  divided.  Each  of  these  wards  lay  partly  within 
the  town  ;  but  some  of  them  also  included  part  of  the  adjacent  country, 
consisting  chiefly  of  garden  land,  with  some  low  marshy  ground 
that  intervenes.  The  city  of  Patna,  taken  in  this  sense,  includes  the 
suburb  of  Bankipur  on  the  w^st,  and  Jafar  Khan's  garden  on  the 
east,  an  extent  of  nearly  9  miles  along  the  bank  of  the  Ganges.  The 
width,  from  the  bank  of  the  Ganges,  is  on  an  average  about  2  miles ; 
so  that  the  whole  circumference  includes  an  area  of  about  18  square 
miles.  The  city  proper  within  the  walls  is  rather  more  than  a  mile  and 
a  half  from  east  to  w^st,  and  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  north  to 
south.  It  is  very  closely  built,  many  of  the  houses  being  of  brick  ;  the 
majority,  however,  are  composed  of  mud  with  tiled  roofs,  and  very  few 
are  thatched.  There  is  one  fairly  wide  street,  running  from  the  eastern 
to  the  western  gate,  but  it  is  by  no  means  straight  or  regularly  built. 
Every  other  passage  is  narrow,  crooked,  and  irregular ;  and  it  would 
be  difficult  to  imagine  a  more  unattractive  place.  Still,  every  native 
who  can  afford  it  has  a  house  in  this  quarter.  In  the  dry  weather  the 
dust  is  beyond  belief,  and  in  the  rains  every  place  is  covered  with  mud, 
while  in  one  quarter  there  is  a  large  pond  which  becomes  very  offensive 
as  it  dries  up. 

The  old  fortifications  which  surrounded  the  city  had  long  been 
neglected  in  Buchanan  -  Hamilton's  time,  and  have  now  entirely  dis- 
appeared. The  natives  believe  that  they  were  built  by  Azim,  the  grand- 
son of  Aurangzebj  but  an  inscription  on  the  gate,  dated  1042  a.m., 
attributes  the  erection  of  the  fort  to  Firoz  Jang  Khan.  There  are 
hardly  any  striking  buildings ;  and  a  view  of  the  town,  except  from  the 
river-side,  where  some  European  houses  are  scattered  along  the  bank,  is 
decidedly  mean.  Dr.  Buchanan-Hamilton  states  that  the  only  public 
works,  except  those  dedicated  to  religion,  were  the  Company's  opium 
stores,  a  granary,  and  a  few  miserable  brick  bridges.  The  Roman 
Catholic  church,  in  the  middle  of  the  city,  was  the  best-looking  building 
in  the  place.  None  of  the  Muhammadan  mosques  or  Hindu  temples 
was  worthy  of  notice ;  some  of  the  former  were  let  to  be  used  as  ware- 
houses. The  number  of  houses  in  the  whole  city,  as  estimated  by  Dr. 
Buchanan-Hamilton,  amounted  to  52,000;  of  which  7187  were  of 
brick,  11,639  of  t^^'O  storeys,  with  mud  walls  and  tiled  roofs;  53- with 
thatched  roofs;  22,188  were  mud  huts,  covered  with  tiles,  and  the 
remainder  were  mud  huts  covered  with  thatch.     The  population  he 

PATNA  CITY.  109 

estimated  at  312,000,  or  nearly  double  the  present  number,  on  an  area 
twice  as  large. 

One  of  the  most  curious  buildings  in  Patna  is  the  old  Government 
Granary,  or  Gold,  a  high  dome-shaped  storehouse.  This  structure,  con- 
sisting of  a  brick  building  in  the  shape  of  a  bee-hive,  with  two  winding 
staircases  on  the  outside,  which  have  been  ascended  on  horseback,  was 
erected  in  1786  as  a  storehouse  for  grain.  It  was  intended  that  the 
grain  should  be  poured  in  at  the  top,  there  being  small  doors  at  the 
bottom  to  take  it  out.  The  walls  are  21  feet  thick.  The  following 
inscription  is  on  the  outside: — 'No.  i. — In  part  of  a  general  plan 
ordered  by  the  Governor-General  and  Council,  20th  of  January  1784, 
for  the  perpetual  prevention  of  Famine  in  these  Provinces,  this  Granary 
was  erected  by  Captain  John  Garstin,  engineer.     Compleated  {sic)  the 

20th  of  July  1786.     First  filled  and  publickly  closed  by .'     The 

storehouse  never  has  been  filled,  and  so  the  blank  in  the  inscription 
still  remains.  During  the  scarcity  of  1874,  a  good  deal  of  grain,  which 
if  left  at  the  railway  stations  might  have  been  spoilt  by  the  rain,  was 
temporarily  stored  here.  In  times  of  famine,  proposals  are  still  made 
by  the  native  press  to  fill  the  Patna  Gold.  But  the  losses  from  damp, 
rats,  and  insects,  render  such  a  scheme  of  storing  grain  wasteful  and 
impracticable.  The  Gold  is  usually  inspected  by  visitors  on  account  of 
the  echo,  which  is  remarkably  perfect. 

The  Patna  College  is  a  fine  brick  building,  at  the  west  end  of  the 
city.  Originally  built  by  a  native  for  a  private  residence,  it  was  pur- 
chased by  Government  and  converted  into  courts  for  the  administration 
of  justice.  In  1857  the  courts  were  removed  to  the  present  buildings 
at  Bdnkipur;  and  in  1862  the  College  was  established  in  its  present 

Proceeding  farther  eastwards,  for  about  3  miles,  we  arrive  at  the 
quarter  called  Gulzdrbdgh,  where  the  Government  manufacture  of 
opium  is  carried  on.  The  opium  buildings  are  all  on  the  old  river 
bank,  and  are  separated  from  the  city  by  a  high  brick  wall.  In  the 
neighbourhood  are  two  small  temples,  which  appear  to  be  of  great 
antiquity.  One  is  used  by  Muhammadans  as  a  mosque,  and  the  other 
by  Hindus. 

Beyond  Gulzdrbdgh  lies  the  city  proper.  The  western  gate  is, 
according  to  its  inscription,  5  miles  from  the  Gold,  and  12  from 
Dindpur.  Dr.  Buchanan-Hamilton's  remarks  on  the  state  of  the  city, 
with  some  modifications  due  to  improved  conservancy  arrangements, 
are  applicable  to  its  present  condition.  South  of  the  city,  in  the  quarter 
called  Sadikpur,  a  market  has  been  made  on  the  ground  formerly 
occupied  by  the  Wahdbi  rebels;  but  it  is  not  much  used  by  the  inhabit- 
ants. Nearly  opposite  to  the  Roman  Catholic  church  is  the  grave  where 
the  bodies  of  Mir  Kasim's  victims  were  ultimately  deposited.     It  is 


covered  by  a  pillar,  built  partly  of  stone  and  partly  of  brick,  with  an 
inlaid  tablet  and  inscription.  The  i:)resent  European  graveyard  lies  to 
the  west  of  the  city,  just  without  the  confines  of  Bankipur. 

The  chief  Muhammadan  place  of  worship  is  the  monument  of  Shah 
Arzani,  about  the  middle  of  the  western  suburb.  He  died  here  in  the 
year  of  the  Hijra  1032,  and  his  shrine  is  frequented  both  by  Muham- 
madans  and  Hindus.  In  the  month  of  Zikad  there  is  an  annual  fair 
held  on  the  spot  which  lasts  three  days,  and  attracts  about  5000  votaries. 
Adjacent  to  the  tomb  is  the  Karbala,  where  100,000  people  attend 
during  the  MuJiarrani  festival.  Close  by  is  a  tank  dug  by  the  saint, 
where  once  a  year  crowds  of  people  assemble,  and  many  of  them  bathe. 
The  mosque  of  Sher  Shah  is  probably  the  oldest  building  in  Patna,  and 
the  Madrasa  of  Saif  Khan  the  handsomest.  The  only  other  place  of 
Muhammadan  worship  at  all  remarkable  is  the  monument  of  Pir  Bahor, 
which  was  built  about  two  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago.  The  Sikhs 
have  a  place  of  worship  of  great  repute,  called  the  Har-mandir,  which 
owes  its  celebrity  to  its  having  been  the  birthplace  of  Govind  Singh,  the 
last  great  teacher  of  the  sect.  In  spite  of  the  antiquity  of  Patna,  the  total 
absence  of  ancient  edifices  is  not  to  be  wondered  at,  for  quite  modern 
buildings  fall  into  decay  as  soon  as  they  are  at  all  neglected.  Chahal 
Satun,  the  palace  of  the  Behar  viceroys,  which  in  1760  was  in  perfect 
preservation,  and  occupied  by  Prince  Ali  Jahan,  afterwards  the  Emperor 
Shah  Alam,  could  in  181 2  be  scarcely  traced  in  a  few  detached  portions 
retaining  no  marks  of  grandeur.  In  the  same  year,  the  only  vestige  to 
be  found  of  a  court  of  justice,  which  had  been  erected  in  1728,  w^as  a 
stone  commemorating  the  erection,  dug  up  in  1807,  when  a  police 
office  was  about  to  be  erected  on  the  spot.  A  few  gardens  in  and 
about  Patna  are  cultivated  with  roses,  for  distilling  rose-water;  and 
some  of  them  cover  a  third  of  an  acre  in  extent. 

Population^  etc. — Patna  city  covers  an  area  of  6184  acres,  or  9§  square 
miles.  As  regards  population,  it  ranks  seventh  among  the  cities  of 
British  India,  and  is  second  only  to  Calcutta  among  the  cities  of  Bengal. 
Its  population,  which  in  1872  was  returned  at  158,900,  had  increased 
by  1881  to  170,654,  namely,  males  83,199,  and  females  87,455.  Hindus 
form  the  great  majority,  or  74-4  per  cent.,  of  the  population,  and  in  1881 
numbered  127,076,  namely,  males  62,581,  and  females  64,495.  Muham- 
madans  numbered  43,086,  namely,  males  20,456,  and  females  22,630; 
and  Christians,  492,  namely,  males  162,  and  females  330.  Municipal 
income  (1883-84),  ;£'ii,i47,  of  which  ^9116  was  derived  from  taxa- 
tion ;  average  incidence  of  taxation,  is.  o|d.  per  head  of  municipal 
population  (173,251). 

Ti'ade. — The  principal  business  quarters  of  the  city,  proceeding  from 
east  to  west,  are:  —  Mariifganj,  Mansiirganj,  the  Kila,  the  Chauk  with 
Mirchaiganj,  Maharajganj,  Sadikpur,  Alabakhshpur,   Gulzarbagh,   and 


Colonelgnnj.     The  following  paragraphs  are  condensed  from  a  memo- 
randum prepared  in  the  Bengal  Secretariat : — 

In  the  District  of  Patnd,  the  principal  mart  is  Patna  city,  a  place 
of  considerable  importance  as  a  commercial  depot.  Its  central  position^ 
at  the  junction  of  three  great  rivers,  the  Son,  the  Gandak,  and  the 
Ganges,  where  the  traffic  of  the  North-Western  Provinces  meets  that 
oT  Bengal,  and  another  line  of  trade  branches  off  to  Nepal,  gives  it 
in  this  respect  great  advantages.  It  is  conveniently  situated  for  the 
purpose  of  transport  either  by  river  or  railway,  having  a  river  frontage 
during  the  rains  of  from  7  to  8  miles,  and  in  the  dry  months  of  4 

Mr.  M.  Rattray,  the  Salt  Superintendent  at  Patna,  who  was  deputed 
during  the  early  months  of  1876  to  collect  trade  statistics  of  Patna 
city,  has  furnished  an  elaborate  Report  on  the  subject,  showing  the 
export  and  import  trade,  the  places  of  shipment  and  destination,  and 
the  route  taken  by  each  kind  of  trade.  The  following  paragraphs  are 
derived  from  Mr.  Rattray's  Report,  and  the  figures  refer  to  1875-76. 
The  statistics  for  1883-84  are  given  at  the  end  of  this  article. 

The  city  proper  comprises  the  large  business  quarters  of  (i)  Mardf- 
ganj,  (2)  Mansiirganj,  (3)  the  Kila,  (4)  the  Chauk  with  Mirchaiganj, 
(5)  Maharajganj,  (6)  Sadikpur,  (7)  Alabakhshpur,  (8)  Gulzarbagh,  (9) 
Colonelganj,  and  other  petty  bazars  too  numerous  to  mention,  extending 
westward  as  far  as  the  civil  station  of  Bankipur.  The  mercantile 
portion  of  the  city  may  be  said  to  commence  at  Colonelganj,  which 
is  situated  a  short  distance  west  of  Gulzarbagh,  and  is  the  centre  of  a 
large  trade  in  oil-seeds  and  food-grains.  From  here  the  other  marts 
run  eastward  as  far  as  the  Patna  branch  line  of  railway,  immediately 
adjoining  which  is  Mariifganj,  by  far  the  most  important  of  any  of  the 
marts  in  the  city. 

The  influx  of  goods  into  Mariifganj,  Colonelganj,  Gulzarbagh,  and  the 
Kila  (in  respect  of  cotton),  is  from  northern  Behar,  the  North-Western 
Provinces,  and  Bengal,  with  which  these  marts  possess  direct  and  easy 
water  communication,  and  thus  command  a  far  larger  supply  than  the 
inland  marts  of  Mansiirganj,  Maharajganj,  Sadikpur,  and  Alabakhsh- 
l)ur,  or  any  of  the  other  petty  bazars  remote  from  the  river  bank. 
The  trade  of  these  latter  is  more  intimately  concerned  with  the  pro- 
duce of  the  Districts  of  Patna,  Gaya,  and  Shahabad,  which  transmit 
large  supplies  of  oil -seeds  and  grain  by  means  of  carts  and  pack- 
bullocks.  Oil-seeds  are  disposed  of  wholesale  to  the  few  large  export 
merchants  of  Marufganj  ;  the  supply  of  grain,  which  consists  prmci- 
pally  of  rice,  is  sold  retail  in  the  bazars  for  local  consumption. 

The  principal  imports  are  cotton  goods,  oil-seeds,  salt,  saline  sub- 
stances {khdri,  sdjji,  etc.),  sugar  (refined  and  unrefined),  wheat,  pulses, 
gram,  rice,  paddy,  and  other  cereals. 

112  PATNA   CITY. 

The  import  of  European  cotton  manufactures  amounts  to  the  large 
total  in  money  value  of  ;^285,537,  and  the  import  of  native  manufac- 
tures to  ;£'3o65.  Of  silk  cloths,  considering  the  size  and  wealth  of  the 
city,  the  value  appears  to  be  comparately  small,  viz.  ;^i 3,040.  There 
is  a  large  import  of  gunny-bags  (673,419  in  number);  and  it  is  said 
that  about  two-thirds  of  these  are  re-exported  with  grain. 

Irrespective  of  these  imports,  large  quantities  of  salt,  indigo  seed, 
and  various  other  kinds  of  merchandise  are  imported  by  rail,  by 
merchants  who  have  no  agents  or  business  connection  in  the  city,  and 
are  residents  of  some  other  District.  These  articles  are  loaded  into 
boats  direct  from  the  goods-sheds,  and  cannot  be  considered  as  forming 
a  part  of  the  regular  import  trade  of  the  city.  In  a  similar  manner  there 
are  considerable  exports  of  goods  which  have  no  connection  with  any 
of  the  business  houses  in  the  city,  but  are  landed  into  waggons  direct 
from  boats. 

By  far  the  largest  importing  mart  is  Marilfganj,  the  merchants  of 
which  place  may  be  said  to  possess  a  monopoly  of  the  oil-seed  trade, 
for  their  imports  amount  to  no  less  than  728,237  maunds,  or  nearly 
two-thirds  of  the  entire  quantity  imported  into  Patna.  In  respect  to 
other  staples  also,  this  mart  shows  a  large  importation.  The  imports  of 
refined  sugar  amount  to  36,501  maimds.  Mr.  Rattray  w\as  informed 
by  a  respectable  merchant  of  the  city  that,  since  the  opening  of  the 
Jabalpur  railway,  a  large  portion  of  the  produce  of  the  North-Western 
Provinces,  which  used  to  be  consigned  to  Patna,  is  now  despatched  by 
that  line  to  Bombay. 

The  next  mart  of  importance  is  Mansiirganj,  lying  immediately  south 
of  Marilfganj.  Being  more  of  an  inland  mart,  the  supplies  of  Mansiir- 
ganj are  drawn  for  the  most  part  from  Patna  District  and  other  Districts 
to  the  south. 

Colonelganj,  a  river-side  mart,  stands  next  in  order,  with  imports 
brought  almost  wholly  by  boat  from  the  Districts  of  North  Behar  and 
from  Bengal.  Other  smaller  marts  for  oil-seeds  and  cereals  are  Sadikpur 
and  Maharajganj. 

Omitting  the  imports  into  the  numerous  petty  bdzdis^  there  remains 
the  central  business  quarter  of  the  Chauk,  connected  with  which  is 
Mirchaiganj  ;  and  farther  east  the  Kila,  also  known  as  the  cotton  mart, 
for  it  imports  35,871  viaiinds  of  cotton  out  of  a  total  of  38,271  maunds 
for  the  whole  city.     All  these  marts  have  a  distinct  trade  of  their  own. 

The  importance  of  the  Chauk  consists  in  the  variety  and  value  of 
its  imports.  The  principal  import  is  cloth,  of  which  a  considerable 
trade  is  carried  on  by  the  Marvvaris.  European  cotton  goods,  chiefly 
longcloth,  to  the  value  of  ^180,425  for  the  Chauk,  and  of  ^93,200'for 
Mirchaiganj,  are  said  to  have  been  imported  during  the  year  1875-76. 
The  whole  of  this  came  by  rail. 

FATNA   CITY.  113 

Before  entering  into  an  explanation  of  the  figures,  it  is  necessary  to 
explain  the  particular  character  of  the  import  trade  of  the  city,  which 
alone  can  account  for  the  heavy  imports  by  river.  There  are  scarcely 
twenty  persons  in  the  city  to  whom  the  term  '  merchant '  can  be  strictly 
applied— that  is,  wholesale  dealers  with  head-quarters  in  the  city  and 
agencies  at  out-stations,  who  carry  on  an  import  and  export  business 
entirely  on  their  own  account.  The  truth  is  that  the  bulk  of  the  so- 
called  merchants  are,  properly  speaking,  merely  commission  agents  ; 
and  the  general  practice  is  for  bepdris  or  dealers  to  bring  merchandise 
to  these  agents,  at  a  storehouse,  termed  an  arat^  where  the  grain  is  sold, 
the  agent  or  aratddr  merely  receiving  a  certain  percentage.  In  this 
manner,  a  considerable  import  trade  passes  through  the  hands  of  the 
aratddrs  into  those  of  the  wholesale  exporting  merchants.  It  is  said  that 
nine-tenths  of  the  oil-seeds  and  grain,  when  brought  into  the  city, 
are  deposited  in  some  anit^  where  they  are  taken  over  by  the  aratddr 
on  his  own  account  at  the  then  prevailing  rates.  Taking  the  trade 
as  a  whole,  it  may  be  laid  down  that  most  articles  are  passed  on 
through  the  city  from  one  mart  to  another.  Thus,  to  take  the 
important  staple  of  oil-seeds,  large  quantities  are  landed  at  Colonelganj, 
where  they  are  purchased  by  Maharajganj  merchants,  who  in  their  turn 
sell  to  merchants  of  some  other  mart,  and  so  on  till  the  goods  finally 
reach  the  hands  of  the  exporting  merchant  for  despatch  to  Calcutta. 

Possessing,  as  the  city  does,  great  advantages  in  the  way  of  water 
communication,  it  is  not  surprising  to  find  the  imports  by  river  much  in 
excess  of  those  by  rail  and  by  road.  Importers  of  goods,  to  whom  time 
is  of  little  consequence,  naturally  select  water  carriage  as  being  cheapest 
and  most  convenient ;  and  there  are  of  course  certain  classes  of  goods, 
such  as  bamboos,  large  and  small,  timber,  firewood,  hay  and  straw, 
rattans,  mats  and  golpafld,  which,  from  their  bulky  nature  and  com- 
paratively small  value,  will  not  admit  of  any  other  mode  of  conveyance. 

A  very  elaborate  and  interesting  statement,  enumerating  no  fewer 
than  86  places  from  which  the  Patna  imports  are  derived,  and  giving 
the  quantities  received  from  each,  is  supplied  by  Mr.  Rattray  in  the 
Report  already  referred  to.  A  full  condensation  of  that  statement  will 
be  found  in  T/ie  Statistical  Account  of  Bengal,  vol.  xi.  pp.  163-169. 

The  export  trade,  with  the  exception  of  oil-seeds  and  salt,  is  com- 
paratively small,  the  most  important  article  of  export  being  oil-seeds,  of 
I  which  no  less  than  1,146,852  maiinds  were  exported  in  1875-76.  The 
trade  in  this  staple  is  in  the  hands  of  about  a  dozen  merchants.  Two 
European  agencies  in  the  city  exported  between  them  more  than  half  the 
above  quantity.  Salt  to  the  extent  of  105,329  maitnds,  not  quite  half 
the  imports,  is  the  next  most  important  item. 

The  railway  has  been  very  successful  in  attracting  to  itself  the  bulk 
of  the  export  traffic.     The  total  despatched  by  this  route  amounted  to 

VOL.   XI.  H 


1,105,659  viaunds,  the  larger  proportion  of  which  consisted  of  oil-seeds, 
979,047  maunds. 

The  total  exports  of  such  articles  as  are  shown  by  weight  amounted 
to  1,525,827  maunds  for  the  city,  or  nearly  half  as  much  as  the  imports; 
of  which  oil-seeds  account  for  1,146,852  maunds,  and  salt  105,329 
maunds.  Apart  from  these  exports,  there  is  a  sort  of  indirect  export 
trade  by  no  means  inconsiderable,  chiefly  in  cotton,  spices,  English 
piece-goods,  cocoa-nuts,  and  tobacco,  regarding  which  the  merchants 
were  unable  to  supply  statistical  information.  By  '  indirect '  exports 
are  meant  goods  purchased  daily  in  small  or  large  quantities  by  the 
mahdjaiis  and  bainyds  of  the  interior  of  Patna  District  and  of  other 
Districts  of  the  Division,  which  unquestionably  do  form  a  part  of  the 
export  trade  of  the  city.  It  is  impossible  to  state,  even  approximately, 
the  quantity  thus  exported,  but  it  is  known  to  be  considerable.  Amongst 
other  articles  of  export  may  be  mentioned  200  maunds  of  tobacco 
despatched  to  Bombay,  and  250  maunds  to  Calcutta.  This  is  prepared 
tobacco  for  smoking,  for  which  Patna  is  noted.  The  remaining  exports 
from  Patna  are  unimportant. 

Trade  in  1883-84. — The  foregoing  paragraphs  give  a  general  \iew  of 
the  trade  of  Patna  in  detail  for  the  various  marts  in  the  city,  and  with 
particular  reference  to  the  year  1875-76.  Since  then,  the  trade,  though 
maintaining  the  same  general  character,  has  very  materially  increased. 
In  1883-84,  the  total  trade  of  Patna  (including  the  civil  station  of 
Bankipur  and  the  military  station  of  Dinapur)  amounted  in  value  to 
;2^io,495,763,  namely,  imports  ^3,892,184,  and  exports  ^6,603,579. 

Patna  Canal. — Canal  in  Patna  District,  Bengal,  on  the  Sox  System  ; 
branches  off  from  the  Eastern  Main  Canal  in  Gaya  District,  about 
4  miles  from  the  village  of  Barun,  where  the  Son  is  crossed  by  an  anicut 
which  diverts  the  water  into  the  Eastern  and  Western  Main  Canals. 
The  Patna  Canal  is  designed  to  irrigate  the  country  lymg  east  of  the 
Son.  It  is  79  miles  in  length,  of  which  36  miles  lie  within  Patna 
District ;  and  it  commands  an  area  of  780  square  miles,  or  449,200 
acres,  irrigated  by  water  conveyed  by  distributaries.  The  course  of  the 
canal  from  its  commencement  is,  in  general,  parallel  with  that  of  the 
Son  ;  but  shortly  after  entering  Patna  District  it  bends  to  the  east, 
following  an  old  channel  of  the  Son,  and  joins  the  Ganges  at  Digha, 
a  village  situated  between  Bankipur  and  Dinapur.  The  canal  was 
completed  and  opened  throughout  in  October  1877. 

Patna.  —  Native  State  attached  to  Sambalpur  District,  Central 
Provinces,  lying  between  20°  5'  and  21°  n.  lat.,  and  betw^een  82""  45'  and 
83°  40'  E.  long.  Bounded  on  the  north  and  west  by  the  Borasambar 
and  Khariar  chiefships,  on  the  south  and  east  by  the  Feudatory  States 
of  Kalahandi  and  Sonpur.  Area,  2399  square  miles.  Population 
(1881)  257,959. 


1 1 

The  country  is  an  undulating  plain,  rugged  and  isolated,  with  ridges 
of  hills  crossing  it  here  and  there,  and  shut  in  on  the  north  by  a  lofty 
irregular  range.  The  soil  for  the  most  part  is  light  and  sandy.  The 
principal  rivers  are  the  Tel,  Ong,  Suktel,  and  Sundar. 

Patna  was  formerly  the  most  important  of  all  the  Native  States 
attached  to  Sambalpur,  and  the  head  of  a  cluster  of  States  known  as 
the  Athdra  Garhjdt—'  The  Eighteen  Forts.'  The  Maharaja  traces 
his  descent  through  thirty-one  generations  to  a  race  of  Rajput  princes 
of  Garh  Sambar,  near  Alainpuri.  Hitambar  Singh,  the  last  of  that 
line,  having  offended  the  King  of  Delhi,  was  killed,  and  his 
family  dispersed.  One  of  his  wives,  however,  found  her  way  to 
Patna,  then  represented  by  a  cluster  of  eight  garhs  or  forts,  and  there 
gave  birth  to  a  boy,  who  was  called  Ramai  Deva.  The  chief  of 
Kolagarh  adopted  the  child,  and  eventually  abdicated  in  his  favour. 
Until  this  tin-ie,  the  custom  had  been  for  the  Raja  of  each  garh  to  take 
it  in  turn  to  rule  for  a  day  over  the  whole  ;  but  when  Ramai  Deva's 
day  arrived,  he  put  the  chiefs  of  the  other  seven  garJis  to  death,  and 
governed  the  eight  garhs  with  the  title  of  Maharaja.  He  further 
strengthened  his  position  by  a  marriage  with  the  daughter  of  the  ruler 
of  Orissa. 

During  the  three  centuries  which  elapsed  between  the  reigns  of 
Ramai  Deva  and  Baijal  Deva,  the  tenth  of  the  line,  Patna  obtained 
considerable  accessions  of  territory.  The  States  of  Khariar  and 
Bindra  Nawagarh  to  the  west,  Phuljhar  and  Sarangarh  to  the  north, 
and  Bamail,  Gangpur,  and  Bamra  to  the  north-east,  were  all  made 
tributary ;  while  Rairakhol,  with  a  tract  of  land  on  the  left  bank 
of  the  Mahanadi,  was  annexed.  A  fort  was  erected  in  the  Phuljhar 
State  ;  and  Chandrapur  pa/gand  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Mahanadi 
was  wrested  from  the  ruler  of  Ratanpur.  Narsingh  Deva,  the  twelfth 
Maharaja,  ceded  to  his  brother  Balram  Deva  all  his  territories  north 
of  the  river  Ong.  Balram  Deva  then  founded  Sambalpur,  which  soon 
afterwards,  by  the  acquisition  of  territory  in  every  direction,  became 
the  most  powerful  of  all  the  hill  States.  Meanwhile,  Patna  declined ; 
and  though  for  some  generations  it  continued  to  receive  a  certain 
allegiance  from  the  surrounding  States,  it  sank  by  degrees  into  insig- 
nificance, and  until  recently  was  one  of  the  poorest  of  all.  Some  old 
temples  on  the  banks  of  the  Tel,  and  others  at  Rani  Jhiria,  built, 
it  is  said,  a  thousand  years  ago  by  a  pious  Rdni  of  the  Chauhan 
caste,  alone  record  the  past  greatness  of  Patna. 

Rice  forms  the  staple  product,  but  pulses,  oil-seeds,  sugar-cane,  and 
cotton  are  also  grown.  For  30  miles  round  the  town  of  Patna,  a  vast 
forest  extends,  containing  sd/,  sdj\  Mjesdl,  dhdiird,  ebony,  and  other 
woods,  with  small  clearings  here  and  there.  These  jungles  are  infested 
with  tigers,    man-eaters   being  common  ;    wild   buffaloes,    bears,    and 


leopards  are  also  numerous.  Patna  has  no  manufactures  of  importance. 
Iron-ore  is  found  in  many  parts,  but  no  mines  are  regularly  worked. 
The  only  means  of  communication  are  a  few  bullock  or  pony  tracks 
across  the  hills. 

Area  of  State,  2399  square  miles,  with  1591  villages  and  50,841 
houses.  Total  population  (1881)  257,959,  namely,  males  131,570, 
and  females  126,389  ;  average  density,  107-5  persons  per  square 
mile.  No  separate  return  is  given  in  the  Census  Report,  showing 
either  the  ethnical  or  religious  division  of  the  people.  The  most 
common  Hindu  castes  are  Brahmans,  Mahantis,  Rajputs,  Agarias,  and 
Kultas.  The  aboriginal  tribes  consist  of  Gonds,  Kandhs,  and 
Binjwars.  Of  the  total  area  of  2399  square  miles,  550  square  miles 
are  returned  as  under  cultivation;  while  of  the  portion  lying  waste,  950 
square  miles  are  said  to  be  still  available  for  cultivation. 

In  187 1,  upon  the  death  of  the  late  Raja  leaving  an  infant  heir,  the 
State  was  taken  under  direct  Government  management,  and  is  now  in 
a  very  flourishing  condition.  The  State  is  still  under  the  management 
of  the  Government  Political  Agent,  and  the  minor  Raja  is  a  student 
at  the  Rajkumar  College  at  Jabalpur.  In  1 8 76-7 7  the  collections 
amounted  to  ^4740,  the  expenditure  to  £2^^^,  and  the  balance  to 
nearly  ;2^2  3oo,  including  the  surplus  of  the  previous  year.  The  in- 
come of  the  State  in  1883-84  amounted  to  ;^644o,  and  the  expenditure 
to  ;£^59oo,  with  an  accumulated  balance  in  hand  of  ;£"6894. 

The  temperature  is  that  of  the  plains  generally,  in  the  cold  months 
being  often  as  low  as  45°  F.  at  daybreak,  and  rising  by  mid-day  to 
about  80°  F.  The  hot  season  lasts  from  April  to  the  middle  of 
June,  when  the  thermometer  sometimes  reaches  iio^  F.  in  the  shade. 
Though  the  climate  has  a  bad  reputation,  the  inhabitants  appear  robust 
and  healthy.  Cholera  frequently  breaks  out,  especially  in  the  larger 

Patna. — Chief  town  of  Patna  Tributary  State,  attached  to  Sambalpur 
District,  Central  Provinces,  and  residence  of  the  Raja.  Population 
(1881)  2053,  namely,  Hindus  2044,  and  Muhammadans  9. 

Patna. — A  small  river  rising  in  the  Bhanrer  range  of  hills  in  Slee- 
manabad  tahsil,  Jabalpur  (Jubbulpore)  District,  Central  Provinces. 
After  a  northerly  course  of  35  miles,  it  falls  into  the  right  bank  of  the 
Bairma  river.  For  some  distance  the  Patna  marks  the  boundary 
between  Panna  State  and  Jabalpur  District. 

Patri. — Petty  State  in  the  Jhalawar  division  of  Kathiawar,  Bombay 
Presidency ;  consisting  of  7  villages,  with  i  tribute-payer.  Area,  40 
square  miles.  Population  (1881)  3877.  Estimated  revenue,  ^900; 
tribute  of  ;£"52  3,  los.  is  paid  to  the  British  Government. 

Patri.  —  Town  in  Viramgam  Sub-division,  Ahmadabad  District, 
Bombay  Presidency;  a  station   on   the  Bombay,  Baroda,  and  Central 


India  Railway,  in  lat.  23°  11'  n.,  and  long.  71°  50'  e.,  58  miles  west 
of  Ahmaddbad  city.  Situated  in  a  bare  plain  on  the  border  of  the 
Rann  of  Cutch,  surrounded  by  a  wall  and  with  a  strong  central  castle. 
Population  (1881)  6525.  A  town  of  rising  importance;  trade  in 
cotton,  grain,  and  molasses.     Post-office. 

PattapattU  {Faftai). — Town  in  Tinnevelli  taluk,  Tinnevelli  District, 
Madras  Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  8'  43'  20"  N.,  and  long.  77^43' 
10"  E.  Population  (1881)  7321,  occupying  1575  houses.  Hindus 
number  4283;  Muhammadans,  2613;  and  Christians,  425.  Post- 

Patti.— Agricultural  town  in  Kasur  tahsil,  Lahore  District,  Punjab  ; 
situated  in  lat.  31°  17'  n.,  long.  74°  54'  e.,  38  miles  south-east  of 
Lahore  city.  Population  (1881)  6407,  namely,  Muhammadans,  3869  ; 
Hindus,  1943;  Jains,  421;  and  Sikhs,  174.  Number  of  houses, 
1 09 1.  Municipal  income  (1883-84),  £aa^,  or  an  average  of  is.  4id. 
per  head.  Patti  is  an  ancient  town,  and  is  mentioned  in  the  itinerary 
of  Hiuen  Tsiang,  the  Chinese  pilgrim  of  the  7th  century.  The 
town  is  walled,  and  the  houses  are  mostly  built  of  burnt  bricks ; 
streets  well  paved,  and  a  good  bazar.  An  old  fort  200  yards  north- 
east of  the  town  contains  the  police  station  and  rest-house.  School. 
Patti  forms  a  favourite  recruiting  station  ;  the  inhabitants  are  noted 
for  their  fine  physique,  and  large  numbers  of  them  are  serving  in  the 

'?dXti.—  Ta/isiloT  Sub-division  of  Fartabgarh  (Pratapgarh)  District, 
Oudh  ;  bounded  on  the  north  by  Sultanpur  and  Kadipur  tahsils,  on 
the  east  by  Jaunpur  District,  on  the  south  by  Allahabad  District,  and 
on  the  west  by  Partabgarh  iahsil.  Area,  468  square  miles,  of  which 
217  are  cultivated.  Population  (188 1)  255,697,  namely,  229,751  Hindus 
and  25,946  Muhammadans.  The  most  thinly  populated  tahsil  in  the 
District,  the  average  pressure  being  546  persons  to  the  square  mile. 
Number  of  villages  or  townships  {inauzds),  816.  This  /rz/zj// comprises 
the  2  pargands  of  Patti  and  Dalippur,  which  are  now  joined  together 
and  returned  as  one;  of  the  816  villages,  695  are  held  under  taluk- 
ddri,  and  120  under  mufrdd  tenure,  while  i  belongs  to  Government. 
Of  the  695  tdlukddri  villages,  680  are  held  by  Bachgoti  Rajputs  in  23 
estates;  the  remaining  15  composing  a  single  estate  held  by  Dirg- 
bansis.  In  1884  the  tahsil  contained  i  civil  and  2  criminal  courts; 
strength  of  regular  police,  41  men ;  rural  police  or  village  watch 
{chaukiddrs),  712. 

Pattikonda.  —  Tdluk  or  Sub -division  of  Karniil  (Kurnool)  Dis- 
trict, Madras  Presidency.  Area,  1134  square  miles.  Population 
(1881)  105,438,  namely,  54,666  males  and  50,772  females,  dwelling  in 
107  villages,  containing  20.755  houses.  Hindus  number  97,094: 
Muhammadans,  8231;  Christians,   100;  and    'ethers,'  13.     The  A/Z^z/C* 


contains  2  criminal  courts ;  police  circles  {t/iands),  20 ;  regular  police, 
142.     Land  revenue  (1883),  ;^i  7,042. 

Pattikonda.  —  Head-quarters  of  the  Pattikonda  idliik,  Karnul 
(Kurnool)  District,  Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  15°  28'  N.,  long.  77°  4'  E. 
Pojoulation  (1881)  3087,  inhabiting  717  houses.  Memorable  as  the 
scene  of  Sir  Thomas  Munro's  death,  from  cholera,  in  July  1827.  Post- 

Pattukotai. — Tdluk  or  Sub-division  of  Tanjore  District,  Madras 
Presidency.  Area,  909  square  miles.  Population  (1872)  237,423; 
(1881)  244,717,  namely,  117,871  males  and  126,846  females,  dwelling 
in  840  villages,  and  occupying  47,346  houses.  Hindus  number 
221,556;  Muhammadans,  17,066;  Christians,  6093;  and  'others,  2. 
In  1883  the  number  of  civil  courts  in  the  td/nk  was  i,  and  of  criminal 
courts  2;  police  circles  {thdnds),  13;  regular  police,  87  men.  Land 
revenue,  ^19,205. 

Pattukotai. — Town  in  Tanjore  District,  and  head-quarters  of  Pattu- 
kotai tdluk,  Madras  Presidency;  situated  27  miles  south-east  of  Tanjore 
town.  Population  (t88i)  4677,  occupying  809  houses.  A  sub-station 
of  the  Society  for  the  Propagation  of  the  Gospel ;  a  station  of  the 
Vicariate -Apostolic  of  ]\Ladura ;  police  station,  sub-jail,  telegraphic 
and  post  offices,  dispensary,  and  fort.  The  fort  was  built  by  Vijaya 
Raghaya  (the  last  of  the  Nayak  dynasty)  in  the  7th  century. 

Patuakhali.  —  Sub-division  of  Bakarganj  District,  Bengal ;  com- 
prising the  4  police  circles  of  Patuakhali,  Bauphal,  Gulsakhali,  and 
Gulachhipa.  Area,  1231  square  miles,  with  looi  towns  and  villages, 
and  49,620  houses.  Population  (1872)  425,019:  (1881)  426,758, 
namely,  males  223,688,  and  females  203,070.  Muhammadans  num- 
ber 342,112,  or  8o-i  per  cent.;  Hindus,  79,749,  or  18-9  per  cent.; 
Buddhists,  4723;  and  Christians,  174.  Proportion  of  males  in  total 
population,  52*4  per  cent.  ;  average  density  of  population,  346  persons 
per  square  mile  ;  persons  per  village,  426  ;  houses  per  square  mile, 
42-2  ;  inmates  per  house,  8*6.  Head-quarters  at  the  village  of  Patua- 
khali or  Lankati  ;  lat.  22°  20' 35"  x.,  long.  90°  22' 45"  e.  In  1883, 
Patuakhali  Sub-division  contained  i  criminal  and  3  civil  and  revenue 
courts,  a  regular  police  force  numbering  81  men,  and  a  village  watch  or 
rural  police  of  1088  chaukiddrs. 

Patlir  {Patur  Shaikh  Babu). — Town  in  Balapur  tdluk,  Akola  Dis- 
trict, Berar.  Situated  in  lat.  20°  27'  n.,  and  long.  76°  59'  e.,  18  miles 
south  of  Akola  town,  on  the  high  road  from  Akola  to  Basim,  and  under 
the  hills  up  which  a  pass  leads  to  the  Balaghat.  Population  (1881) 
7219,  namely,  Hindus,  4994;  Muhammadans,  2002;  Jains,  221  ;  and 
*  others,'  2,  A  rock-hewn  Buddhist  monastery  is  situated  in  the  hill- 
side east  of  the  town.  Two  other  shrines  in  the  vicinity,  one  Muham- 
madan  and  the  other  Hindu,  are  much  resorted  to.     An  annual  Hindu 

FA  UMBEN—PA  UNG-LA  UNG.  1 1 9 

fair  is  held  in  January-February,  lasting  upwards  of  a  month.  A 
Musalman  fair,  lasting  for  three  days,  is  held  at  the  shrine  of  Shaikh 
Uabii.     Weekly  market,  post-office,  and  inspection  bungalow. 

Paumben. — Town  in  INIadura  District,  Madras  Presidency. — See 
Pa  Mi;  AM. 

Paunar  {Powndr). — Ancient  town  in  Wardha  tahsil^  Wardha  Dis- 
trict, Central  Provinces ;  situated  in  lat.  20°  47'  n.,  and  long.  78°  42' 
30"  E.,  on  the  river  Dham,  5  miles  north-east  of  Wardhd  town.  Popu- 
lation (1881)  2495,  chiefly  agricultural.  Hindus  number  2268; 
Muhammadans,  189;  Jains,  35;  and  non-Hindu  aborigines,  3.  The 
village  contains  a  ruined  fort  in  a  strong  position,  and  one  of  the  large 
stone  gateways  of  the  old  wall  yet  remains.  Paunar  forms  the  scene 
of  some  curious  legends,  which  will  be  found  in  the  article  on  Wardha 
District.  It  was  formerly  the  chief  seat  of  the  Musalman  Govern- 
ment east  of  the  river  Wardha ;  and  under  the  Mardthas  became  the 
head-quarters  of  a  kamdvisddri  or  revenue  district.  In  1807  the 
Pindari's  plundered  the  town.     Anglo-vernacular  school. 

Paung-deh  {Pomig-day). — Township  in  Prome  District,  Lower 
Burma;  situated  to  the  west  of  the  Myit-ma-ka  stream,  which  traverses 
the  township  from  north  to  south,  leaving  a  narrow  strip  between  it  and 
the  In-daing,  the  name  given  to  the  long  stretch  of  In  (Dipterocarpus 
tuberculatus)  forest  land  lying  between  the  Prome  hills  and  the  Myit- 
ma-ka.  The  country  is  undulating,  and  the  eastern  portion  consists  of 
a  plain  highly  cultivated  and  under  rice.  The  great  high  road  from 
Rangoon  to  the  northern  frontier,  and  also  the  Irawadi  Valley  State  Rail- 
way, traverse  this  tract.  I'he  chief  river  is  the  Myit-ma-ka,  the  head- 
waters of  the  Hlaing  river,  which  carries  off  nearly  the  whole  drainage 
of  the  country.  Its  main  tributaries  are  the  Shwe-lay  or  Weh-gyi  and 
the  Kantha  or  Taung-nyo.  Paung-deh  now  includes  In-ma,  once  an 
independent  jurisdiction.  The  In-ma  lake  is  an  extensive  marsh  about 
10  miles  long  and  4  broad  in  the  rains,  with  a  depth  of  12  feet.  The 
Myit-ma-ka  enters  it  in  the  north  as  the  Zay.  The  township  comprises 
39  revenue  circles,  with  a  population  in  1881  of  34,287,  and  a  gross 
revenue  of  about  ^^8400. 

Paung-deh  {Poiwg-day).  —  Chief  town  of  Paung-deh  township, 
Prome  District,  Pegu  Division,  Lower  Burma;  situated  in  lat.  18^  28' 
20"  N.,  and  long.  95°  33'  40"  e.,  on  the  main  road  from  Rangoon 
northwards,  32  miles  south  of  Prome  town.  Contains  a  court-house, 
market,  police  station,  lock-up,  charitable  dispensary,  the  reformatory 
for  the  Province,  school,  etc.  Station  on  the  Irawadi  Valley  State 
Railway.     Population  (1881)  6727. 

Paung-laung  {Poimg-Zoufig). — Range  of  hills  in  Tenasserim  Division, 
Lower  Burma,  forming  the  eastern  boundary  of  Shwe-gyin  District. 
The  mountains   are  steep  and   densely  wooded,  and  many  rivers  take 

T  20  PA  UNG-LIA—PA  VA  GAD  A. 

their  rise  here.  Three  principal  passes  cross  the  range— the  northern 
runs  up  the  valley  of  the  Baw-ga-ta,  and  across  the  Thayet-pin-kin-dat 
hill  to  Kaw-lu-do,  the  northern  police  post  in  the  Salwin  Hill  Tracts ; 
the  central  passes  up  the  valleys  of  the  Mut-ta-ma  and  Meh-deh,  and 
debouches  at  Pa-pun ;  and  the  southern  route  is  from  the  Mut-ta-ma 
river  to  Pa-wa-ta  on  the  Bi-lin. 

Paiing--lin  (i^^z^^/,?--//-^).  —  Township  of  Hanthawadi  (formerly 
Rangoon)  District,  Pegu  Division,  Lower  Burma.  Population  (1881) 
49,526;  gross  revenue,  ^26,154.  The  Sittaung  Valley  State  Railway 
traverses  Paung-lin. — See  Hpaung-lin. 

Pauni.  —  Town  and  municipality  in  Bhanddra  District,  Central 
Provinces;  situated  in  lat.  20°  48'  n.,  and  long.  79°  40' e.,  32  miles 
south  of  Bhandara  town.  Population  (1881)  9773,  namely,  Hindus, 
8760;  Kabirpanthis,  29;  Muhammadans,  838;  Jains,  7;  non-Hindu 
aborigines,  139.  Municipal  income  (1882-83),  ;£397,  of  which  ^342 
was  derived  from  taxation ;  average  incidence  of  taxation,  8|d.  per 
head.  The  town  is  surrounded  on  three  sides  by  high  ramparts  of  earth, 
in  some  parts  crowned  with  stone  battlements,  and  by  a  ditch ;  along 
the  fourth  side,  to  the  east,  runs  the  scarped  bank  of  the  Wainganga 
river.  Two  or  three  handsome  stone  ghats  lead  down  to  the  river, 
which  supplies  the  water  used  for  domestic  purposes  ;  that  drawn  from 
the  wells  being  generally  brackish.  The  dense  jungle  in  and  around 
the  town  renders  the  place  very  unhealthy;  and  this  fact,  with  the 
consequent  removal  of  many  of  the  wealthier  inhabitants  to  Nagpur, 
has  caused  Pauni  to  decay.  A  considerable  trade  still  takes  place, 
however,  in  cotton  cloth  and  silk  pieces  ;  and  the  finer  fabrics  manu- 
factured at  Pauni  are  exported  to  great  distances.  The  town  contains 
many  old  shrines,  but  the  great  temple  of  Murlidhar,  though  com- 
paratively modern,  is  the  only  one  of  repute.  Pauni  has  a  large  and 
flourishing  Government  school,  police  outpost  station,  post-office, 
dispensary,  and  small  rest-house  for  travellers  on  the  bank  of  the  river. 

Pauri  {Faori), — Village  and  administrative  head-quarters  of  Garh- 
wal  District,  North-Western  Provinces.  Lat.  30°  8'  10"  n.,  long.  78° 
48'  15"  E.  Residence  of  an  extra-Assistant  Commissioner  and  of  a 
civil  judge  {Sadr  Amin),  Station  of  the  American  Baptist  Mission. 
Anglo-vernacular  school. 

Pavagada. — Tdhik  in  Chitaldriig  District,  Mysore  State.  Area,  567 
square  miles,  of  which  163  are  cuhivated.  Population  (1871)  66,250  ; 
(1881)  45,513,  namely,  23,400  males  and  22,113  females.  Hindus 
number  44,586;  Muhammadans,  842;  Jains,  2>2  ;  and  Christians,  3. 
Land  revenue  (1881-82),  exclusive  of  water  rates,  ^7504,  or  is.  4d. 
per  cultivated  acre.  Soil  sandy,  and  abounding  with  talpargis  or  sub- 
surface springs  of  water.  Crops — rice,  ragi,  navane,  and  horse-gram  ; 
exports — iron  and  rice.     In    1883  the  taluk  contained   i   civil  and  i 

PA  VA  GAD  A    VILLA  GE~PA  WA  GARIL  1 2 1 

criminal    court;   police  circles   {thdfids),   7;  regular    police,  54  men; 
village  watch  {c/iaukiddrs),  132. 

Pdvagada  (or  Fdmu^^onda,  '  Snake-hill "). — Village  in  Chitaldriig 
District,  Mysore  State;  situated  in  lat.  14°  6'  23"  n.,  and  long.  77° 
19'  8"  E.,  60  miles  east  of  Chitaldriig  town,  at  the  southern  base  of 
Pavagada  hill,  3026  feet  above  sea-level ;  head-quarters  of  Pavagada 
td/uk.  Population  (188 1 )  1591.  The  residence  of  a  line  of /^V.f^i.w^, 
whose  founder  lived  towards  the  close  of  the  i6th  century.  The 
existing  fortifications  were  erected  by  Haidar  All  in  1777. 

Pawagarh  (or  '  Quarter  Hiir).—Y{'\\\  fort  in  the  Panch  Mahals 
District,  Bombay  Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  22°  31'  n.,  and  long. 
73°  36'  E.,  about  28  miles  east  of  Baroda.  An  isolated  hill  surrounded 
by  extensive  plains,  from  which  it  rises  abruptly  to  the  height  of  about 
2500  feet,  being  about  2800  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  The 
base  and  lower  slopes  are  thickly  covered  with  rather  stunted  timber. 
But  its  shoulders  and  centre  crest  are,  on  the  south,  west,  and  north, 
cliffs  of  bare  trap,  too  steep  for  trees.  Less  inaccessible,  the  eastern 
heights  are  wooded  and  topped  by  massive  masonry  walls  and  bastions 
rising  with  narrowing  fronts  to  the  scarped  rock  that  crowns  the  hill. 
To  the  east  of  Pawagarh  lie  the  vast  Baria  State  forests,  and  the  hill 
seems  to  form  the  boundary  between  the  wild  country  to  the  east  and 
the  clear  open  plain  that  stretches  westward  to  the  sea.  On  the  east 
side  of  the  north  end  of  the  hill  are  the  remains  of  many  beautifully 
executed  Jain  temples ;  and  on  the  west  side,  overlooking  a  tremendous 
precipice,  are  some  Musalman  buildings  of  more  modern  date,  supposed 
to  have  been  used  as  granaries.  The  southern  extremity  is  more  un- 
even, and  from  its  centre  rises  an  immense  peak  of  solid  rock,  towering 
to  the  height  of  about  250  feet.  The  ascent  to  the  top  of  this  is  by  a 
flight  of  stone  steps,  and  on  its  summit  stand  a  Hindu  temple  and  a 
Musalman  shrine. 

The  fortifications  consist  of  a  lower  fort,  a  massive  stone  structure 
with  strong  bastions  stretching  across  the  less  precipitous  parts  of  the 
eastern  spur.  This  line  of  fortification  is  entered  by  the  Atak  gate, 
once  double,  but  now  with  its  outer  gate  in  ruins.  Half  a  mile  further 
is  the  Mohoti  or  Great  Gate,  giving  entrance  to  the  second  line  of 
defence.  The  path  winds  up  the  face  of  the  rock  through  four  gates, 
each  commanding  the  one  below  it.  Massive  walls  connect  the  gates 
and  sweep  up  to  the  fortifications  that  stretch  across  the  crest  of  the 
spur.  Beyond  the  Mohoti  Gate,  the  path  for  about  200  yards  lies  over 
level  ground  with  a  high  ridge  on  the  left,  crowned  by  a  strong  wall 
running  back  to  the  third  line  of  defence.  This  third  line  of  defence 
is  reached  through  the  Sadan  Shah  Gate,  a  winding  passage  cut  through 
the  solid  rock,  crowned  with  towering  walls  and  bastions,  and  crossed 
by  a  double  Hindu  gateway. 


In  old  inscriptions,  the  name  of  the  hill  appears  as  Pawakgarh,  or 
'  Fire  Hill.'  The  first  historic  reference  to  it  is  in  the  writings  of  the 
bard  Chand  (102  2-1 07 2),  who  speaks  of  Ram  Gaur  the  Tuar  as  lord 
of  Pawa.  The  earHest  authentic  account  is  about  1300,  when  it  was 
seized  by  Chauhan  Rajputs,  who  fled  from  Me  war  before  the  forces  of 
Ala-iid-din  Khilji.  The  Musalman  kings  of  Ahmadabad  more  than 
once  attempted  to  take  the  fort,  and  failed.  In  1484,  Sultan  Mahmiid 
Begara,  after  a  siege  of  nearly  two  years,  succeeded  in  reducing  it. 
On  gaining  possession,  he  added  to  the  defences  of  the  upper  and 
lower  forts,  and  for  the  first  time  fortified  the  plateau,  making  it  his 
citadel.  In  spite  of  its  strength,  it  was  captured  in  1535  by  the 
Emperor  Hamayiln  by  treachery.  In  1573  it  fell  into  the  hands  of  the 
Emperor  Akbar.  In  1727  it  was  surprised  by  Krishnaji,  who  made  it 
his  head-quarters,  and  conducted  many  raids  into  Gujarat.  Sindhia 
took  the  fort  about  1761;  and  from  Sindhia  Colonel  Woodington 
captured  it  in  1803.  In  1804  it  was  restored  to  Sindhia,  with  whom 
it  remained  until  1853,  when  the  British  took  over  the  management  of 
the  Panch  Mahal  District. 

The  constant  cool  winds  that  prevail  during  the  hot-weather  months 
make  the  hill  at  that  season  a  favourite  resort  for  the  European 
residents  of  Baroda. 

Pawangarh. — Hill  fort  in  Kolhapur  State,  Bombay  Presidency. 
Lat.  16°  48'  N.,  long.  74°  10'  15"  E.  The  fort  was  stormed  by  a  British 
force  on  ist  December  1844. 

Pawayan. — Northern  iahsiloi  Shahjahanpur  District,  North-Western 
Provinces,  comprising  the  pargands  of  Pawayan,  Jamaur,  and  Kant. 
Area,  598  square  miles,  of  which  358  are  cultivated.  Population 
(1872)  261,494;  (1881)  245,454,  namely,  males  131,221,  and  lemales 
114,233.  Classified  according  to  religion,  there  were  in  1881 — 
Hindus,  223,408;  Muhammadans,  22,028;  and  'others,'  18.  Of  the 
654  villages  in  the  tahsil,  508  contain  less  than  five  hundred  inhabitants ; 
108  Irom  five  hundred  to  a  thousand;  37  from  one  to  three  thousand; 
and  I  upwards  of  five  thousand  inhabitants.  Government  land 
revenue,  ;£"34,5i8,  or  including  local  rates  and  cesses  levied  on  land, 
;£'39,438.  Rental  paid  by  cultivators,  ^56,304.  In  1883,  Pawayan 
tahsil  contained  i  civil  and  i  magisterial  court ;  strength  of  regular 
police,  61  men;  besides  a  village  watch  or  chai/kidd?'i  force. 

Pawayan. — Town  in  Shahjahanpur  District,  North-Western  Pro- 
vinces, and  head-quarters  of  Pawayan  tahsil.  Situated  in  lat.  28°  4' 
10"  N.,  and  long.  80°  8'  25"  e.,  4  miles  south  of  the  Bhainsi  river, 
and  17  miles  north  of  Shahjahanpur  town.  Population  (1881)  5478, 
namely,  Hindus,  4038;  Muhammadans,  1423;  and  'others,'  17.  The 
sanitation,  conservancy,  and  police  of  the  town  are  provided  for  by  a 
small  house-tax.     Charitable  dispensary. 


Pd-wi  Mul^ndd,.  —  Zaminddri  or  chiefship  in  Chandd  District, 
Central  Provinces,  16  miles  east  of  Chamursi ;  comprising  an  area  of 
87  square  miles,  with  23  villages  and  332  houses.  Po])ulation  (1881) 
1681.  Supplies  excellent  iron-ore;  and  the  forests  yield  teak,  ebony, 
and  bijesdl. 

Pd,yanghdt. — The  valley  of  the  Purna  river,  in  P.erar,  lying  between 
20"  27'  and  21'  10'  N.  lat.,  and  between  76^  10'  and  78°  e.  long.,  and 
running  eastward  between  the  Ajanta  ringe  and  the  Gawilgarh  Hills 
like  a  long  backwater  or  inlet,  varying  in  breadth  from  40  to  50  miles, 
and  becoming  wider  towards  the  east.  The  surface  of  the  valley  rises 
and  descends  by  very  long  low  waves,  the  intermediate  valleys  lying 
north  and  south.  At  a  point  just  beyond  Amraoti,  this  formation  is 
broken  by  a  chain  of  low  hills  crossing  the  plain  in  a  north-westerly 
direction,  and  changing  the  watershed  from  west  to  east.  The  Payan- 
ghat  contains  the  best  land  in  Berar — the  deep  black  alluvial  soil, 
of  almost  inexhaustible  fertility,  called  regar.  Here  and  there  are 
barren  tracts,  where  the  hills  spread  out  their  skirts  far  into  the  plain  ; 
or  where  a  few  outlying  flat-topped  hills,  often  crowned  with  huge 
cairn-like  mounds,  stand  forward  beyond  the  ranks  to  which  they  pro- 
perly belong.  Except  the  Purna,  which  is  the  main  artery  of  the  river 
system,  scarcely  a  stream  in  this  tract  is  perennial.  The  Payanghat  is 
very  scantily  wooded,  except  close  under  the  hills.  In  the  early  autumn 
it  is  one  sheet  of  cultivation,  but  in  the  hot  season  the  landscape  is 
desolate  and  depressing. 

Payidipala. — Village  in  Golconda  taluk,  Vizagapatam  District, 
Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  17°  38'  n.,  long.  82°  47'  e.  Attached  to 
the  village  are  10  hamlets,  scattered  over  5  square  miles.  Population 
(1871)  7797  and  (1881)  6896,  dwelling  in  1490  houses.  Hindus 
number  6805  ;  Muhammadans,  88  ;  and  '  others,'  3. 

Peddapur. —  Tdluk  or   Sub-division    of  Godavari    District,   Madras 

Presidency.      Area,    552   square   miles.      Population   (1871)    111,489; 

(1881)  124,314,  namely,  62,088  males  and  62,226  females,  dwelling  in 

I    town    and    187    villages,   and   occupying    25,282   houses.       Hindus 

I  number  122,400;  Muhammadans,    1901  ;  and  'others,'   13.     In   1883 

I  the  tdluk  contained  i  civil  and  2  criminal  courts  ;  police  circles  {t/uinds), 

[11;  regular  police,  178  men.     Land  revenue,  ;£"22,65o.     The  region  is 

1  mostly  jungle.     Rice,  sugar-cane,  cotton,  and  gram  are  grown.     Trade 

;  is  carried  on  with  Coconada. 

I  Peddapur  {Peddpur).  —  Head-quarters  town  of  Peddapur  tdluk, 
!  Godavari  District,  Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  17°  4'  55"  n.,  long.  82° 
10'  35"  E.  Population  (187 1)  9202;  (1881)  11,278,  namely,  5573 
males  and  5705  females,  occupying  2169  houses.  Hindus  number 
10,664,  and  Muhammadans  614.  The  town  lies  30  miles  from  Rajd- 
mahendri    (Rajahmundry).       Sub  -  magistrate's    and    District    munsifs 


courts;  post-office,  bungalow,  and  good  market.     Peddapurwas  formerly 
the  head-quarters  of  a  large  zaminddri. 

Peerpointee. — Town    in    Bhagalpur    District,    Bengal.  —  See   PiR- 


Pegu  (Fai-gu). — Division  of  Lower  Burma,  comprising  Rangoon 
Tow'N,  the  Districts  of  Hanthawadi  (formerly  Rangoon  District), 
Tharawadi,  and  Prome,  each  of  which  see  separately ;  also  British 
Burma  and  Pegu  Town.  The  Division  lies  between  16°  i'  40"  and 
^9  55'  20"  N.  lat,  and  between  95°  12'  and  96°  54'  e.  long.  Area, 
9159  square  miles.  Number  of  towns,  5  ;  villages,  4425  ;  houses, 
205,416.  Total  population  (1881)  1,162,393,  namely,  males  635,368, 
or  54*8  per  cent.,  and  females  527,025,  or  45-2  per  cent.  Average 
density  of  population,  i26'9  persons  per  square  mile;  towns  and 
villages  per  square  mile,  0*48 ;  persons  per  town  or  village,  262 ; 
occupied  houses  per  square  mile,  22^5;  persons  per  house,  57. 
Nearly  the  entire  population,  namely,  1,058,960,  or  91  per  cent., 
are  Buddhists.  Hindus  number  46,742;  Muhammadans,  28,159; 
Christians,  19,815;  Nat- worshippers  or  non- Buddhist  indigenous 
races,  8468;  Brahmos,  11;  Jews,  172;  and  Parsis,  66.  Of  the 
total  number  of  Christians,  European  British  and  other  European 
and  American  subjects  number  3642;  Eurasians,  3068;  and  Native 
converts,  13,105.  Of  the  Native  converts,  9643  are  Baptists.  The 
boat  population  numbers  23,851  persons,  living  in  4638  boats.  As 
regards  occupation,  the  male  population  were  distributed  into  the  follow- 
ing six  main  groups: — (1)  Professional  class,  including  State  officials 
of  every  kind  and  members  of  the  learned  professions,  18,024;  (2) 
domestic  servants,  inn  and  lodging-house  keepers,  8688 ;  (3)  commer- 
cial class,  including  bankers,  merchants,  carriers,  etc.,  44,882  ;  (4) 
agricultural  and  pastoral  class,  including  gardeners,  196,818;  (5) 
industrial  class,  including  all  manufacturers  and  artisans,  59,458;  and 
(6)  indefinite  and  non-productive  class,  comprising  labourers,  male 
children,  and  persons  of  unspecified  occupation,  307,498. 

The  total  population  dependent  on  the  soil  is  759,130,  or  65*31 
per  cent,  of  the  Divisional  population.  Total  cultivated  area,  2043 
square  miles,  or  an  average  of  172  acres  per  head  of  the  agricultural 
population.  The  total  area  of  cultivable  land  is  3973  square  miles. 
Amount  of  Government  land  revenue  assessment,  including  local 
rates  and  cesses  paid  on  land,  ;£"29 1,838,  or  an  average  of  4s.  4|d. 
per  cultivated  acre.  Chief  crops  of  the  Division  in  1882-83 
—  rice,  covering  an  area  of  1,371,329  acres;  oil-seeds,  4681  acres; 
pulses,  1884  acres;  cotton,  3097  acres;  tobacco,  6255  acres;  vege- 
tables, 2457  acres;  fruit-trees,  46,351  acres;  dha7ii  palm,  1433  acres; 
chillies,  1051  acres.  Taungya  or  nomadic  tillage  occupies  15,010 


Total  number  of  civil  and  revenue  courts,  Ty(i ;  criminal  courts,  41. 
Strength  of  regular  police,  1605  men.  Total  length  of  navigable 
rivers,  716]  miles,  and  of  canals  37  J  miles  ;  of  made  roads,  508^  miles  ; 
of  the  Irawadi  Valley  State  Railway,  116  miles;  and  of  the  Sittaung 
Valley  State  Railway,  65  miles.  Total  number  of  schools  under  public 
management,  missionary,  indigenous,  and  private  (1882-83),  2030; 
scholars,  53,047.  The  Census  Report  of  1881  returned  71,963  boys 
and  10,943  girls  as  under  instruction;  besides  251,817  males  and 
10,684  females  able  to  read  and  write,  but  not  under  instruction. 
The  principal  towns  are— Rangoon  (134,716),  Prome  (28,813),  ^^^ 
Pegu  (5891).     Gross  revenue  (1S82-83),  ^{^997, 319. 

Pegu  {Pai-gu). — North-eastern  township  of  Hanthawadi  District, 
Pegu  Division,  Lower  Burma.  Population  (1877-78),  49,655;  gross 
revenue,  ^27,116:  in  1881,  the  population  was  79,099,  and  the 
revenue  ^44,380.  The  north-western  portion  is  mountainous  and 
forest-clad ;  towards  the  south,  the  hills  gradually  sink  into  undulating 
ground,  and  end  in  level  tracts  partially  cultivated  with  rice.  The  princi- 
pal river  is  the  Pegu,  which  flows  first  south-east  and  then  south-west 
through  the  township.  Its  valley  has  an  elevation  of  1500  feet,  and  is 
intersected  by  deep  ravines.  The  country  north  of  the  valley  on  both 
banks  of  the  river  is  covered  with  dense  evergreen  forest.  The  centre 
of  the  township  is  traversed  by  the  Paing-kyun,  an  artificially  widened 
and  deepened  creek,  communicating  on  the  east  with  the  Sittaung,  and 
by  a  new  locked  canal  with  the  town  of  ]\Iyit-kyo.  A  good  road  runs 
from  Pegu  to  Rangoon,  and  another  is  being  constructed  from  Pegu  to 
Taung-gnu,  to  replace  the  old  'Royal  road'  made  by  the  Peguan 
king,  Ta-bin-shwe-ti,  in  the  i6th  century.  The  Sittaung  Valley  State 
Railway  from  Rangoon  to  Taung-gnu  traverses  the  northern  and  western 
portions  of  the  township.  The  villages  are  connected  by  good  fair- 
weather  tracks.  The  township  is  divided  into  6  revenue  circles ;  the 
chief  town  is  Pegu.  This  township  comprises  the  old  Burmese  juris- 
I  dictions  of  Pegu  on  the  north-east,  Zaing-ga-naing  on  the  north-west,  and 
Zweh-bun  on  the  south. 

!      Pegu. — Head-quarters  town  of  Pegu  township,  Hanthawadi  District, 

j  Pegu  Division,  Lower  Burma;  situated  in  lat.  17°  20'  n.,  and  long.  96" 

j  30'  E.,  on  the  Pegu  river,  20  miles  west  of  the  Sittaung  (Tsit-toung), 

;and  46  miles  north-east  of  Rangoon.     Population  (1881)  5891,  namely, 

Buddhists,  5315  ;  Hindus,   247;  Muhammadans,  307  ;  and  Christians, 

1 22.      Contains   court-houses,    police  station,  market,    post-office,    and 

Government  school.     Modern  Pegu  lies  close  to  the  river  bank.     The 

ancient  town  was   founded   in   573  a.d.,  by  emigrants  from  Tha-tun, 

headed  by  the  two  princes  Tha-ma-la  and  Weh-ma-la,  and  was  formerly 

the  capital  of  the  Talaing  kingdom  ;  the  sovereigns  of  which  at  one  time 

reigned  over  the  whole  valleys  of  the  Sittaung  and  of  the  Irawadi  (Irra- 

126  PEGU  TOWN. 

waddy), — including  Taung-gnu  and  Prome, — conquered  Ava  and  the 
sea-coast  as  far  as  the  Pak-chan,  and  successfully  invaded  Siam  and 
Arakan.  Across  the  river,  and  connected  with  the  Pegu  quarter  by  a 
substantial  wooden  bridge,  over  which  runs  the  Rangoon  and  Taung- 
gnu  road,  is  Zaing-ga-naing.  Inside  the  old  walls  stands  the  great 
Shwe-maw-daw  pagoda,  an  object  of  greater  veneration  to  the  Talaings 
than  even  the  Shwe  Dagon  at  Rangoon.  The  town  is  laid  out  with 
broad  and  well-metalled  streets  crossing  each  other,  generally  at  right 
angles.  The  market  is  on  the  bank  of  the  river,  a  little  above  the 
brido-e.  The  court-houses  are  situated  on  the  wall,  which  has  been 
levelled  east  of  the  town.  The  houses  are  built  of  wood  and  bamboos, 
and  are  thatched  or  tiled.  The  town  has  more  than  once  been  burned 

Pegu  is  described  by  European  travellers  in  the  i6th  century  as  of 
great  size,  strength,  and  magnificence.  C^sar  Frederick,  who  was  here 
in  the  latter  portion  of  the  i6th  century,  according  to  the  account  given 
in  Purchas,  wrote  : — '  By  the  help  of  God  we  came  safe  to  Pegu,  which 
are  two  cities,  the  old  and  the  new.  In  the  old  citie  are  the  Merchant 
strangers  and  Merchants  of  the  Countrie,  for  there  are  the  greatest 
doings  and  the  greatest  trade.  This  citie  is  not  very  great,  but  it  hath 
very  great  suburbs.  Their  houses  be  made  with  canes  and  covered 
with  leaves  or  with  straw ;  but  the  Merchants  have  all  one  House  or 
Magazon  which  house  they  call  Godon,  which  is  made  of  bricks,  and 
there  they  put  all  their  goods  of  any  value  to  save  them  from  the  often 
mischances  which  happen  to  houses  made  of  such  stuffe.  In  the  new 
citie  is  the  Palace  of  the  King  and  his  abiding  place  with  all  his  barons 
and  nobles  and  other  gentlemen ;  and  in  the  time  that  I  was  there  they 
finished  the  building  of  the  new  citie.  It  is  a  great  citie,  very  plaine 
and  flat,  and  foursquare,  walled  round  about  and  with  ditches  that 
compass  the  walls  round  about  with  water,  in  which  ditches  are  many 
Crocodiles.  It  hath  no  Drawbridges,  yet  it  hath  20  gates,  five  for  every 
square  :  on  the  walls  there  are  many  places  made  for  Centinels  to 
watch,  made  of  wood  and  covered  or  gilt  with  gold.  The  streets 
thereof  are  the  fairest  that  I  have  seen,  they  are  as  straight  as  a  line 
from  one  gate  to  another,  and  standing  at  one  gate  you  may  discover 
the  other ;  and  they  are  as  broad  as  that  ten  or  twelve  men  may  ride 
abreast  in  them.  And  those  streets  that  be  thwart  are  faire  and  large: 
the  streets  both  on  the  one  side  and  on  the  other  are  planted  at  the 
doores  of  the  houses  with  nut-trees  of  India,  which  make  a  very  com- 
modious shadow;  the  houses  be  made  of  wood  and  covered  with  a 
kind  of  tiles  in  forme  of  cups  very  necessary  for  their  use.  The  King's 
Palace  is  in  the  middle  of  the  Citie  made  in  forme  of  a  walled  castle, 
with  ditches  full  of  water  round  about  it.  The  lodgings  within  are 
made  of  wood,  all  over   gilded,  with  fine  pinnacles    and  very  costlie 

PEGU  TOnW.  127 

worke  covered  with  plates  of  gold ;  truly  it  may  be  a  king's  house. 
W^ithin  the  gate  there  is  a  fine  large  courte,  from  the  one  side  to 
the  otlier  wherein  are  made  places  for  the  strongest  and  stoutest 

\Vhen  Alaung-paya  (Alompra)  conquered  Pegu  in  the  middle  of 
the  18th  century,  he  used  every  effort  to  annihilate  all  traces  of 
Talaing  nationality.  He  destroyed  every  house  in  the  town,  and 
dispersed  the  inhabitants.  His  great-grandson,  Bo  -  daw  Paya,  who 
succeeded  in  1781,  pursued  a  different  policy;  and  in  his  time  the 
seat  of  the  local  government  was  for  some  time  transferred  from 
Rangoon  to  Pegu.  Symes,  who  visited  it  in  1795,  ^'^^^^  describes  it :  ^ 
— 'The  extent  of  ancient  Pegu  may  still  be  accurately  traced  by  the 
ruins  of  the  ditch  and  wall  that  surrounded  it.  P>om  these,  it  appears  to 
have  been  a  quadrangle,  each  side  measuring  nearly  a  mile  and  a  half; 
in  places  the  ditch  has  been  choked  up  by  rubbish  that  has  been  cast 
into  it,  and  the  falling  of  its  own  banks ;  sufficient,  however,  still 
remains  to  show  that  it  was  once  no  contemptible  defence ;  the  breadth 
I  judged  to  be  about  60  yards,  and  the  depth  10  or  12  feet;  in  some 
jxirts  of  it  there  is  water,  but  in  no  considerable  quantity.  I  was 
informed  that  when  the  ditch  was  in  repair,  the  water  seldom  in  the 
hottest  seasons  sunk  below  the  depth  of  4  feet.  The  wall  was  a  work 
of  magnitude  and  labour;  it  is  not  easy  to  ascertain  what  was  its  exact 
height,  but  we  conjectured  it  at  least  30  feet,  and  in  breadth  at  the 
base,  not  less  than  40.  It  is  composed  of  brick,  badly  cemented  with 
clay  mortar.  Small  equidistant  bastions,  about  300  yards  asunder,  are 
still  discoverable ;  there  had  been  a  parapet  of  masonry,  but  the  whole 
is  in  a  state  so  ruinous,  and  so  covered  with  weeds  and  briers,  as  to 
leave  very  imperfect  vestiges  of  its  former  strength. 

'  In  the  centre  of  each  face  of  the  fort  there  is  a  gateway  about  30 
feet  wide ;  these  gateways  were  the  principal  entrances.  The  passage 
over  the  ditch  is  over  a  causeway  raised  on  a  mound  of  earth  that 
serves  as  a  bridge,  and  was  formerly  defended  by  an  entrenchment,  of 
which  there  are  now  no  traces.'  After  describing  how  ineffectual 
seemed  to  have  been  the  endeavours  to  repopulate  Pegu,  Colonel 
Symes  continues  :  '  Pegu  in  its  renovated  and  contracted  state  seems 
to  have  been  built  on  the  plan  of  the  former  city,  and  occupies  about 
one-half  of  its  area.  It  is  fenced  round  by  a  stockade  from  10  to  12  feet 
high,  on  the  north  and  east  sides  its  borders  are  the  old  wall.^  The 
plan  of  the  town  is  not  yet  filled  with  houses,  but  a  number  of  new 
ones  are  building.  There  is  one  main  street  running  east  and  west, 
crossed  at  right  angles  by  two  smaller  streets  not  yet  finished.  At  each 
extremity  of  the  principal  street  there  is  a  gate  in  the  stockade,  which 

^  Embassy  to  Ava,  p.  182  et  Stq. 

^  It  thus  included  the  Shwc-niaw-daw  pagoda. 

128  PEGU  RIVER. 

is  shut  early  in  the  evening ;  after  that  hour,  entrance  during  the  night 
is  confined  to  a  wicket.  .  .  .  There  are  two  inferior  gates  on  the  north 
and  south  sides  of  the  stockade. 

*  The  streets  of  Pegu  are  spacious.  .  .  .  The  new  town  is  well  paved 
with  brick,  which  the  ruins  of  the  old  plentifully  supply ;  on  each  side 
of  the  way  there  is  a  drain  to  carry  off  the  water.' 

After  the  capture  of  Rangoon  during  the  first  Anglo-Burmese  war, 
the  Burmese  commander-in-chief  retired  to  Pegu  ;  and  his  forces  be- 
coming thinned  by  desertion,  the  inhabitants  rose  against  him  and 
handed  the  place  over  to  the  British,  who  garrisoned  it  with  a  small 
body  of  troops.  During  the  second  war  it  was  more  stubbornly 
defended.  Early  in  June  1852,  the  defences  were  carried  by  a  force 
under  Major  Cotton  and  Commander  Tarleton,  R.N.,  the  granaries 
destroyed,  and  the  guns  carried  away.  Without  assistance,  however, 
the  inhabitants,  at  whose  request  the  expedition  had  been  sent,  were 
unable  to  hold  the  town  for  a  week,  and  the  Burmese  reoccupied  the 
pagoda  platform,  and  threw  up  strong  defences  along  the  river.  In 
November  of  the  same  year,  a  force  under  Brigadier  M'Neill  was  sent 
from  Rangoon  to  retake  the  town,  which  was  achieved  after  considerable 
fighting,  and  with  some  loss.  The  main  portion  of  the  troops  were  then 
withdrawn,  and  a  garrison  left  of  200  men  of  the  Madras  Fusiliers,  200 
of  the  5th  Regiment  M.N. I.,  some  European  artillery,  and  a  detail  of 
Madras  sappers,  the  whole  being  placed  under  the  command  of  Major 
Hill  of  the  Fusiliers.  Hardly  had  Brigadier  M'Neill  retired  when  the 
Burmese  attacked  the  garrison,  but  were  driven  off.  The  attacks 
continued ;  and  in  the  beginning  of  December  the  enemy  appeared  in 
force,  and  Major  Hill  with  difficulty  held  the  position.  A  small  rein- 
forcement was  despatched  from  Rangoon ;  but  this  was  driven  back, 
and  forced  to  retire  without  communicating  with  the  besieged.  General 
Godwin,  the  commander-in-chief,  then  moved  up  the  Pegu  river  in 
person  with  1200  men,  upon  which,  after  some  skirmishing,  the 
Burmese  retired;  but  as  they  remained  in  the  neighbourhood,  the  force 
moved  out  against  them  and  finally  defeated  them,  driving  them  out  of 
a  strong  position  in  the  plains,  where  they  had  thrown  up  extensive 

Pegu. — River  in  Hanthawadi  District,  Pegu  Division,  Lower  Burma; 
rises  in  lat.  18°  n.,  and  long.  96°  10'  e.,  on  the  eastern  slopes  of  the 
Pegu  Yoma  Mountains,  and  flows  first  south-south-east,  past  the  town 
of  Pegu,  then  south-south-west,  and  finally  joins  the  Rangoon  or 
Hlaing  River,  in  lat.  16°  45'  n.,  and  long.  96°  11'  e.,  near  Rangoon 
after  a  total  course  of  180  miles.  At  its  mouth  it  is  about  i  mile 
broad,  and  can  be  ascended  by  large  vessels  as  far  as  the  Pu-zon-daung, 
where  they  take  in  cargoes  of  rice,  cleaned  in  the  steam  mills  on  the 
banks  of  that  stream.     At  neaps,  the  tide  is  felt  as  high  as  Pegu,  and 


during  springs  a  bore  rushes  up  the  river  almost  as  far.  In  the  rains, 
the  Pegu  is  practicable  for  river  steamers  up  to  Pegu  town.  It  taps  a 
country  rich  in  teak  and  other  valuable  kinds  of  timber;  and  in 
the  lower  part  of  its  course,  it  irrigates  a  considerable  area  under  rice 

Pegu  Yoma. — Mountains  in  Lower  Burma. — See  Yoma, 

Pehoa  {Pihcwd). — Ancient  town  and  place  of  pilgrimage  in  Ambdla 
(Umballa)  District,  Punjab  ;  situated  in  lat.  29°  58'  45"  n.,  and  long. 
76°  37'  15"  i^.,  on  the  sacred  river  Saraswati  (Sarsuti),  13  miles  west  of 
Thaneswar.  Pehoa  was  anciently  known  as  Prithiidaka,  or  '  Broad 
AVater,'  in  allusion  to  the  fact  that  when  the  Saraswati  is  in  flood,  the 
low  lands  surrounding  the  town  are  covered  with  water.  The  place 
stands  within  the  boundary  of  the  Kurukshetra,  and  ranks  second  in 
sanctity  to  Thaneswar  alone.  Tliere  are  no  buildings  with  any  claim 
to  antiquity  in  the  modern  town.  The  old  temples  were  probably 
destroyed  by  Mahmud  of  Ghazni  in  the  expedition  in  which  he  sacked 
Thaneswar.  There  are  some  very  curious  remains  of  old  pillars,  and 
the  people  point  out  places  where  they  say  that  digging  would  result  in 
the  discovery  of  ancient  sculptures.  There  is  one  curious  old  door- 
way profusely  covered  with  male  and  female  figures  sculptured  in  high 
relief,  and  the  remains  of  a  much  larger  gateway  in  the  same  style, 
but  much  simpler  in  design.  These  probably  belonged  to  a  great 
temple  of  Krishna,  whose  image  occupies  the  centre  position  in  the 
lintel  of  both  doorways. 

The  town  was  apparently  forgotten  as  a  place  of  pilgrimage  until  the 
establishment  of  the  Sikh  power  in  Kaithal.  It  then  revived,  and  the 
present  temples  have  all  been  built  within  the  last  fifty  or  sixty 
years.  The  population  of  Pehoa  town  in  1881  numbered  3408, 
namely,  Hindus,  2960  ;  Muhammadans,  442  ;  and  Sikhs,  6.  Number 
of  houses,  481.  Municipal  income  (1883-84),  ^£351,  or  an  average 
of  2S.  ofd.  per  head.  The  palace,  formerly  occupied  by  the  Kaithal 
Raja,  is  now  used  as  a  travellers'  rest-house.  A  large  annual  fair  for 
bathing  in  the  Saraswati  ordinarily  attracts  from  20,000  to  25,000 
pilgrims  ;  but  in  1873  as  many  as  100,000  attended.  Widows  assemble 
at  the  fair  to  bewail  their  husbands.  The  Saraswati  contains  little  water, 
but  is  dammed  up  to  secure  a  sufficiency  for  the  bathers  ;  it,  is,  how- 
ever, extremely  filthy,  and  the  stench  at  the  close  of  the  season  becomes 
almost  unendurable. 

Peint. — Formerly  a  Native  State,  and  now  a  Sub-division  of  Nasik 
District,  Bombay  Presidency.  Lying  between  20^  i'  and  20°  27'  n.  lat., 
and  between  72°  58'  and  73°  40'  e.  long.  Area,  458  square  miles,  con- 
taining 221  villages.  Bounded  on  the  north  by  Surgana  in  Khandesh 
District ;  on  the  east  by  the  Sahyadri  Hills,  which  separate  it  from  the 
Dindori  and  Nasik  Sub-divisions  of  Nasik  District ;  on  the  south  by  the 

VOL.  XI.  I 


District  of  Thana  ;  and  on  the  west  by  Dharampur  in  Surat.  Popu- 
lation (1881)  55,144  persons,  namely,  28,546  males  and  26,598  females, 
occupying  9524  houses.  Hindus  number  54,551;  Muhammadans, 
540 ;  and  '  others,'  53.  A  maze  of  hill  and  valley,  except  for  some 
rice-fields  and  patches  of  rough  hillside  cultivation,  Peint  is  over 
its  whole  area  covered  with  timber,  brushwood,  and  grass.  Towards 
the  north,  a  leading  range  of  hills,  passing  westwards  at  right  angles  to 
the  main  line  of  the  Sahyadri,  gives  a  distinct  character  to  the  land- 
scape. But  over  the  rest  of  the  country,  ranges  of  small  hills  starting 
up  on  all  sides  crowd  together  in  the  wildest  confusion,  with  a 
general  south-westerly  direction,  to  within  20  miles  of  the  sea-coast, 
dividing  the  valleys  of  the  Daman  and  Par  rivers.  The  heavy  rainfall, 
the  thick  forest  vegetation,  great  variations  of  temperature,  and  a 
certain  heaviness  of  the  atmosphere,  combine  to  make  the  tract 
unhealthy.  The  prevailing  diseases  are  fever  and  ague.  The  population 
consists  almost  entirely  of  forest  and  hill  tribes,  nominally  Hindus, 
poor  and  ignorant,  unsettled  in  their  habits,  and  much  given  to  the  use 
of  intoxicating  spirits.  Their  language  is  a  corrupt  Marathi  with  a 
large  mixture  of  Gujarathi  words.  A  large  part  of  Peint  is  well 
suited  for  grazing,  and  considerable  numbers  of  cattle  and  sheep 
are  exported.  The  chief  products  are  timber  of  various  kinds  (in- 
cluding bamboos),  rice,  ndchni,  oil-seeds,  beeswax,  honey,  elk-horn, 
and  hides. 

The  ruling  family,  by  descent  Rajputs  of  the  Powar  tribe,  adopted 
many  generations  back  the  family  name  of  Dalvi.  During  the  Maratha 
supremacy,  their  estates  were  for  a  long  period  placed  under  attach- 
ment by  the  Peshwas.  In  reward  for  services  rendered  in  1818, 
as  it  was  important,  in  so  difficult  and  turbulent  a  country,  to  have 
a  ruler  of  undoubted  friendliness,  the  family  were  reinstated  in  their 
former  position  by  the  British  Government. 

The  last  chief,  Abdul  Momin  alias  Lakshadir  Dalpat  Rao  in.,  died 
in  1837,  leaving  only  a  legitimate  daughter,  Begam  Niir  Jahan,  who 
died  in  1878.  The  State  was  placed  under  British  management  on 
the  death  of  the  last  male  chief,  but  the  Begam  was  allowed  a  life 
pension  of  ;£6oo  a  year,  in  addition  to  one-third  of  the  surplus 
revenues  of  the  State.  On  the  death  of  the  Begam  in  1878,  the 
State  finally  lapsed  to  the  British  Government,  and  now  constitutes 
a  Sub-division  of  Nasik  District. 

Harsiil,  the  former  place  of  residence  of  the  Begam,  lies  in  lat. 
20°  9'  N.,  and  long.  73°  30'  e.  In  1880-81,  Peint  Sub-division  con- 
tained 3816  holdings,  with  an  average  area  of  48 J  acres,  and  paying 
an  average  assessment  of  15s.  9d.  The  area  under  cultivation  in 
1880-81  was  149,120  acres;  the  principal  crops  being — grain  crops, 
90,827  acres,  of  which  62,258  were  under  ndchni  (Eleusine  corocana); 



pulses,  29,571  acres,  of  which  18,215  ^^'*^'^^  under  urid  (Phaseolus 
mungo) ;  and  oil-seeds,  28,722  acres.  In  1883  the  Sub-division 
contained  i  criminal  court ;  i  police  circle  {tluind) ;  regular  police, 
^2  men;  village  watch  {chauk'iddrs)^  155.     Land  revenue,  ;£^3393. 

Peint. — Chief  town  of  Peint  Sub-division,  Nasik  District,  Bombay 
Presidency ;  the  capital  of  the  former  chiefs  of  Peint  State,  which 
lapsed  to  Government  on  the  death  of  the  late  Begam  in  1878,  but  at 
present  a  very  small  place,  and  the  head-quarters  of  the  mdmlatdar. 
Situated  in  lat.  20°  16'  30"  N.,  and  long.  73°  29'  35"  e.,  32  miles  north- 
west of  Nasik,  and  10  miles  north  of  Harsiil.  Population  (1881) 
2644.     Post-office,  dispensary,  and  travellers'  bungalow. 

Pen.  —  Sub-division  of  Kolaba  District,  Bombay  Presidency; 
situated  in  the  north-east  corner  of  the  District ;  bounded  on  the 
north  by  Thana  District ;  on  the  east  by  Poona  ;  on  the  south  by  Roha  ; 
and  on  the  west  by  Alibagh.  The  chief  river  is  the  Amba,  of  which 
the  water  is  sweet  and  drinkable  from  June  until  September.  The 
soils  are  reddish  and  black.  A  large  area  of  tidal  swamps  is  used  as 
salt-pans.  Area,  290  square  miles,  containing  i  town  and  198  villages. 
Population  (1872)  63,363  ;  (1881)70,200,  namely,  males  36,221,  and 
females  33,979,  occupying  12,757  houses.  Hindus  number  66,670; 
Muhammadans,  2345;  and  'others,'  1185.  Land  revenue,  ;^i5,524. 
The  rainfall  averages  100  inches.  In  1881  the  number  of  holdings  was 
7471,  with  an  average  area  of  9I  acres,  paying  an  average  assessment 
of  ;^i,  19s.  2d.  The  survey  rates  were  in  1858  fixed  for  a  term  of 
thirty  years.  The  average  rates  are — for  rice  land,  7s.  9f  d.  per  acre ; 
for  garden  land,  6s.  2|d.  ;  for  upland,  4id.  Of  the  Government  area, 
namely  289J  square  miles,  76,970  acres  are  returned  as  cultivable, 
of  which  416  acres  are  alienated  lands  :  40,346  acres  as  uncultivable ; 
2749  acres  as  under  grass;  17,378  acres  as  under  forest ;  and  20,219 
acres  of  village  sites,  etc.  Total  cultivated  area  in  1880-81,  41,259 
acres,  of  which  325  were  twice  cropped.  Principal  crops  —  grain, 
I  40,613  acres,  of  which  32,653  were  under  rice;  pulses,  595  acres;  oil- 
seeds, 311  acres;  fibres,  26  acres;  and  miscellaneous,  39  acres.  In 
1883,  the  Sub-division  contained  i  civil  and  3  criminal  courts ; 
police  circles  {thdnds),  6  ;  regular  police,  60  men. 

Pen.  —  Chief  town  of  the  Pen  Sub-division  of  Kolaba  District, 
Bombay  Presidency;  situated  16  miles  east  by  north  of  Alibagh,  in 
lat.  18°  43'  50"  N.,  and  long.  73°  8' 40"  e.  Population  (1872)  6514 ; 
(1881)  8082.  Hindus  number  7302 ;  Muhammadans,  458 ;  Jains, 
109;  Christians,  8;  Parsis,  4;  and  'others,'  201.  Pen  is  a  munici- 
pality, with  an  income  in  1883-84  of;£"624  ;  incidence  of  taxation,  is.  5d. 
per  head.  Sub-judge's  court,  post-office,  dispensary,  public  library,  and 
Anglo-vernacular  school.  Pen  is  connected  with  the  Deccan  by  the 
Konkin  road  and  the  Bor  Pass.     Steamers  from  Bombay  call  daily  at 


Dhammtar  ferry  on  the  Amba  river,  5  miles  distant ;  and  cargo  boats 
up  to  50  tons  burthen  come  to  Auturli  or  Pen  Bandar,  \\  mile  distant, 
at  spring  tides.  The  neap  tide  port,  Bang  Bandar,  is  4  miles  below 
Pen.  Average  annual  value  of  trade  for  the  eight  years  ending 
1881-82  —  exports,  ^^66,991  ;  imports,  ^£33,493.  In  1881-82  the 
exports  amounted  to  ^63,491,  and  the  imports  to  ^30,172.  Pen  is 
one  of  the  two  ports  forming  the  Sakse  (Sankshi)  Customs  Division. 
New  water-works  have  been  recently  constructed  at  a  cost  of  ^£"2800. 

Pena. — Town  in  Gorakhpur  District,  North-Western  Provinces. — 
See  Pain  A. 

Pench. — River  of  the  Central  Provinces;  rising  in  lat.  22°  20'  n., 
and  long.  78°  37'  e.,  on  the  Motiir  plateau  in  Chhindwara  District. 
It  flows  south-east  to  Machagora,  noted  for  its  fishery,  thence  south  to 
the  village  of  Chand,  near  which  it  turns  north-east,  until  stopped  by 
the  hills  dividing  Seoni  and  Chhindwara  Districts.  It  then  flows 
nearly  due  south,  till,  after  a  total  course  of  120  miles,  it  joins  the 
Kanhan  river  in  Nagpur  District  (lat.  21°  17'  n.,  long.  79°  13'  e.). 
Principal  affluent,  the  Kolbira. 

Penchalakonda.— Peak  in  the  Veligonda  Hills,  Nellore  District, 
Madras  Presidency,  and  the  highest  point  in  the  Eastern  Ghats  within 
that  District.  Lat.  14°  17'  n.,  long.  79°  28'  45"  e.  ;  elevation  above  sea- 
level,  3000  feet.  Ancient  pagoda  on  the  hill,  resorted  to  by  numerous 
pilgrims  and  visitors. 

Pendhat. — Village  in  Mainpuri  District,  North-Western  Provinces; 
distant  from  Mainpuri  town  29  miles  north-west.  Population  (1881) 
2419,  namely,  Hindus,  2238;  Muhammadans,  86;  and  'others,'  95. 
Noted  for  a  great  religious  gathering,  held  on  a  movable  date,  at  the 
shrine  of  Jokhaiya.  Pilgrims  come  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  off- 
spring and  easy  child-birth. 

Pendra. — Northernmost  chiefship  or  zaminddri  of  Bilaspur  District, 
Central  Provinces  ;  situated  on  the  Vindhyan  uplands.  Though  inter- 
sected by  hills,  it  consists  mainly  of  an  extensive  plateau.  Area, 
585  square  miles,  of  which  40,000  acres  are  cultivated,  and  300,000 
returned  as  cultivable.  Number  of  villages,  200,  with  9888  houses. 
Population  (1881)  43,868,  namely,  males  22,323,  and  females  21,545  ; 
average  density  of  population,  75  persons  per  square  mile.  The  chief 
is  a  Raj-Gond,  and  obtained  the  grant  more  than  three  centuries  ago 
from  the  Haihai-Bansi  rulers  of  Ratanpur.  Pendra,  the  head-quarters 
(lat.  22°  47'  N.,  long.  82°  E.),  lies  on  the  direct  road  from  Bilaspur  to 
Rewa,  along  which  a  constant  flow  of  traffic  takes  place  in  the  cold 
months ;  it  contains  the  ruins  of  a  fort.  A  magnificent  grove  of 
mango  trees,  with  spreading  tamarinds  here  and  there,  affords  a 
pleasant  camping  ground. 

Penganga  {Paiugangd). — River  of  Berar,  having  its  source  in  the 

PENNER,  133 

hills  beyond  Dewalghat,  on  the  west  border  of  Buldana  District, 
in  lat.  20°  31'  30"  N.,  long.  76°  2'  e.  After  its  course  through  Buldana, 
it  forms  the  southern  boundary  of  the  Districts  of  Basim  and  Wun, 
as  well  as  of  Berar  itself.  A  legend  tells  that  it  owes  the  sudden 
change  in  its  direction  to  the  north  (up  to  that  point  easterly),  which  it 
takes  near  Mahur,  to  Parasuram,  son  of  the  sage  Jumdagni,  who  drove 
an  arrow  into  the  ground  here.  The  spot  is  still  held  in  great  venera- 
tion;  the  falls  there  are  known  as  Sahasra  Kiind  or  'the  thousand 
water  caves,'  and  the  river  takes  the  name  of  Bandganga.  The 
vicinity  is  densely  wooded,  and  before  the  British  administration  it  was 
the  resort  of  numerous  plundering  gangs.  When  the  river  takes  a 
northerly  direction,  after  a  series  of  straight  reaches,  at  rather  steep 
angles,  it  rushes  through  a  deep  rugged  channel,  broken  by  rocks  and 
rapids.  At  last  it  forces  its  way  through  the  barriers  of  basalt  into 
the  open  country,  and  joins  the  Wardha  at  Jagad  (lat.  19°  53'  30"  n., 
long.  79°  11'  30"  E.).  It  has  many  tributaries,  the  most  important  of 
which  are  the  Aran  (100  miles  long)  and  the  Arna  (64  miles).  The 
total  course  of  the  Penganga  exceeds  200  miles.  The  Sewandhri 
hills  in  the  Nizam's  Dominions  are  situated  on  its  right  bank. 

Penner  (or  Pindkini ;  Ponnaiydr ;  Pcnndr ;  Pennair). — The  name 
of  two  rivers  in  South  India,  which  both  rise  near  the  hill  of  Nandidriig 
in  Mysore  State,  and  flow  eastwards  through  the  Karnatik  into  the  Bay 
of  Bengal.  Penner  or  Pennair  is  the  name  adopted  by  European 
geographers ;  but  Pinakini,  apparently  derived  from  the  bow  of  Siva,  is 
that  by  which  these  rivers  are  known  to  the  Kanarese  inhabitants  of 

(i)  The  Northern  or  Uttar  Pinakini  has  its  source  in  the  Chenna 

Kesava  Hill  north-west  of  Nandidriig,  and  after  flowing  in  a  northerly 

direction   through  the  District  of  Kolar  in  Mysore,  and  the   Madras 

Districts  of  Bellary  and  Anantapur,  turns  due  east  and  passes  through 

the  Districts  of  Cuddapah  (Kadapa)  and  Nellore,  falling  into  the  sea 

by  several  mouths   19  miles  below  Nellore  town.     Total  length,  355 

miles  ;  area  of  drainage  basin,  20,000  square  miles  ;  principal  tributaries, 

the  Papaghni  and  the  Chitravati.     The  stream  is  useless  for  navigation, 

being  liable  to  sudden  freshets,  one  of  which  carried  away  an  important 

,  railway  bridge  in  1874,  and  sent  18  feet  of  water  over  the  crest  of  the 

i  Penner  anicut  or  weir.     The  water  is  largely  utilized  for  purposes  of 

I  irrigation.     In  Kolar  District,  it  is  estimated  that  about  85  per  cent. 

of  the  total  drainage    is    intercepted    by  means  of  tanks   and    minor 

:  channels. 

In    Cuddapah    District,    a    canal,  constructed   by  the    Madras  Irri- 

:  gation  Company,    connects  the  North  Penner  with   the   Kistna  river. 

This   canal,    which    was    purchased  by    Government,    and  transferred 

'  on  the  6th   July    1SS2,    has  proved    a    financial    failure.     An    anicut 


or  dam  was  erected  across  the  river  opposite  Nellore  town  in  1855,  in 
order  to  irrigate  the  fertile  delta  at  the  river  mouth.  In  October  1857 
the  river  rose  to  the  height  of  16  feet  above  the  anicut,  and  did  such 
damage  that  the  anicut  had  to  be  rebuilt.  The  present  structure,  de- 
signed by  Sir  A.  Cotton,  was  completed  in  1863.  The  length  of  the  anicut 
was  increased  by  150  yards  in  1876,  to  lessen  its  liability  to  damage. 
This  dam  is  677  yards  long,  with  a  crest  9  feet  above  the  bed,  and  37 J 
feet  above  mean  sea-level ;  it  is  capable  of  supplying  150  square  miles,  all 
on  the  right  or  south  bank.  The  irrigation  of  the  northern  bank  will 
be  effected  by  the  Sangam  anicut.  The  greatest  area  yet  irrigated 
(1S82-83)  is  63,653  acres,  or  nearly  two -thirds  of  the  whole  area 
commanded.  Total  cost  of  Penner  anicut  up  to  1882,  ^122,588; 
total  receipts,  ^136,111.  Outlay  in  1882,  ^7465  ;  receipts,  ;£"i2,o62. 
In  November  1883,  the  Penner  rose  19-3  feet  above  the  anicut,  the 
highest  flood  yet  recorded.  During  the  famine  of  1877,  it  was  proposed 
to  construct  a  similar  work  at  Sangam,  about  30  miles  higher  up  the 
river,  and  the  work  is  now  being  carried  out.  Up  to  1882-83,  ^£80,207 
had  been  expended  out  of  a  sanctioned  expenditure  of  ;^356,904. 

(2)  The  Southern  or  Dakshin  Pinakini  also  rises  in  the  hill  of  Chenna 
Kesava.  It  flows  first  in  a  southerly  direction  through  the  District  of 
Bangalore  in  Mysore  State,  and  then  likewise  turns  east,  and,  after 
crossing  the  Madras  Districts  of  Salem  and  South  Arcot,  falls  into  the 
Bay  of  Bengal,  near  Fort  St.  David,  a  few  miles  north  of  Cuddalore 
(Kadaliir)  town.  Total  length,  245  miles;  area  of  drainage  basin,  6200 
square  miles.  In  Bangalore  District,  its  waters  are  freely  utilized 
for  irrigation,  being  stored  in  large  tanks.  It  is  estimated  that  in  its 
basin  also  about  85  per  cent,  of  the  total  supply  is  thus  intercepted. 
The  Hoskot  tank  alone  is  10  miles  in  circumference. 

Pentakota. — Fishing  village  in  Sarvassiddhi  tdluk^  Vizagapatam 
District,  Madras  Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  17°  19'  n.,  and  long,  82° 
35'  30"  E.  Population  (1871)  1610  ;  (1881)  1313,  living  in  248  houses. 
In  1875,  16  ships,  with  an  aggregate  burthen  of  7000  tons,  took 
on  board  produce,  chiefly  grain,  to  the  value  of  ^"22,500.  In  1879-80, 
3  small  native  craft,  of  a  burden  of  143  tons,  carried  away  exports 
to  the  value  oi  jQ2^o,  since  which  date  the  port  seems  to  have  been 
entirely  abandoned  as  a  seat  of  export  trade.  A  bar  closes  the 
mouth  of  the  river  during  the  shipping  season,  and  a  wide  stretch  of 
marsh  and  sand  impedes  the  landing  of  goods.  The  manufacture  of 
salt,  which  till  recently  gave  the  place  some  importance,  has  likewise 
been  discontinued. 

Penukonda. —  Tdhik  or  Sub-division  of  Anantapur  District,  Madras 
Presidency.  Area,  655  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  73,023, 
namely,  37,266  males  and  35,757  females,  dwelling  in  i  town  and 
98    villages,    containing    15,865    houses.       Hindus    number    68,006; 


Muhammadans,  4983;  Christians,  28;  and  'others,'  6.  The  idliik 
contained  in  1883,  i  civil  and  3  criminal  courts;  police  circles  {thdnds), 
8  ;  regular  police,  62  men.  Land  revenue,  ^£8291.  Penukonda  taluk 
is  hilly  ;  mixed  and  gravelly  soils  predominate.  About  60  per  cent, 
of  the  area  is  fit  for  cultivation. 

Penukonda.— Head-quarters  town  of  Penukonda  taluk,  Anantdpur 
District,  ^Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  14°  5'  15"  N.,  long.  77°  38'  10"  e. 
Population  (1881)  5331,  inhabiting  1133  houses.  Hindus  number 
4149;  Muhammadans,  1160;  Christians,  17;  and  '  others,' 5.  Once 
an  important  fortress,  to  which  the  Vijayanagar  prince  retired  after  the 
battle  of  Talikot  (1565).  It  was  a  first-class  Paldyam,  and  was  dealt 
with  as  such  in  the  Partition  Treaty  of  1799,  and  in  early  British 
revenue  settlements.  The  fort  is  built  on  granite  rocks,  and  the  remains 
of  its  former  greatness  under  Hindu  and  Musalman  rulers  are  still  very 
striking.  '  Dilapidated  palaces,'  writes  Meadows  Taylor,  '  and  other 
architectural  remains,  both  Musalman  and  Hindu,  are  here  thrown 
together  in  strange  confusion ;  and  in  some  cases  the  most  grotesque 
instances  of  these  incongruous  styles  are  found  in  the  same  structure. 
An  ancient  palace,  called  the  Ganga  Mahal,  exhibits  some  strange 
tokens  of  these  reverses.  The  basement  is  of  plain  massive  Hindu 
construction,  and  of  great  antiquity,  coeval  apparently  with  some 
temples  of  Mahadeo,  which  stand  close  by  it.  The  next  storey  is  of 
more  recent  date,  and  is  built  in  the  best  style  of  Muhammadan  archi- 
tecture, elaborately  ornamented.  Since  its  erection,  it  is  evident  that 
attempts  have  been  made  by  the  Hindus  to  alter  the  Musalman  devices 
into  something  which  should  assimilate  with  their  own  work.  The 
very  cupolas  have  been  surmounted  with  inelegant  pyramidal  work ; 
and  a  beautiful  Saracenic  screen,  carved  in  white  marble,  has  been 
mutilated,  and  in  some  parts  replaced  by  some  miserable  representations 
of  dragons  and  other  grotesque  monsters.  The  mosque  of  Sher  All  is 
perhaps  the  handsomest  building  in  Penukonda,  and,  if  erected  by  the 
chief  whose  name  it  bears,  must  be  nearly  300  years  old.  It  is  of  dark- 
grey  granite,  with  mouldings  of  jet-black  stone  resembling  hornblende. 
Behind  this  mosque  the  hill  rises  precipitously  to  the  height  of  500  or 
600  feet,  presenting  a  rugged  and  apparently  inaccessible  face,  partially 
overgrown  with  stunted  bushes  and  jungle.  In  other  places,  agam, 
the  naked  rocks  lie  piled  heap  upon  heap,  with  here  and  there  perched 
on  some  giddy  point  a  tomb,  an  altar,  or  a  line  of  battlements,  without 
an  indication  of  the  path  by  which  it  is  to  be  approached.'— (Captain 
Meadows  Taylor,  Oriental  Amiual,  1840.)  Some  well-cultivated 
gardens  lie  near  the  town,  in  which  grapes  have  been  successfully 
grown.     Head-quarters  of  an  Assistant  Collector.     Post-office. 

Pepali  (or  i^Y?/^//).— Town  in  Pattikonda  taluk,  Karniil  (Kurnool) 
District,  Madras  Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  15°  15'  n.,  and  long.  77' 


48'  E.,  on  the  road  from  Gooty  (Gilti)  to  Karniil.  Population  (1881) 
3535)  dwelling  in  746  houses.  Deputy  Collector's  head-quarters;  post- 

Perambakam. — Town  in  Conjevaram  tdluk^  Chengalpat  (Chingle- 
put)  District,  Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  12°  54'  30"  n.,  long.  80°  15' 
40"  E.  Population  (1881)  415,  all  Hindus,  dwelling  in  43  houses.  Four- 
teen miles  north-west  of  Conjevaram.  A  place  of  mournful  memory, 
where  the  Madras  army  encountered  its  most  serious  disaster.  In  1780, 
Colonel  Baillie,  marching  from  the  north  with  a  force  of  3700  men, 
was  here  surrounded  by  Haidar's  army,  and  his  troops  all  but 
annihilated.  The  troops  of  Haidar  were  on  this  occasion  guilty  of  the 
most  barbarous  atrocities,  sparing  neither  the  wounded  nor  the  women 
and  children  with  the  defeated  forces.  In  the  following  year.  Sir  Eyre 
Coote  defeated  Haidar  Ali  on  the  same  spot,  and  drove  him  back  on 

Peramballir. —  Tdluk  or  Sub-division  of  Trichinopoli  District, 
Madras  Presidency.  Peramballir  tdluk  is  generally  flat.  The  soil  of  the 
northern  half  is  black  clay,  with  large  tracts  of  stiff  black  soil ;  in  the 
southern  half,  as  a  rule,  the  soil  is  poor  and  the  country  rocky.  The 
tdluk  is  chiefly  irrigated  from  tanks.  The  principal  grains  cultivated  are 
ragi  (Eleusine  corocana),  varagu  (Panicum  miliaceum),  and  kamhu 
(Pennisetum  typhoideum).  Cotton  covers  an  area  of  about  20,000 
acres,  or  more  than  half  the  total  area  on  which  the  crop  is  raised  in 
Trichinopoli  District.  Area,  686  square  miles.  Population  (1881) 
172,281,  namely,  83,052  males  and  89,229  females,  dwelling  in  214 
villages,  and  occupying  23,719  houses.  Hindus  number  164,607; 
Muhammadans,  4892;  and  Christians,  2782.  In  1883  the  tdluk  con- 
tained  i  civil  and  2  criminal  courts ;  police  circles  {thdnds)^  8 ;  regular 
police,  59  men.     Land  revenue,  ;£'2  69. 

Peramballir.  —  Town  in  Trichinopoli  District,  and  head-quarters  of 
Peramballir  tdluk^  Madras  Presidency.  Situated  almost  in  the  centre  of 
the  tdluk,  on  the  old  road  from  Trichinopoli  to  Madras.  Population 
(1881)  3062,  dwelling  in  530  houses.  Peramballir  is  also  the  head- 
quarters of  a  District  inunsif.  The  water-supply  is  indifferent.  Post- 
office  ;  w^eekly  market. 

Perambur. — Suburb  of  Madras  city. — See  Madras  City. 

Periakulam. — Tdluk  or  Sub-division  of  INIadura  District,  Madras 
Presidency.  Area,  1169  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  232,123, 
namely,  112,251  males  and  119,872  females,  dwelling  in  i  town  and 
85  villages,  and  occupying  36,369  houses.  Hindus  number  216,671; 
Muhammadans,  9885;  and  Christians,  5567.  In  1883  tht  tdluk  con- 
tained 2  criminal  courts  ;  police  circles  \thdnds),  1 1 ;  regular  police,  86 
men.     Land  revenue,  ;£26,332. 

Periakulam. — Town  in  Madura  District,  Madras  Presidency,  and 

PERIM.  137 

head-quarters  of  Periakulam  taluk.  Population  (1871)  15,339;  (1881) 
16,446,  namely,  7670  males  and  8776  females,  dwelling  in  2889  houses. 
Hindus  number  14,564;  Muhammadans,  1233;  and  Christians,  649. 
Periakulam  consists  of  three  villages  or  hamlets — Tenkarai,  Vadakaria, 
and  KaikkuLinkulam  ;  situated  on  both  banks  of  the  Varahanadi,  about 
45  miles  west  of  Madura  town,  and  about  35  south-west  of  Dindigal. 

Perim.— Island,  situated  in  lat.  12°  40'  30"  n.,  and  long.  43°  23'  e. 
(King),  in  the  narrowest  part  of  the  Straits  of  Bab-el-Mandeb  ;  distant 
from  the  Arabian  coast  nearly  \\  mile,  and  from  the  African  coast 
between  9  and  10  miles;  greatest  length,  3J  miles;  average  width, 
about  \\  mile;  circumference  (following  the  sinuosities  of  the  coast- 
line), probably  more  than  30  miles. 

This  island  is  under  the  Government  of  Aden ;  and  the  following 
account  of  it  is  taken  from  Captain  F.  M.  Hunters  Statistical  Account 
of  Aden  {iSj'j),  pp.  171,  172  : — 

'  Perim  is  called  by  the  author  of  T/ie  Periplus  the  island  of  Diodorus, 
and  is  known  among  the  Arabs  as  Mayoon.     The  formation  is  purely 
volcanic,   and  consists  of  long,  low,  and  gradually  sloping  ranges   of 
hills,  surrounding  a  capacious  harbour,  about   a   mile    and  a   half  in 
length,    half  a  mile    in    breadth,  and  with  a  varying    depth    of  from 
4  to  6  fathoms  in  the  best  anchorages.     The  hills  were  formerly  inter- 
sected by  bays  and  indentures,  which  in  the  course  of  time  have  been 
filled  up  with  coral  and  sand,  and  are  now  low  plains,  scantily  covered 
with    salsola,  sea-lavender,  wild   mignonette,  and    other   plants  which 
delight  in  a  soft  sandy  soil.     These  plains  occupy  about  one-fourth  of 
the  island,  and  occur  principally  on  the  north  side.     The  rocks,  which 
are  all  igneous,  are  nowhere  exposed,  save  where  they  dip  perpendi- 
cularly into  the  sea ;  they  are  covered  with  a  layer  of  volcanic  mud  of 
from    2  to  6  feet    in    depth,  above  which  is  another    layer    of   loose 
boulders,  or  masses  of  black  vesicular  lava,  in  some  places  so  thickly 
set  as  to  resemble  a  rude  pavement.     The  highest  point  of  the  island  is 
245  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.      All  endeavours  to  find  water 
have  failed,  and  but  a  scanty  supply  is  procurable  from  the  adjacent 
coasts.    Water  tanks  were  constructed,  which  used  to  be  chiefly  supplied 
from  Aden,  and  it  was  proposed  to  erect  reservoirs  to  collect  the  rain  : 
but,  as  at  Aden,  a  condensing  apparatus  was  found  more  suitable. 
i       '  Perim  has  never  been   permanently  occupied  by  any  nation  save 
I  the  British.     Albuquerque  landed  upon  it  in  15 13  on  his  return  from 
I  the  Red  Sea,  and,  having  erected  a  high  cross  on  an  eminence,  called 
'  the  island  Vera  Cruz.     It  was  again  occupied  for  a  short  time  by  the 
!  pirates  who  frequented  the  mouth  of  the  Red  Sea,  and  who  amassed 
I  considerable  booty  by  plundering  the  native  vessels  engaged  in  the 
'  Indian  trade.     They  formed  a  project  of  settling  here  and  erecting 

138  PERIM  ISLAND.      ' 

strong  fortifications  ;  but  having  with  much  labour  dug  through  the 
soHd  rock  to  a  depth  of  15  fathoms  in  a  fruitless  search  for  water,  they 
abandoned  their  design,  and  removed  to  Mary's  Island,  on  the  east 
side  of  Madagascar. 

'  In  1799,  Perim  was  taken  possession  of  by  the  East  India  Company  ; 
and  a  force  under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Murray  was  sent  from  Bombay 
to  garrison  it,  with  the  view  of  preventing  the  French  troops,  then 
engaged  in  the  occupation  of  Egypt,  from  proceeding  to  India  to  effect 
a  junction  with  Tipii  Sahib.  But  it  was  deemed  untenable  as  a  military 
position,  and  the  Straits  were  too  broad  to  be  commanded  by  any 
batteries  on  the  shore ;  the  troops  were  accordingly  withdrawn. 

'  In  consequence  of  increasing  steam  navigation  in  the  Red  Sea,  the 
attention  of  the  Indian  Government  was  directed  to  the  necessity  of  a 
lio;hthouse  to  facilitate  the  navig;ation  of  the  Straits.  Perim  was  conse- 
quently  re-occupied  in  the  beginning  of  1857.  The  lighthouse  was 
completed  in  1861,  and  quarters  were  also  built  for  a  detachment  of 
native  infantry,  50  strong,  who  now  garrison  the  island  under  the 
command  of  a  European  officer.  The  detachment  is  relieved  every 
two  months  when  practicable.'  For  a  complete  account  of  the  island, 
see  Dacription  and  History  of  the  British  Outpost  of  Perim  ^  by  Lieutenant 
J.  S.  King,  Bombay  Staff  Corps  (1877). 

Perim  (The  Baidnes  island  of  the  Periplus).  —  Low  rocky  island, 
about  1800  yards  long,  and  from  300  to  500  broad;  situated  in  the 
Gulf  of  Cambay,  in  lat.  21°  36'  n.,  and  long.  72°  23'  30"  e.,  2 J  miles 
off  shore,  and  4^  miles  distant  from  Gogo.  The  island  is  surrounded 
by  an  extensive  rocky  reef  on  all  sides,  except  the  south,  and  rises 
so  sheer  from  the  bottom  of  the  sea,  that  in  some  places,  a  few  yards 
from  the  shore,  there  is  a  depth  of  11  and  12  fathoms  of  water  at 
low-water  springtides.  The  channel  between  Perim  and  a  rocky  reef  in 
the  centre  of  the  gulf,  only  1200  yards  wide,  has  the  extraordinary 
depth  of  360  feet,  the  bottom  being  yellow  clay.  The  island  is  com- 
posed of  tertiary  strata  ;  at  the  south-south-east  end  is  a  cliff  showing 
horizontal  beds  of  pudding  -  stone,  separated  by  sandy  clay.  None 
of  the  beds  appear  to  dip,  and  none  preserve  a  uniform  thickness 
throughout  the  cliff,  in  one  part  of  which  the  sandstone  disappears 
altogether.  The  dry  reef  surrounding  the  island  consists  of  confused 
heaps  of  rock  mixed  with  mud,  sand,  and  clay ;  the  rock  is  chiefly 
yellow  pudding-stone,  in  which,  on. the  south-east  end  of  the  island, 
numerous  fossil  remains  of  large  mammals  are  found.  The  coast  is 
lined  with  sand-hillr.  The  island  has  a  lighthouse,  erected  in  1865. 
It  is  situated  8  miles  south  of  Gogo,  and  consists  of  a  brick  masonry 
round  tower  with  a  spiral  stone  stair  inside.  The  light  has  eight 
burners;  height  of  lantern  above  high  water,  100  feet.  It  is  a  single 
white  fixed  dioptric  light  of  the  fourth  order,  and  is  visible  from  the 


deck  of  a  ship  20  miles  distant.  For  fuillicr  nautical  details,  see  Taylor's 
India  Saili)!^::;  Directory^  part  i,  p.  362. 

Perindurai  ('  Great  Lord'). — Group  of  hamltts  in  Erode  taluk, 
Coimbatore  District,  Madras  Presidency,  with  a  station  on  the  south- 
west line  of  the  Madras  Railway;  distant  252  miles  from  Madras  city. 
Lat.  11^  15'  30"  N.,  long.  77°  37'  30"  E.  Population,  6347  in  1871; 
and  4948  in  1881,  inhabiting  1131  houses.  Formerly  hcad-c^uarters 
of  a  taluk,  now  included  in  Erode  taluk.  The  number  of  hamlets 
forming  the  group,  which  takes  its  name  from  the  railway  station  of 
Perindurai,  is  29,  scattered  over  an  area  of  17  square  miles.  Perin- 
durai has  a  court,  post-office,  police  station,  travellers'  bungalow,  and 
large  market.  The  railway  station  is  4  miles  distant  from  the  hamlet 
of  the  same  name. 

Periya. — Ghdt  or  pass  in  Malabar  District,  Madras  Presidency,  over 
which  the  road  from  Cannanore  to  ]Manantavadi  (Manantoddi)  is 
carried.     Lat.  11°  51'  x.,  long.  75°  50'  20"  e. 

Periyakulam. — Town  in  ATadura  District,  Madras  Presidency. — See 

Periyapatna  (now  called  Hunsur).  —  Taluk  in  INIysore  District, 
Mysore  State.  Area,  447  square  miles,  of  which  157  are  cultivated. 
Population  (187 1)  116,334;  (i88r)  113,050,  namely,  males  56,008,  and 
females  57,042.  Hindus  number  106,909;  Muhammadans,  5790; 
and  Christians,  351.  The  Kaveri  (Cauvery)  forms  a  great  part  of  the 
western  and  some  of  the  northern  boundary.  The  Lakshmantirtha 
flows  through  the  south-eastern  portion.  The  highest  hill  is  Bettadpur, 
4350  feet  above  mean  sea-level.  The  taluk  is  undulating  and  not  well 
adapted  for  irrigation  from  channels  ;  but  the  soil  being  generally  of 
a  rich  red  description,  ragi  and  other  dry  crops  thrive  remarkably  on 
it.  Special  crops — tobacco,  areca-nut,  and  plantains.  Land  revenue 
(1883-84),  ^13.459.  In  1883-84  the  taluk  contained  i  criminal 
court ;  police  stations  {thdnds),  8 ;  regular  police,  66  men ;  and  village 
watch  {chaukiddrs),  401.  Since  1865,  the  head-quarters  have  been  at 

Periyapatna.  —  Village  in  iMysore  District,  iMysore  State.  Lat. 
12°  20'  40"  N.,  long.  76°  7'  25"  E.,  no  miles  south-west  from  Ban- 
galore, and  90  miles  south-east  of  Mangalore.  Until  1865,  the  head- 
quarters of  Periyapatna  (now  called  Hunsur)  tdluk.  Population  (1871) 
132 1.  Not  separately  returned  in  the  Census  Report  of  1881.  An 
ancient  place,  with  which  the  earliest  Hindu  traditions  are  connected, 
and  formerly  called  Singa-patna.  A  king  of  the  Chola  dynasty  is  said 
to  have  constructed  a  tank  and  a  temple  here  in  the  12th  century.  In 
1659,  a  mud  fort  was  erected  by  a  Coorg  chief,  which  was  shortly 
afterwards  captured  by  Periya  Wadeyar,  a  general  of  the  Hindu  Raja 
of    Mysore.      He    built    the    large    stone    fort,    which    still    exists    in 


ruins,  and  changed  the  name  from  Singa-patna  to  its  present  desig- 
nation. During  the  reign  of  Tipii  the  town  figures  frequendy  in 
mihtary  history.  It  witnessed  several  contests  between  the  Coorgs  and 
the  Mysore  forces.  On  three  occasions  it  was  occupied  by  the  British  ; 
and  in  1791  many  houses  were  burned  by  Tipil,  in  order  to  obstruct 
the  advance  of  General  Abercromby.  It  is  chiefly  inhabited  by  traders, 
who  export  cotton  and  tobacco  to  Coorg  and  the  west  coast. 

Periyar. — The  most  important  river  in  Travancore  State,  Madras 
Presidency,  rising  in  lat.  10°  40'  n.,  and  long.  76°  56'  e.     It  flows  first 
north,  and  afterwards  west,  a  total  distance  of  142  miles,  falling  into 
the  sea  near  Kodungaliir.     In  its  course  to  the  low  country,  the  Periyar 
is  increased  by  innumerable    tributary   streams,   of  which  the    Mallai, 
Sherdhoni,  Peringakotai,  Mudrapalli,  Kiindanpara,  and  Eddamalai  are 
the  most  considerable.     Its  progress  is  often  impeded  by  rocks  and 
narrow  gorges  in  the  hills,  with  occasional  falls,  rendering  the  passage 
quite   impracticable   for   boats  above    Narramangalam.      The    greater 
portion  of  the  teak-wood,  which  is  cut  annually  in  the  mountains,  is 
floated  down  this  river  to  the  coast.     On  reaching  Alwaye,  the  Periyar 
separates  into  two  branches,  the  northern  proceeding  to  Pallipur,  while 
the  southern  branch,  after  leaving  Varanpulai,  again  separates  into  two 
streams,  one  of  which,  however,  is  speedily  lost  in  the  estuary  to  which 
it  flows  through  numerous  channels  ;  the  other,  continuing  in  a  southerly 
direction,  falls  into  the  lake  south  of  Tripunathorai.     Sixty  miles  of 
this  river  may  be  considered  as  navigable,  small  craft  ascending  as  high 
as  Narramangalam ;  and  on  that  branch  of  it  which  is  formed  by  the 
Eddamalai,  river  boats  find   a  ready  passage  to    Iddirarmaud.     With 
the  exception  of  the  last  35  miles,  the  course  of  this  stream  lies  through 
a  complete  wilderness,  the  populated  tracts  not  extending  beyond  the 
town  of   Mulliatur.      A   scheme,    known   as    the  Periyar   project,  for 
diverting  the  course  of  this  stream  across  the  watershed  of  the  Ghats 
into  the  Vaigai  river,  in  Madura  District,  is  now  (1884)  being  carried 
into  effect. 

Peruah. — Ruined   town    in    Maldah    District,    Bengal.— 5^^    Pan- 


Perumakal  ('  Great  Travail;  so  called  because  Sita  bore  twins  here ; 
the  Periimacoil  of  Orme). — Village  in  Tindevanam  tdliik,  South  Arcot 
District,  Madras  Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  12°  12'  10"  n.,  and  long. 
79°  46'  30"  E.  Population  (1881)  1844,  dwelling  in  217  houses.  It 
has  a  small  fort,  which  is  perched  on  a  rocky  hill,  about  370  feet  high. 
The  summit  is  only  400  by  200  yards  in  area,  and  the  ascent  on  all 
sides  is  difficult.  After  the  defeat  at  Wandiwash  (1759)5  the  French, 
retreating  on  Pondicherri,  threw  a  detachment  into  the  Perumakal  fort ; 
Coote,  following  up  the  retreat,  attempted  to  storm  the  place,  but  was 
repulsed  from  the   upper  fort;  he  led  the  attacks   himself,   and  was 


wounded,  the  native  troops  behaving  with  great  gallantry.  On  the 
commencement  of  a  more  regular  attack,  the  defenders,  who  had 
neither  food  nor  ammunition,  surrendered.  The  English  held  the 
post  for  twenty  years,  and  in  1780  Haidar  All  besieged  it  unsuccess- 
fully. Two  years  later  it  surrendered  to  him,  only  to  fall  before  British 
trooi)s  in  17S3.  It  was  then  dismantled,  but  remained  a  post  of 
observation  till  1790,  when  it  was  taken  by  Tipu.  The  nearest  town  is 
Tindevanam,  5  miles  to  the  west. 

Perungudi. — Town  in  Nanguneri  tdluk^  Tinnevelli  District,  Madras 
Presidency.  Lat.  8°  17'  N.,  long.  77°  38'  20"  e.  Population  (188 i) 
5575,  occupying  1193  houses.  Hindus  numbered  2655;  IMuham- 
madans,  56  ;  Christians,  2862;  and  'others,'  2. 

Periir. — Village  in  Coimbatore  District,  Madras  Presidency.  Lat. 
10°  58'  N.,  long.  77°  K.  Sometimes  called  Mel  or  Upper  Chedam- 
baram,  to  distinguish  it  from  Kil  or  Lower  Chedambaram  in  South 
Arcot.     Notable  for  its  temple. 

Perzagarh. — Hill  range  in  Chanda  District,  Central  Provinces, 
dividing  the  QX'iiWiAx  paj-gand  from  Brahmapuri ;  13  miles  long  by  6 
broad,  and  ending  on  the  south  in  a  scarped  cliff,  which  can  be  seen 
40  miles  off.  This  cliff  is  called  Perzagarh,  and  also  Sat  Bahini,  from 
seven  sisters  who  lived  in  religious  seclusion  on  its  summit.  Some  of 
the  valleys  have  patches  of  rice  cultivation. 

Peshawar. — A  Division  or  Commissionership  under  the  jurisdiction 
of  the  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  Punjab,  lying  between  lat.  32°  47' 
and  35°  2  N.,  and  between  long.  70°  34'  and  74°  9'  e.  It  comprises 
the  three  British  Districts  of  Peshawar,  Hazara,  and  Kohat,  all  of 
which  see  separately,  together  with  the  control  of  the  semi-independent 
hill  tribes  inhabiting  the  Khaibar  Pass  as  far  as  Lundi  Kotal.  Area, 
8381  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  1,181,289,  besides  8173  tribes- 
men of  the  Khaibar  Pass.  Peshawar  Division  is  bounded  on  the 
west  and  north  by  independent  mountain  tribes,  and  by  Afghanistan  ; 
on  the  east  by  Kashmir  State ;  and  on  the  south  by  Rawal  Pindi  and 
Bannu  Districts. 

Population. — The  population  of  the  three  Districts  of  the  Peshawar 
Division,  which  in  1868  was  returned  at  1,033,891,  amounted  in  i88r 
to  1,181,289,  showing  an  increase  of  147,398  persons,  or  14*3  per 
cent.,  in  thirteen  years.  Much  of  this  increase  is  more  apparent  than 
real,  and  is  due  to  temporary  immigration  caused  by  the  extraordinary 
demand  for  labour  that  existed  at  the  time  of  the  last  Census,  owing  to 
the  Kabul  campaign,  and  the  railway  and  Swat  canal  works.  The 
results  of  the  Census  of  1881  may  be  summarized  as  follows: — 
Area  of  the  Division,  8381  square  miles  ;  number  of  towns,  16,  and 
of  villages,  2224;  houses,  177,574;  families,  275,335.  Total  popu- 
lation,   1,181,289,    namely,    males    649,509,    and    females    531,780. 


The  proportion  of  males  is  54 "8  per  cent.,  the  unequal  ratio  between 
the  sexes  being  mainly  due  to  the  large  military  element  in  the  popu- 
lation. Average  density  of  population,  140  persons  per  square  mile, 
varying  from  237  per  square  mile  in  Peshawar,  to  64  per  square  mile 
in  Kohat  District;  persons  per  town  or  village,  527;  inmates  per 
house,  6 •6,  Classified  according  to  sex  and  age,  the  Census  shows 
— under  15  years  of  age,  males  258,550,  and  females  215,909;  total 
children,  474,459,  or  40*2  per  cent,  of  the  population:  15  years 
and  up\vards,  males  390,959,  and  females  315,871;  total  adults, 
706,830,  or  59-8  per  cent. 

Religion. — The  great  bulk  of  the  population,  namely,  1,101,095, 
or  93*4  per  cent.,  are  Muhammadans  by  religion.  Hindus  number 
68,992,  or  5*8  per  cent;  Sikhs,  6724;  Christians,  4390:  Jains,  44; 
Parsis,  39 ;  and  '  others,'  5.  The  Muhammadans  by  race,  as  apart 
from  religion,  include  Pathans,  457,782;  Sayyids,  27,526;  Kashmiris, 
27,195;  Shaikhs,  19,102;  and  Mughals,  9988.  Brahmans  number 
9290,  of  whom  290  are  Muhammadans  by  religion.  Of  the  Rajputs, 
9845  in  number,  8086  are  descendants  of  Hindu  converts  to  Muham- 
madanism,  as  against  1755  Hindus  and  Sikhs.  Of  21,228  Khattris,  all 
but  36  are  Hindus  or  Sikhs  by  religion.  The  other  important  tribes 
and  castes,  all  containing  a  more  or  less  mixed  religious  element, 
include  the  following — A  wan,  179,214  ;  Giijar,  74,668  ;  Tanaoli,  41,384, 
and  Baghban,  27.926,  two  Muhammadan  clans  or  castes  confined  to 
the  Peshawar  Division;  Julaha,  29,038;  Tarkhan,  24,390;  Arora, 
21,021;  Lohar,  14,794;  Kumbhar,  12,456;  Nai,  12,068;  Chuhra, 
11,153;  Karral,  10,294;  Dhund,  20,091  ;  Dhobi,  9180  ;  and  Jat,  6902. 
Of  the  Christian  population,  numbering  4390,  Europeans  number 
4235;  Eurasians,  74;  and  natives,  81.  By  sect,  the  Christians 
include — Church  of  England,  2693  ;  Protestants  undistinguished  by 
sect,  129;  Roman  Catholics,  1150;  Presbyterians,  121;  and  'others,' 

Town  and  Rural  Population. — The  Peshawar  Division  contains  three 
towns  wdth  upwards  of  ten  thousand  inhabitants,  namely,  Peshawar 
city  and  cantonments,  79,982;  Kohat,  18,179;  and  Naushahra, 
12,963  ;  or  a  total  of  111,124  for  the  three  towns.  Besides  these,  the 
Census  returns  thirteen  other  minor  towms,  with  a  population  of 
54,618  ;  making  an  aggregate  urban  population  of  165,742,  or  i4'03 
per  cent,  of  the  whole  population  of  the  Division.  Seven  of  the 
towns  are  municipalities,  with  an  aggregate  population  of  110,811. 
Total  municipal  income  (1883-84),  ^22,147,  or  an  average  of  3s.  iifd. 
per  head.  The  2240  villages  and  towns  are  thus  classified  according 
to  size — 983  contain  less  than  two  hundred  inhabitants ;  665  from  two  to 
five  hundred;  333  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand;  156  from  one  to 
two  thousand;  61  from  two  to  three  thousand;  2)Z  ^o^^^  three  to  five 



thousand  ;  6  from  five  to  ten  thousand  ;  and  3  ten  thousand  and 
upwards.  As  regards  occupation,  the  Census  Report  classifies  the 
male  population  of  over  15  years  of  age  as  follows — (i)  Professional 
class,  including  civil  and  military,  38,293  ;  (2)  domestic  and  menial 
class,  13,098;  (3)  commercial  class,  including  bankers,  traders,  carriers, 
etc.,  12,206;  (4)  agricultural  and  pastoral  class,  including  gardeners, 
201,709;  (5)  industrial  class,  including  all  manufacturers  and  artisans, 
71,936;  (6)  indefinite  and  non-productive  class,  including  general 
labourers,  32,470  ;  and  (7)  occupations  not  specified,  21,247. 

Agricultia-e,  etc. — Of  a  total  assessed  area  of  831 1  square  miles,  or 
5.319.359  acres,  in  1883-84,  the  area  under  cultivation  was  returned  at 
1,488,055  acres,  of  which  245,924  acres  were  irrigated,  entirely  by 
private  enterprise.  Of  the  remaining  3,831,304  acres,  191,427  acres 
are  returned  as  grazing  lands;  759,865  acres  as  still  available  for 
cultivation  ;  and  2,880,012  acres  as  uncultivable  waste.  The  principal 
crops  cultivated  in  1883  were — Rabi,  or  spring  harvest — wheat,  499,689 
acres;  barley,  317,892  acres:  gram,  26,217  acres;  other  pulses,  7579 
acres;  drugs  and  spices,  1830  acres;  oil-seeds,  45,756  acres;  and 
vegetables,  3154  acres.  Kharif,  or  autumn  harvest — rice,  24,249; 
jodr,  57,883  acres;  bjjra,  72,874  acres;  Indian  corn,  317,003  acres ; 
other  cereals,  7915  acres;  pulses,  77,383  acres;  drugs,  1036  acres; 
oil-seeds,  10,047  acres;  cotton,  28,233  acres;  sugar-cane,  10,680  acres; 
and  vegetables,  2436  acres.  The  total  amount  of  Government  revenue 
assessment  in  1883-84,  including  all  local  rates  and  cesses  levied  on 
the  land,  was  ^130,478,  equal  to  an  average  of  is.  6Jd.  per  acre  of 
cultivation,  or  5|d.  per  acre  of  total  assessed  area.  The  Kohat  salt 
mines,  14  in  number,  are  all  situated  in  the  Peshawar  Division.  The 
only  five  mines,  however,  which  are  worked  at  present,  are  those  at 
Jalta,  Malgin,  Nari,  Kharrak,  and  Bahadur  Khel,  which  yielded  a 
Government  revenue  of  ;2{^i  1,090  in  1883-84.  There  are  98  miles  of 
metalled  and  1389  miles  of  unmetalled  roads  in  the  Division,  besides 
47  miles  of  the  Northern  Punjab  State  Railway,  which  has  its  terminus 
at  Peshawar  city.  Water  communication  is  afforded  by  151  miles  of 
j  navisfable  rivers. 

I       Admmistration. — The   civil    administrative   staff    consists    of    the 

]  Commissioner    of  the  Peshawar  Division,   who  is  the  principal  local 

I  officer   under    the    Lieutenant-Governor    of  the    Punjab,    and   whose 

head-quarters   are   at    Peshawar  city.     Under  him   are    three  Deputy 

!  Commissioners    in    charge    of   Districts ;    2    Judicial    Assistant   Com- 

I  missioners ;   10  Assistant  or  Extra-Assistant  Commissioners;  12  tahsil- 

ddrs  ;  3  mimsifs  ;  and  4  honorary  magistrates.     These  officers  preside 

;  over  40  civil  and  revenue  and  47  criminal  courts.     For  administrative 

and  police  purposes,  Peshawar  Division  is  divided  into  1 1  tasJiils  or 

Sub-divisions,    and  43   thdtids  or  police  circles.      The   total  imperial 


revenue  in    1883-84  was  ^135,963,  of  which  ^£94,5 25   was   derived 
from  the  fixed  land  revenue. 

Peshawar. — A  British  District  in  the  Lieutenant-Governorship  of 
the  Punjab,  lying  between  33°  43'  and  34°  31'  n.  lat.,  and  between 
71°  25' and  72°  47'  E.  long.  Peshawar  is  the  central  District  in  the 
Division  of  the  same  name,  and  forms  the  extreme  north-western 
corner  of  the  Indian  Empire,  extending  from  the  river  Indus  to  the 
Khaibar  mountains.  Area,  2504  square  miles.  Population  (1881) 
592,674.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  ranges  which  link  the 
Sufed  Koh  to  the  Hindu  Kiish  ;  on  the  west  and  south  by  continuations 
of  the  same  mountains ;  on  the  south-east  by  the  Indus ;  and  on  the 
north-east  by  the  hills  of  Boner  and  Swat.  It  is  thus  almost  entirely 
surrounded  by  independent  hill  tribes,  all  of  whom  are  of  Pathan 
origin.  Peshawar  District  is  divided  into  six  tahsils,  of  which  three 
lie  to  the  east,  and  three  to  the  west  of  the  Swat  and  Kabul  rivers. 
Of  the  former,  Utman  Bulak  lies  to  the  east,  Mardan  in  the  centre,  and 
Hashtnagar  to  the  west.  Of  the  three  western  tahsils,  Doaba  Daiidzai 
includes  the  Doab  of  the  Swat  and  Kabul  rivers  and  the  plains  on  the 
right  bank  of  the  latter  down  to  its  junction  with  the  former  ;  Peshawar 
tahsil  comprises  all  the  western  portion  of  the  District ;  and  Naushahra 
iahsil,  the  territory  on  the  right  bank  of  the  united  Swat  and  Kabul 
rivers.  The  Mardan  and  Utman  Bulak  tahsils  constitute  the  Sub- 
District  of  Yusafzai,  which  is  in  the  separate  charge  of  an  Assistant 
Commissioner  stationed  at  Hoti  Mardan.  Peshawar  stands  twentieth 
in  order  of  area,  and  seventeenth  in  order  of  population  among  the 
thirty-two  British  Districts  of  the  Punjab,  comprising  2*35  per  cent,  of 
the  total  area;  3*16  per  cent,  of  the  total  population:  and  5*28  per 
cent,  of  the  urban  population.  The  administrative  head-quarters  are  at 
the  city  of  Peshawar. 

Physical  Aspects. — The  Peshawar  valley  forms  an  irregular  amphi- 
theatre, shut  in  by  hills  on  every  side  but  one,  with  its  base  resting  upon 
the  banks  of  the  Indus,  into  whose  basin  it  opens  through  the  narrow 
passage  of  the  Kabul  river.  Its  geological  origin  best  explains  the 
existing  physical  features,  as  the  whole  valley  forms  the  abandoned  bed 
of  a  great  post-tertiary  lake,  whose  outlet  has  slowly  worn  a  way  for 
itself  through  the  barrier  of  hills  which  once  shut  it  off  from  the  Indus. 
At  the  present  day,  Peshawar  consists  of  a  central  hollow,  filled  up  by 
alluvial  deposits  of  silt  and  gravel,  interspersed  with  water-worn 
boulders  ;  while  the  Kabul  river,  which  formerly  supplied  its  deep 
mountain  lake,  now  flows  through  a  marshy  level  to  its  debouchure  into 
the  Indus,  opposite  the  fort  of  Attock.  At  Nisatha,  24  miles  from  the 
point  of  exit  of  the  Indus  from  the  hills,  that  river  receives  through 
the  Kabul  the  Swat  river,  which  leaves  the  hills  21  miles  north  of  the 
Indus.     Opposite  Naushahra,  about  the  centre  of  the  valley,  the  Indus 

•- J 


further  receives,  also  through  the  Kabul,  the  Kalpani,  by  which  the 
drainage  of  Swat  is  carried  across  the  Yusafzai  plain  in  the  south  of 
Peshawar.  From  the  south,  the  main  affluent  of  the  Kabul  is  the 
Bdra,  a  stream  which,  passing  close  by  the  city  of  Peshawar,  enters  the 
main  river  a  few  miles  above  its  junction  with  the  Swat.  Hie  depth 
of  water  in  the  Indus  at  Attock  varies  from  40  feet  in  the  winter 
months  to  75  feet  in  flood.  The  volume  of  the  stream  varies  greatly 
according  to  the  season  of  the  year.  It  is  crossed  by  three  ferries,  and 
also  by  a  drift  gallery  excavated  underneath  the  river  bed.  Both  ferries 
and  tunnel  have,  however,  been  superseded  by  the  Punjab  Northern 
State  Railway  bridge  across  the  Indus  at  Attock,  which  was  opened 
in  June  1883,  and  which  carries  a  cart  road  and  footway  within  its 
girders.  On  the  southern  frontier,  the  Khattak  hills  rise  to  a  general 
height  of  3000  feet,  while  the  bolder  eminences  sometimes  reach 
an  elevation  of  more  than  5000.  Westward,  a  still  loftier  range,  reach- 
ing to  between  6000  and  ycoo  feet  in  height,  extends  across  the  valley 
of  the  Kabul,  and  is  threaded  by  the  Khaibar  Pass,  the  gate  of  North- 
western India.  Mulla  Ghar,  the  principal  peak  in  this  portion  of  the 
chain,  has  a  height  of  7060  feet.  North  of  the  Kabul  comes  the 
Hindu  Kiish  system,  here  represented  by  bare  and  irregular  hills  of 
trap  and  limestone.  Between  them  and  the  Indus,  the  barrier  line  is 
completed  by  the  mountains  of  Swat,  a  labyrinth  of  intricate  valleys, 
hemmed  in  by  lofty  precipices,  amid  whose  mazes  the  villages  of  the 
occupying  clans  nestle,  each  in  its  separate  nook.  To  the  south  of 
these  uplands  lies  the  plain  of  Yusafzai,  where  cultivated  valleys  run 
up  into  the  hills  on  every  side;  but  elsewhere,  the  tilled  lands  of 
the  central  hollow  are  separated  from  the  mountains  by  a  wide  strip  of 
stony  country,  some  3  or  4  miles  in  breadth.  In  Yusafzai  Sub-District 
are  two  small  isolated  hills  standing  out  from  the  plain.  Karamar,  the 
highest,  lies  north-east  of  Hoti  Mardan,  about  3480  feet  above  sea-level 
and  2280  above  the  plain.  On  its  northern  slope  are  a  few  fir  trees; 
and  the  appearance  of  the  hill  on  that  side  is  green  and  pleasing, 
with  a  sloping  plateau  on  the  summit  which,  if  water  tanks  were  con- 
structed, might  be  utilized  as  a  sanitarium  during  the  summer  months. 
Panjpir,  the  smaller  hill,  rises  to  a  height  of  2130  feet  above  the  sea,  or 
940  feet  above  the  level  of  the  surrounding  plain. 

The  western  and  central  portions,  along  the  course  of  the  Kabul  and 
the  Swat,  are  highly  cultivated ;  while  the  remainder  of  the  District, 
though  unirrigated,  produces  excellent  crops  in  ordinary  seasons.  The 
scenery  of  the  western  half  is  wild  and  beautiful ;  it  abounds  in  craggy 
passes,  crowned  by  ancient  towers,  and  commanding  prospects  over 
fields  of  luxuriant  vegetation.  The  numerous  canals  in  the  foreground 
give  evidence  of  careful  cultivation,  and  the  background  is  formed  by 
the  snowy  peaks  of  the  distant  ranges  beyond  the  border.     The  eastern 

VOL.  XI.  K 


extremity,  consisting  of  the  plains  of  Yusafzai  and  the  slopes  of  the 
Khattak  hills,  is  comparatively  bleak  and  barren.  The  drainage  of  the 
entire  valley  is  carried  off  by  the  Kabul  river,  the  shrivelled  represen- 
tative of  some  mighty  stream  which  once  burst  its  way  through  the 
rocky  barriers  on  the  east  into  the  main  channel  of  the  Indus.  Its 
principal  tributaries  have  b^en  enumerated  above,  and  it  itself  falls  into 
the  Indus  opposite  Attock.  There  are  no  lakes  in  the  District ;  but 
owing  to  extensive  percolation,  large  marshes  are  formed  in  many 
low-lying  tracts  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Swat  and  Kabul  rivers. 
There  is  also  a  large  marsh  near  Peshawar  city. 

Gold  is  found  in  both  the  Indus  and  Kabul  rivers  above  Attock,  and 
numbers  of  boatmen  work  as  gold-washers.  About  300  men  are 
estimated  to  be  thus  employed,  and  they  frequently  work  under  a 
system  of  advances  from  gold  purchasers  in  the  city.  The  work  is 
carried  on  during  March  and  April,  and  September  and  October,  the 
average  earning  of  each  man  varying  from  3d.  to  6d.  per  diem.  The 
proprietors  of  the  villages  within  whose  boundaries  gold-washing  is 
carried  on,  receive  a  small  share  in  recognition  of  their  right.  Besides 
gold,  kankar  is  the  only  mineral  product  of  any  value  found  in  the 
Peshawar  valley,  though  the  surrounding  hills  supply  iron  and  anti- 
mony. The  iron  of  Bajaur,  brought  for  sale  to  the  Peshawar  market, 
is  of  fine  quality,  and  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  gun  barrels. 
Good  antimony  ore  from  Bajaur  sells  in  Peshawar  for  about  jQi^  los. 
a  cwt.  A  yellow  description  of  marble,  found  near  Maneri,  in 
Yusafzai,  is  used  for  the  manufacture  of  beads,  charms,  and  orna- 
ments. Crude  chalk  is  found  in  Lundkhwar.  Millstones  are  brought 
from  Pallodheri,  in  Yusafzai,  and  fetch  2s.  per  pair. 

The  distribution  of  trees  is  singularly  uneven  in  different  parts  of  the 
valley.  In  Yusafzai  and  Hashtnagar,  the  mulberry  {tut)  sissu  {shiwd) 
and  Melia  sempervirens,  with  occasionally  the  tamarisk  {gaz)^  are  found 
in  clumps  round  the  village  wells  ;  and  here  and  there  groves  of  the 
Acacia  modesta  {pulosd)  cover  village  graveyards,  whilst  the  waste 
lands  support  a  bare  and  stunted  jungle  of  Butea  frondosa,  different 
species  of  zizyphus,  Capparis  aphylla,  and  other  thorny  bushes;  but 
otherwise  the  tract  is  bare  of  trees.  In  Daiidzai  and  Doaba,  on  the 
other  hand,  where  the  land  lies  low,  and  the  cultivation  is  entirely 
from  irrigation,  trees  are  abundant,  particularly  the  tamarisk  and  in  some 
parts  the  siris.  Here  are  numerous  fruit-gardens  and  orchards,  especially 
in  the  western  suburbs  of  Peshawar  city,  where  the  vine,  fig,  plum, 
apricot,  peach,  and  quince,  with  cucumbers,  melons,  and  other  fruits 
and  vegetables,  are  produced  in  great  plenty. 

Peshawar  is  perhaps  one  of  the  worst  Districts  in  India  as  regards 
sport,  owing  to  the  custom  of  hawking,  the  use  of  firearms  by  all  classes, 
and  the  absence  of  forest  and  scrub.     There  are  a  few  ravine  deer  in 


the  Yusafzai  and  Hashtnagar  plains  and  also  under  the  Khattak  hills 
on  the  south-east.  Hog  abound  in  the  Khattak  hills,  a  few  iiridl  (wild 
sheep)  and  a  stray  leopard  are  now  and  then  heard  of.  On  the  Pajja 
hill  there  are  Jjuirkhor  (wild  goat) ;  but  they  are  getting  more  and  more 
scarce  every  year,  and  the  ground  is  such  that  only  good  cragsmen  can 
successfully  follow  them.  The  small  game  consists  of  a  few  hares  and 
partridges  still  left  in  parts  of  the  valley.  ChaJzor  and  sissi  are  plentiful 
in  and  close  under  the  hills,  where  the  people  cannot  use  their  hawks. 
In  the  spring  and  autumn,  large  flights  of  quail  settle  down  and  remain 
for  a  short  time  on  their  way  to  India,  and  again  when  returning  to 
the  steppes  of  Central  Asia.  ]\Iany  thousands  are  netted  by  men 
who  make  a  trade  of  it ;  they  are  collected  in  one  place  by  means  of 
tame  quail  used  as  call-birds.  Water-fowl  are  plentiful  on  the  rivers 
during  the  winter  months,  and  snipe  also  for  two  or  three  weeks  in 
March.  Wild  swans  are  very  occasionally  shot.  In  Yusafzai,  Nau- 
shahra,  and  under  the  hills  all  round  the  District  during  the  winter 
months,  flocks  of  sandgrouse  are  to  be  seen ;  but  they  are  shy,  and  the 
only  way  of  shooting  them  is  by  driving.  The  obara,  or  bastard 
bustard,  is  also  found  during  the  winter  months;  they  are  usually 
hawked  and  often  noosed  by  the  natives.  Wolves  and  hyoenas  are  less 
numerous  than  they  used  to  be,  and  rarely  attack  children  or  other 
human  beings.  Foxes  and  jackals  are  also  scarcer  than  they  were  a 
itw  years  ago.  The  leopard  has  now  almost  disappeared  from  the 
District.  Very  large  fish  {inahsir  and  rohji)  are  caught  by  the  natives 
in  the  rivers  with  hook  and  line,  and  the  fly  and  minnow  w^ould  give 
good  sport.     Otters  are  occasionally  seen  on  the  islands  of  the  Indus. 

History. — In  the  earliest  days  of  Aryan  colonization,  the  Peshawar 
valley  is  said  to  have  been  occupied  by  a  prince  of  the  great  Lunar 
race,  whose  name  was  perpetuated  in  that  of  Gandhara,  by  w^hich 
the  valley  is  known  in  Sanskrit  literature.  Its  capital,  Peukelas  (or 
Pushkalavati),  is  mentioned  by  Arrian  as  a  large  and  populous  city, 
captured  by  Hephaistion,  the  general  of  Alexander,  after  the  loss  of 
its  chieftain  Astes.  The  site  of  Pushkalavati  has  been  identified 
with  the  modern  cluster  of  the  Hashtnagar,  or  eight  cities,  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  Swat,  where  vast  ruins  of  ancient  edifices  are  still  to  be 
seen.  During  the  epoch  of  Buddhist  supremacy  in  Northern  India, 
Pushkalavati  became  famous  as  the  seat  of  a  stupa^  erected  on  the 
spot  where  Buddha  was  fabled  to  have  made  one  of  his  numerous 
alms-offerings  in  the  shape  of  his  own  eyes.  It  is  mentioned  in  the 
Itineraries  of  Fa  Hian  and  Hiuen  Tsiang,  the  Chinese  pilgrims  of  the 
5th  and  7th  centuries,  though  by  that  time  the  capital  of  Gandhara  had 
been  transferred  to  Parashawara  or  Peshawar. 

Until  the  middle  of  the  7th  century,  linguistic  evidence  would  lead 
us  to  suppose  that  the  population  remained  entirely  Indian.    But  before 


the  beginning  of  the  8th  century,  a  new  race,  the  Afghans  or  Pathans, 
make  their  appearance  in  the  local  annals;  and  the  history  of  the 
Peshawar  valley  becomes  thenceforth  that  of  a  debateable  ground, 
fluctuating  between  the  eastern  kingdom  of  Delhi  and  the  western 
kingdom  of  Afghanistan.  The  Afghans,  who  were  still  '  infidels '  at 
this  date,  first  effected  a  settlement  in  the  hill  country  to  the  south  of 
the  Kabul  river,  by  the  aid  of  the  Ghakkars  of  Hazara  and  Rawal 
PiNDi ;  while  the  Hindu  tribes  continued  to  retain  possession  of 
Peshawar  itself,  and  of  the  Hashtnagar  and  Yusafzai  plains.  In  978  a.d., 
Jaipal,  Raja  of  Lahore,  advanced  from  Peshawar  to  attack  Sabuktigin, 
governor  of  Khorasan,  under  the  titular  sway  of  the  Samani  princes. 
Jaipal  was  utterly  defeated,  and  Sabuktigin  took  possession  of  Peshawar, 
which  he  garrisoned  with  10,000  horse.  On  his  death  in  997,  his  son 
Mahmiid  succeeded  to  his  dominions,  and,  throwing  off  his  nominal 
allegiance  on  the  Samani  dynasty,  assumed  the  title  of  Sultan  in  999. 
Mahmiid  was  the  first  Musalman  conqueror  of  Hindustan,  and  fought 
many  of  his  greatest  engagements  in  the  valley  of  Peshawar.  He 
succeeded  in  converting  the  Pathans  to  the  religion  of  the  Prophet; 
and  they  remained  his  firm  alhes  in  his  subsequent  struggle  with  Anang 
Pal,  the  last  champion  of  the  Hindu  creed  and  nationality  in  the  north, 
whose  defeat  on  the  plains  of  Chach  in  Rawal  Pindi  laid  all  Upper 
India  at  the  feet  of  the  Muhammadan  conqueror.  After  that  event, 
Mahmiid  made  Peshawar  the  basis  of  operations  in  his  later  invasions, 
and  throughout  the  following  century  it  continued  to  be  a  Province  of 
the  Ghaznivide  empire.  When  the  dominions  of  Ghazni  extended  as 
far  as  Lahore,  Peshawar  became  a  half-way  stage  of  great  importance ; 
but  the  devastations  of  Mahmiid  seem  to  have  left  its  northern  plains  a 
depopulated  waste,  occupied  only  by  the  tiger  and  the  rhinoceros. 

The  first  settlement  of  undoubted  Afghan  tribes  in  the  central  valley 
took  place,  apparently,  about  the  15th  century;  though  a  race  of 
spurious  Pathans,  known  as  the  Dilazaks,  took  possession  of  the  plains 
not  long  after  the  time  of  Mahmiid.  Meanwhile,  the  Pathans  of  Ghor 
had  thrown  off  their  allegiance  on  Ghazni,  and  after  the  death  of 
Shahab-ud-din  (1206  a.d.)  the  provincial  governors  of  India  declared 
their  independence,  making  the  Indus  their  western  boundary,  so  that 
the  Peshawar  valley  was  again  cut  off  from  the  eastern  kingdom.  The 
Pathans  of  the  Khaibar  hills  retained  their  autonomy,  while  Peshawar 
itself  v/as  held  by  the  Dilazaks.  But  about  the  close  of  the  15th 
century,  the  great  tide  of  Afghan  immigration  flowed  into  the  District 
under  the  following  circumstances  : — The  Khakhai  Pathans  were  a 
body  of  roving  adventurers,  who  first  came  into  notice  in  the  time  of 
Timur,  and  made  themselves  useful  to  his  descendant  Ulugh  Beg. 
The  latter  treacherously,  expelled  them  from  Kabul,  whereupon  they 
entered  the  Peshawar  valley  in  three  main  clans — the  Yusafzai,  Gigianis, 


and  Muliammadzai — and  obtained  permission  from  the  Dilazaks  to 
settle  on  a  portion  of  their  waste  lands.  Soon  after,  the  new  immi- 
grants found  or  invented  some  cause  of  quarrel  against  their  hosts, 
whom  they  attacked,  and  drove  precipitately  into  the  neighbouring 
District  of  Hazara.  The  Gigianis  settled  in  the  fertile  strip  of  land 
about  the  confluence  of  the  Swat  and  the  Kabul  ;  the  Muhammadzais 
took  Hashtnagar  as  their  share  of  the  spoil ;  while  the  Yusafzais  were 
relegated  to  the  northern  plain,  which  still  bears  their  name. 

The  division  of  the  territory  thus  carried  out,  subsists  undisturbed  to 
the  present  day.  For  a  while,  the  tribes  remained  independent ;  but  in 
15 19,  Babar,  who  had  used  the  Khaibar  Pass  in  previous  incursions, 
allied  himself  with  the  injured  Dilazak  chieftains,  and  subjugated  the 
Pathan  tribes  who  held  these  important  mountain  tracts.  It  would  be 
tedious  to  follow  the  fortunes  of  Peshawar  through  all  the  vicissitudes 
of  the  struggle  between  the  dynasties  of  Babar  and  Sher  Shah.  Enough 
will  be  said  in  the  simple  statement  that  Peshawar  remained  in  the 
power  of  the  Delhi  court  during  the  reign  of  Akbar,  and  that  the 
remnant  of  the  Dilazaks  had  been  completely  ousted  in  the  previous 
reign.  During  the  flourishing  times  of  Jahangir,  Shah  Jahan,  and 
Aurangzeb,  the  valley  rendered  an  unwilling  allegiance  to  Delhi ;  but 
under  the  last-named  Emperor,  a  national  insurrection  was  successful 
in  freeing  the  Pathan  tribes  from  the  Mughal  supremacy. 

In  1738  the  District  fell  into  the  hands  of  Nadir  Shah;  and  under 
the  succeeding  Durani  dynasty,  Peshawar  was  often  the  seat  of  the 
Kabul  court.  On  the  death  of  Timiir  Shah  in  1793,  Peshawar  shared 
the  general  disorganization  of  the  Afghan  kingdom  ;  and  the  Sikhs,  who 
were  then  in  the  first  fierce  outburst  of  revenge  upon  their  Muhammadan 
enemies,  advanced  into  the  valley  in  18 18,  and  overran  the  whole 
country  to  the  foot  of  the  hills.  In  1823,  Azim  Khan  made  a  last 
desperate  attempt  to  turn  the  tide  of  Sikh  victories,  and  marched  upon 
Peshawar  from  Kabul;  but  he  was  utterly  defeated  by  Ranji't  Singh, 
and  the  whole  District  lay  at  the  mercy  of  the  conquerors.  The  Sikhs, 
however,  did  not  take  actual  possession  of  the  land,  contenting  them- 
selves with  the  exaction  of  a  tribute,  whose  punctual  payment  they 
ensured  or  accelerated  by  frequent  devastating  raids.  After  a  period  of 
renewed  struggle  and  intrigue  between  Sikh  and  Afghan,  Peshawar  fell 
at  last  into  the  hands  of  the  Sikhs,  who  appointed  General  Avitabile  as 
governor,  and  ruled  with  their  usual  fiscal  severity. 

In  1848,  Peshawar  District  came  into  the  possession  of  the  British; 
but  the  details  of  the  war  of  occupation  belong  rather  to  the  general 
history  of  India  and  of  the  Punjab  than  to  the  narrower  annals  of  the 
Peshawar  valley.  During  the  Mutiny  of  1857,  the  Native  regiments 
stationed  at  Peshawar  showed  signs  of  insubordination,  and  were 
accordingly  disarmed  with  some  little  difficulty  in  May  1857.     But  the 


55th  Native  Infantry,  stationed  at  Naushahra  and  Hoti  Mardan,  rose  in 
open  rebellion  ;  and  on  a  force  being  despatched  against  them,  marched 
off  towards  the  Swat  Hills  across  the  frontier.  General  Nicholson  was 
soon  in  pursuit,  and  scattered  the  rebels  with  a  loss  of  120  killed  and 
150  prisoners.  The  remainder  sought  refuge  in  the  hills  and  defiles 
across  the  border,  but  were  hunted  down  by  the  friendly  clans,  till  they 
perished  of  hunger  or  exposure,  or  were  brought  in  prisoners,  and 
hanged  or  blown  away  from  cannon.  This  stern  but  necessary  example 
prevented  any  further  act  of  rebellion  in  the  District. 

Population. — The  Census  of  1868,  which  was  the  first  trustworthy 
enumeration  of  the  people,  disclosed  a  total  population  of  523,152 
persons,  inhabiting  an  aggregate  of  654  villages  or  towns,  containing 
121,256  houses.  At  the  last  enumeration  in  1881,  Peshawar  District 
was  found  to  contain  a  total  population  of  592,674,  showing  an  increase 
of  69,522,  or  13-3  per  cent.,  in  thirteen  years. 

The  results  of  the  Census  of  1881  may  be  summarized  as  follows: 
— Area  of  District,  2504  square  miles;  number  of  towns,  11,  and 
of  villages,  679;  houses,  87,720;  families,  123,563.  Total  popula 
tion,  592,674,  namely,  males  329,524,  and  females  263,150.  The 
excessive  proportion  of  males  to  females  (5 5 '6  per  cent.)  is  mainly 
attributable  to  the  large  military  element  in  the  population,  and  also  to 
the  fact  that  at  the  time  of  the  Census,  an  extraordinary  demand  for 
labour  in  connection  with  the  Kabul  campaign,  the  Northern  Punjab 
State  Railway,  and  the  Swat  Canal  works,  caused  a  large  influx  of 
labourers.  Average  density  of  population,  237  persons  per  square 
mile,  or  excluding  large  towns,  185  per  square  mile ;  average  number  of 
persons  per  town  or  village,  858,  or  excluding  the  towns,  683  ;  inmates 
per  house,  67.  Classified  according  to  sex  and  age,  the  population 
consists  of — under  15  years  of  age,  boys  123,920,  and  girls  101,070; 
total  children,  224,990,  or  37-9  per  cent,  of  the  population  :  15  years 
and  upwards,  males  205,604,  and  females  162,080 ;  total  adults,  367,684, 
or  62*1  per  cent. 

In  religion,  the  Peshawar  valley  is  almost  entirely  Musalman,  as 
might  naturally  be  expected  from  its  early  conversion  and  its  close 
connection  with  the  Afghan  kingdom.  The  Census  returns  show 
546,117  Muhammadans,  or  92-1  per  cent.:  while  the  Hindu  faith 
has  only  39,321  adherents,  or  67  per  cent.  The  remainder  is  made 
up  by  3103  Sikhs,  4088  Christians,  39  Parsis,  3  Jains,  and  3  'others.' 
By  far  the  largest  tribe  in  the  District  is  that  of  the  Pathans,  who 
number  in  all  276,656  souls,  or  46-8  per  cent,  of  the  total  popula- 
tion. In  the  Yusafzai  tract  the  Pathan  population  retain  all  the 
individual  freedom,  patriarchal  institutions,  and  jealousy  of  personal 
aggrandizement,  which  are  the  original  characteristics  of  the  Afghan 
mountaineers.      The  Pathans  to  the  south   of  the   Kabul  river,  who 


were  more  completely  subjugated  by  the  Sikhs,  have  lost  many  of  their 
native  traits  ;  their  chieftains  have  acquired  a  more  feudal  character, 
and  the  liberty  of  the  Afghan  freeman  has  been  lost  in  the  political 
supremacy  of  the  chief.  In  their  original  state,  the  Yusafzai  Pathans 
were  divided  into  countless  minor  clans,  each  of  which  had  a  separate 
organization,  and  was  often  at  feud  with  its  neighbours;  and  the 
constant  intestinal  warfare  compelled  the  men  to  plough  their  fields 
with  a  matchlock  slung  across  their  backs.  Though  British  rule  has 
altered  this  condition  of  affairs,  it  has  not  obliterated  from  the  minds  of 
the  Pathans  the  lawless  instincts  produced  by  their  ancestral  customs. 
The  Sayyids  number  4515  souls,  and  their  sacred  character  and  descent 
gives  them  great  influence  amongst  the  fanatical  Pathan  population. 
Other  tribes  who  are  Muhammadans  by  race,  as  apart  from  Muham- 
madans  by  rehgion,  include— Shaikhs,  9576;  Mughals,  453^;  and 
Kashmiris,  13,082.  Of  the  Hindkis,  or  persons  of  original  Indian 
descent,  Awans  number  97,445;  Baghbans,  21,240;  Julahas,  15,372; 
Gujars,  13,514;  Tarkhans,  12,504;  Kumbhars,  7583;  Chuhras, 
7653;  Lobars,  6521;  Dhobis,  5467;  Chamars,  4156;  Mochis,  3263; 
Jhinwars,  3956;  Telis,  3250;  Rajputs,  3181  ;  and  Sonars,  3079. 
Nearly  the  whole  of  these  are  jMuhammadans  by  religion  and  the 
descendants  of  Hindu  converts.  The  principal  Hindu  castes,  still 
retaining  the  faith  of  their  fathers,  are  the  Brahmans,  3745;  Khattri?, 
9578  ;  and  Aroras,  13,333  ;  they  form  the  chief  trading  community  in 
Peshawar  and  the  other  towns,  while  in  each  agricultural  village  a  few 
of  them  carry  on  the  business  of  money-lenders.  Slavery  still  lingers 
on  in  the  remoter  villages  under  the  guise  of  hereditary  serfdom,  in  spite 
of  the  theoretical  prohibitions  of  British  law ;  and  a  recognised  class, 
named  Ghulam  (slave),  is  returned  in  Peshawar  to  the  number  of  3347> 
who  are  said  to  be  the  descendants  of  captives  taken  in  war.  They 
are  still  chiefly  employed  in  domestic  service,  and  are  generally  attached 
to  their  hereditary  masters,  though  some  of  them  have  taken  to  shop- 
keeping  and  other  occupations. 

The  Christian  community  includes  3954  Europeans,  consisting 
principally  of  the  troops  comprising  the  garrison,  and  the  civil  officers 
of  the  District ;  64  Eurasians  ;  and  70  natives.  Classified  by  sect,  there 
are— Church  of  England,  2584  ;  Roman  Catholics,  1 128  ;  Presbyterians, 
102;  Episcopal  Church  of  Scotland,  71;  Wesleyans,  42;  Protestants 
not  distinguished  by  sect,  95  ;  and  'others,'  66.  Peshawar  has  been  a 
station  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society  since  1855,  with  a  mission- 
house,  church,  fine  collegiate  school,  and  library.  The  mission  also 
maintains  vernacular  schools  both  for  boys  and  girls  in  Peshawar  city 
and  in  the  District. 

Tow7i  and  Rural  Population. — The  Census  Report  of  1881  returns 
five  towns  in  Peshawar  District  as  containing  upwards  of  five  thousand 


inhabitants— viz.  Peshawar  City  and  Cantonment  (population  79,982), 
Naushahra  (12,963),  Tangi  (9037),  Maira  Parang  (8874),  and 
Charsadda  (8363).  Six  other  places  with  less  than  five  thousand 
inhabitants  were  also  returned  as  towns,  namely,  Utmanzai  (4823), 
Mardan  (2766),  Shankargarh  (1367),  Fort  Abazai  (220),  Fort 
MiCHNi  (208),  and  Fort  Mackeson  (170).  The  total  urban  population 
thus  disclosed  amounts  to  128,773,  or  217  per  cent,  of  the  District 
population.  Of  the  690  towns  and  villages,  197  contain  less  than  two 
hundred  inhabitants;  211  from  two  to  five  hundred;  135  from  five 
hundred  to  a  thousand ;  77  from  one  to  two  thousand ;  46  from  two  to 
three  thousand;  19  from  three  to  five  thousand;  3  from  five  to  ten 
thousand;  and  2  upwards  of  ten  thousand  inhabitants.  As  regards 
occupation,  the  Census  Report  classifies  the  adult  male  population  as 
follows: — (i)  Professional  class,  including  civil  and  military,  22,622; 
(2)  domestic  and  menial  class,  7994;  (3)  commercial  class,  including 
merchants,  traders,  carriers,  etc.,  7678  ;  (4)  agricultural  and  pastoral 
class,  including  gardeners,  93^785;  (S)  industrial  class,  including  all 
manufacturers  and  artisans,  42,532  ;  (6)  indefinite  and  non-productive 
class,  including  general  labourers,  22,831  ;  and  (7)  occupations  not 
specified,  8162. 

Village  Life. — In  every  Pathan  village,  a  separate  quarter  {kandi)  is 
apportioned  to  each  different  khel  or  clan,  the  kandi  being  a  collection 
of  separate  tenements  of  the  individual  families  forming  the  clan.  Each 
ka7idi  has  its  own  mdlik  or  chief,  whose  authority  is  confined  to  it.  His 
duties  are  to  maintain  order,  settle  disputes  among  the  householders, 
collect  the  revenue,  and  see  to  the  fair  distribution  of  the  crops,  etc. 
Each  vidlik  is  subordinate  to  the  chief  or  khan  of  the  tribe ;  to  him  he 
makes  his  reports,  and  from  him  receives  his  orders.  Each  kandi  has 
its  own  mosque,  its  own  assembly-room  or  hujra,  and  (in  villages 
beyond  the  border)  its  own  tower  of  defence  or  burj.  The  priests 
attached  to  the  mosques  are  supported  by  rent-free  lands,  besides  daily 
suppHes  of  food  from  the  residents  of  their  kandi ;  and  by  presents  of 
money,  cattle,  food,  or  clothes,  on  the  occasion  of  a  marriage  or  other 
special  ceremony.  The  hujra  is  a  public  room  with  court-yard  and 
stables  attached,  where  the  ??idlik  meets  the  residents  of  the  kandi  for 
the  discussion  and  settlement  of  matters  of  public  business,  where 
guests  are  entertained,  and  where  the  residents  and  visitors  assemble  to 
smoke,  gossip,  and  learn  the  news  of  the  day.  The  burj  or  watch-tower 
now  chiefly  exists  in  villages  beyond  the  border.  It  is  always  attached 
to  the  house  of  the  mdlik,  and  is  in  constant  use  as  a  place  of  refuge 
and  observation  in  case  of  feuds  between  the  different  khels  of  a  village 
community,  as  well  as  against  outside  enemies.  They  are,  however, 
still  to  be  found  in  British  territory  as  survivals  from  days  gone  by,  when 
one  ward  was  pitted  against  another  in  deadly  feud,  or  when  the  whole 


village  had  to  guard  against  the  attack  of  a  neighbouring  clan,  or  of 
Sikh  officials.  Many  of  them  have  now  been  converted  into  cattle 
sheds  or  ordinary  dwelling-houses. 

The  villages  have,  for  the  most  part,  an  air  of  great  comfort,  the 
court-yards  being  large,  with,  in  most  instances,  a  patch  of  vegetables  or 
a  clump  of  mulberry  trees  in  the  enclosure ;  the  mosques  and  hujras 
are  chiefly  in  the  outskirts,  with  wells  and  groves  in  the  vicinity.  The 
houses  in  the  plains  villages  are  mostly  constructed  of  mud,  one-storied, 
and  not  more  than  ten  feet  high.  In  the  Khattak  hills,  however,  stone 
is  plentiful,  and  is  used  for  building  purposes.  The  ordinary  furniture 
of  a  house  consists  of  a  clay  corn-bin,  containing  the  grain  required 
for  immediate  consumption ;  a  few  rough  beds  and  stools,  a  wooden 
clothes  chest,  and  a  number  of  earthen  dishes.  The  houses  of  the 
village  head-men  are  generally  distinguished  by  their  greater  privacy 
and  more  substantial  look ;  many  hdve  small  flower  or  fruit  gardens 
attached  to  them. 

The  food  of  the  common  people  is  plain  and  simple,  and  consists 
almost  entirely  of  the  produce  of  their  cattle  and  lands,  such  as  wheat 
and  barley  cakes,  milk,  vegetables,  pot-herbs,  and  edible  wild  fruits,  but 
seldom  meat.  The  richer  classes,  however,  frequently  indulge  in  meat, 
fowls,  and  rice,  and  occasionally  tea.  Sugar,  and  in  some  parts  wild 
honey,  is  much  used,  but  spirituous  liquors  are  unknown.  Tobacco  for 
chewing,  smoking,  and  snuffing,  is  largely  used.  The  dress  of  the 
agriculturists  consists  of  a  turban  ox  pagri  of  white  cloth,  a  loose  coat 
or  shirt,  and  a  loose  pair  of  cotton  drawers,  tied  round  the  body  by  a 
running  string ;  the  whole  is  of  coarse  country  cotton  cloth,  costing 
from  4s.  to  5s.  The  coats  are  often  coloured  blue  to  hide  the  dirt  and 
save  washing,  and  are  worn  sometimes  till  they  drop  to  pieces.  The 
chiefs  and  well  to-do  classes  wear  the  same  pattern  of  clothes,  but  made 
of  finer  materials.  In  winter,  the  poorer  classes  wear  sheepskin  coats  ; 
and  the  better  classes  woollen  chogas.  As  a  whole,  the  Pathans  are 
singularly  indifferent  to  cleanliness,  either  in  their  clothing  or  persons. 

Ag)-icultii7'e. — Of  a  total  assessed  area  of  1,600,993  acres,  847,390 
acres  were  returned  as  under  cultivation  in  1883,  while  330,959  acres  were 
shown  as  cultivable,  and  422,644  acres  as  uncultivable  waste.  The  staple 
crops,  and  the  area  under  each,  in  1883-84  were  as  follows  : — Rabi  or 
spring  harvest — wheat,  277,730  acres;  barley,  233,044  acres;  pulses, 
4583  acres  ;  oil-seeds,  31,602  acres;  vegetables,  2157  acres:  Khar'if 
or  autumn  harvest — maize,  98,359  acres  ;  millets,  56,913  acres  ;  pulses, 
25,756  acres;  rice,  9959  acres;  cotton,  16,849  ^cres  ;  sugar-cane, 
9496  acres  ;  oil-seeds,  7761  acres;  vegetables,  2013  acres.  It  will  be 
seen  that  food-stuffs  form  the  principal  products,  and  that  the  raw 
materials  of  manufacture  are  little  grown.  Agricultural  knowledge  is 
very  backward;  rotation    of  crops   being  only   known   in  its  simplest 


elements.  Irrigation  is  practised  to  a  considerable  extent,  as  niauy  as 
180,286  acres  being  supplied  with  water  from  private  works  in  1883  ; 
while  the  lands  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Swat  and  Kabul  rivers  are 
saturated  with  moisture  from  numerous  channels.  The  out-turn  per 
acre  of  the  principal  staples  was  returned  as  follows  in  1883-84: — 
Rice,  960  lbs.  ;  cotton,  120  lbs.  ;  tobacco,  124  lbs.  ;  wheat,  620 
lbs.  ;  inferior  grains,  400  lbs.  ;  oil-seeds,  560  lbs.  The  tenures  of  land 
belong  to  the  standard  Punjab  tyi  es,  that  oi  pattiddri^  pure  or  mixed, 
immensely  preponderating.  Mott  of  the  soil  is  held  by  tenants-at-will, 
only  about  one-sixth  of  the  cultivators  having  acquired  rights  of 
occupancy.  The  total  amount  of  Government  land  revenue  assessment 
in  1883-84  amounted  to  ^86,604,  equal  to  an  average  of  2s.  o^d.  per 
acre  of  cultivated  area,  or  is.  o|d.  per  acre  of  total  area.  Rents  vary 
in  accordance  with  the  nature  of  the  crop  for  which  the  soil  is  suited, 
as  well  as  according  to  the  productive  qualities  of  the  soil  itself;  in 
1883-84  they  ruled  as  follows: — Rice  lands  from  los.  to  ^2,  8s.; 
cotton  lands,  from  6s.  to  ^2,  8s.  ;  w^heat  lands,  irrigated,  from  los. 
to  ^r,  los. — unirrigated,  from  4s.  to  j[^\,  2s.  ;  inferior  grains,  irrigated, 
from  4s.  to  18s. — unirrigated,  from  2s.  to  i8s.  In  the  same  year, 
wages  were  returned  at  the  following  rates  : — Unskilled  workmen, 
from  4jd.  to  yd.  per  diem  ;  skilled  workmen,  from  is.  6d.  to  2s.  per 
diem.  In  1883,  prices  of  food-stuffs  ruled  as  follows  : — Wheat,  ighsers 
per  rupee,  or  5s.  Qd.  per  cwt.  ;  Indian  corn,  37  sers  per  rupee,  or  3s. 
per  cwt.  ;  jodr,  36^  sers  per  rupee,  or  3s.  id.  per  cwt.  As  the  rivers 
are  fed  by  the  melting  snows  of  the  Hindu  Kiish  and  other  mountain 
ranges,  Peshawar  is  not  entirely  dependent  on  the  local  rainfall,  and  is 
consequently  to  a  great  extent  secure  from  the  danger  of  famine. 

Commerce  a?id  Irade,  etc.  —  The  trade  of  the  District  centres  in 
the  town  of  Peshawar,  and  is  far  less  extensive  than  might  be  ex- 
pected from  its  position  on  the  great  highway  between  India  and  the 
Central  Asiatic  kingdoms.  The  principal  foreign  markets  with  which 
the  District  deals  are  Kabul  and  Bokhara ;  but  the  greater  part  of  the 
traffic  merely  passes  through  Peshawar,  and  is  not  arrested  on  its 
direct  course  to  the  Punjab.  An  endeavour  was  made  some  years  since 
to  constitute  Peshawar  its  main  entrepot,  by  means  of  a  yearly  fair ;  but 
the  enterprise  did  not  prove  successful.  The  imports  from  Kabul  consist 
of  horses,  raw  silk,  worsted,  cochineal,  drugs,  and  other  miscellaneous 
goods,  for  re-exportation  to  the  south  and  east.  Bokhara  supplies  gold 
bullion  and  gold  or  silver  thread,  the  latter  of  which  is  handed  on  to 
the  traders  of  Kashmir  (Cashmere),  while  the  bullion  goes  to  Bombay. 
The  return  trade  from  Hindustan  includes  English  piece-goods,  cambrics, 
silk,  sugar,  and  spices  ;  while  that  from  Kashmir  is  confined  to 
the  single  item  of  shawls.  The  local  manufactures  comprise  cutlery, 
and  weapons,  scarves,    copper  chasing,  plain  embroidery,    snuff,   and 



coarse  cloth.  The  Peshawar  scarves  are  celebrated  lhroii<;hout  India 
for  their  fine  texture  and  tasteful  colouring.  Peshdwar  is  one  of  the 
Districts  at  which  trans-frontier  trade  is  registered.  At  five  registration 
stations  along  the  frontier  in  1882-83  imports  were  registered  of  the 
value  of  ;^2i9,57i ;  and  exports  of  the  value  of  ;£"4i7,9i  i.  The  chief  of 
these  is  the  Khaibar  route,  which  is  the  great  highway  of  the  trade  with 
Kabul  and  Central  Asia.  In  1882-83,  the  imports  via  the  Khaibar 
amounted  to  ^185,127,  and  the  exports  to  ^367,403. 

Roads  and  Means  of  Conunnnication.  —  By  the  completion  of  the 
Punjab  Northern  State  Railway,  Peshawar  has  been  brought  within 
the  range  of  the  whole  Indian  railway  system.  The  Punjab  Northern 
State  Railway  enters  the  District  from  the  south,  crossing  the  Indus 
at  Attock  by  a  magnificent  railway  bridge  with  a  sub-way  for  ordinary 
foot  and  carriage  traffic,  and  running  westwards  through  the  District  for 
47  miles,  with  stations  at  Khairabad,  Akora,  Naushahra,  Naushahra 
tahsil,  Pabbi,  Peshawar  city,  and  Peshawar  cantonment.  The  Grand 
Trunk  road,  entering  Peshawar  from  Lahore  District  opposite  Attock,  has 
a  total  length  of  55  miles,  bridged  and  metalled  throughout.  The 
bridge  of  boats  formerly  maintained  across  the  Indus  at  Attock  was 
abolished  on  the  opening  of  the  railway  bridge.  The  other  roads  of 
importance  are — (1)  Peshawar  to  Hashtnagar,  25  miles;  (2)  Peshawar 
to  Doaba  Daudzai,  18  miles  ;  (3)  Peshawar  to  Kohat,  via  Fort  Mackeson 
and  the  Kohat  pass,  37^  miles;  (4)  Peshawar  to  Kohat,  via  Bala  and 
the  Jawaki  pass,  66  miles;  (5)  Peshawar  to  Cherat,  via  Jaluzai  and 
Shahkot,  30  miles ;  (6)  Peshawar  to  Mardan,  via  Abbarpurand  Nisatta, 
32^  miles  ;  (7)  Peshawar  to  Abazai  Fort,  via  Prang  and  the  east  bank 
of  the  Swat,  32-i  miles;  (8)  Peshawar  to  Shabkadr,  18  miles;  (9) 
Peshawar  to  Michni,  14J  miles;  (10)  Peshawar  to  Kabul,  77<7  Jamrud 
and  the  Khaibar  pass,  190  miles;  (11)  Peshawar  to  Bara  Fort,  8  miles  ; 
(12)  Naushahra  to  Mardan,  15  miles;  (13)  Naushahra  to  Mir  Kalan, 
16  miles;  (14)  Mardan  to  Abbottabad,  via  Tarbela  on  the  Indus,  82 
miles;  (15)  Jaluzai  to  Mir  Kalan  pass  in  the  Khattak  hills;  (16) 
Jaluzai  to  Kanakhel  pass  in  the  Khaltak  hills;  and  (17)  Jaluzai  to 
Kakakhel  Ziarat,  13  miles.  These  roads  are  all  unmetalled  and  un- 
bridged,  and  are  often  mere  tracks.  The  Indus,  Swat,  and  Kabul  rivers 
are  navigable  throughout  the  valley  at  all  seasons ;  but  within  the  hills, 
except  at  certain  points  where  there  are  ferries,  the  current  is  too  strong 
for  the  use  of  boats.  Total  length  of  navigable  water  communication, 
67  miles.  A  line  of  telegraph  runs  along  the  length  of  the  railway, 
with  an  oftice  at  each  station.  There  is  also  an  imperial  telegraph 
office  at  Peshawar  cantonment,  with  branches  to  Jamrud,  Mardan,  and 

Administration. — The  ordinary  civil  staff  of  Peshawar  comprises  a 
Deputy  Commissioner,  a  Judicial  Assistant  Commissioner,   2  Assistant 


Commissioners,  a  Cantonment  Magistrate,  a  Judge  of  the  Small  Cause 
Court,  and  3  extra-Assistant  Commissioners,  besides  the  usual  minor 
officials,  with  a  bench  of  honorary  magistrates.  In  1883-84  the 
District  contained  19  civil  and  fiscal  and  25  criminal  courts.  In 
1851-52  the  total  imperial  revenue  amounted  to, £83, 891  ;  by  1871-72 
it  had  decreased  to  ^78,412.  At  the  latter  date,  the  sum  contributed 
by  the  land-tax  was  ;£"62,32  7,  or  rather  more  than  three-fourths  of  the 
whole.  In  1883-84  the  total  revenue  of  the  District  was  returned  at 
;^9o,995,  of  which  ^63,029,  or  upwards  of  two-thirds,  was  made  up  by 
the  fixed  land-tax.  The  other  principal  items  of  revenue  are  stamps, 
assessed  taxes,  and  excise.  For  police  purposes,  Peshawar  is  divided 
into  19  circles  {thdnds\  besides  frontier  and  outpost  stations.  The 
imperial  police  numbered  664  men  of  all  ranks  in  1883  ;  and  this  force 
was  supplemented  by  a  municipal  constabulary  of  265  men,  besides  a 
special  cantonment  police  of  177  constables,  and  a  punitive  police  of 
29  men.  There  was  also  a  rural  body  of  999  village  watchmen 
{chaukiddrs).  The  total  machinery,  therefore,  for  the  protection  of 
person  and  property  consisted  of  2134  men,  being  at  the  rate  of  i 
pohceman  to  every  277  of  the  population  and  to  every  i"2  square  mile 
of  the  area.  The  criminal  statistics  show  a  total  of  5358  persons 
convicted  of  some  offence,  great  or  small,  during  the  year  1883,  being 
at  the  rate  of  i  offender  to  every  no  inhabitants.  The  more  heinous 
crimes,  such  as  murder,  robbery,  and  housebreaking,  are  still  common, 
and  the  wild  habits  of  the  Pathan  tribes  have  not  yet  been  brought  into 
harmony  with  our  industrial  regime.  Cattle-poisoning  and  rick-burning 
are  also  common,  being  the  usual  means  of  gratifying  private  malice. 
There  is  one  jail  in  Peshawar,  the  total  number  of  prisoners  in  which 
amounted  to  1033  in  1883.     The  daily  average  was  512. 

Educatio7i. — In  1872-73,  the  total  number  of  children  under  instruction 
was  returned  at  1858;  while  the  sum  expended  upon  education  from 
public  funds  amounted  to  ^1047.  In  1883-84,  Peshawar  District 
contained  40  schools,  with  2197  pupils  either  supported  or  assisted 
by  Government,  and  under  the  Education  Department.  There  are 
also  a  number  of  indigenous  uninspected  village  schools,  where  the 
pupils  are  taught  the  Kuran  and  other  religious  works  by  the  vmllas. 
In  some  villages,  girls  are  taught  at  home  privately  by  women  who  have 
learnt  the  Kuran.  The  Census  of  1881  returned  8183  males  and  321 
females  as  under  instruction,  besides  18,065  males  and  649  females 
able  to  read  and  write,  but  not  under  instruction.  The  principal 
educational  institution  of  the  District  is  the  Edwardes  Collegiate  Aided 
School  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society,  established  in  1855.  The 
pupils,  of  which  there  are  about  500,  many  of  them  the  sons  of  the 
neighbouring  gentry,  receive  instruction  in  English,  Persian,  and 
Hindustani,  up  to  the  matriculation  standard  of  the  Calcutta  and  Lahore 


Universities.  The  Church  of  England  Zandna  Mission  supports  two 
vernacular  girls'  schools,  one  for  Muhammadans,  and  one  for  Hindus, 
in  Peshawar  city  ;  and  another  school  with  about  50  pupils  at  Utmanzai, 
in  the  Hashtnagar  Sub-division. 

Medical  Aspects. — The  climate  of  the  Peshawar  valley  naturally  varies 
much  with  the  elevation  and  other  physical  peculiarities.  In  the  high 
and  open  uplands  of  Yusafzai,  the  air  is  fresh  and  buoyant ;  but  in  the 
low-lying  central  hollow,  the  land  is  saturated  with  the  overflow  of  the 
Swat  and  the  Kabul,  so  that  the  atmosphere  becomes  heavy  and  damp, 
chilling  in  winter,  and  laden  with  warm  moisture  in  the  hot  season. 
In  the  greater  part  of  the  valley,  shut  in  by  high  walls  of  rock,  the 
air  is  singularly  stagnant  and  motionless.  The  city  itself  has  a  bad 
reputation  for  fever  and  cholera.  The  chief  endemic  disease  is  fever, 
which  is  very  prevalent  in  the  Peshawar  cantonments.  Besides  the  city 
hospital  at  Peshawar,  there  are  4  Government  charitable  dispensaries, 
two  at  Peshawar,  and  one  each  at  Mardan  and  Shab-kadar;  patients  in 
1883,  55,930,  of  whom  3105  were  in-door  patients. 

Climate. — The  average  annual  and  monthly  mean  temperature  at 
Peshawar  city  is  returned  by  the  Meteorological  Department  as  fol- 
lows: — January,  49'8°  F.  ;  February,  52-8°;  March,  62*8°;  April,  71°  ; 
May,  8o-8° ;  June,  88-5° ;  July,  89*2° ;  August,  867° ;  September,  8i-i° ; 
October,  71°;  November,  58*2° ;  and  December,  50-6" :  yearly  average, 
70-2°  F.  The  temperature  in  May  1883  varied  from  a  minimum  of 
62'8^  F.  to  a  maximum  of  110°,  with  a  mean  of  85'5''  :  July,  minimum, 
70*2°  F. ;  maximum,  111*5°;  niean,  90° :  December,  minimum,  32-2°  F. ; 
maximum,  71*7°;  mean,  5i'9°.  The  average  annual  and  monthly  rain- 
fall is  thus  returned — January,  i"53  inch  ;  February,  1*48  inch;  March, 
i'52  inch;  April,  2*02  inches;  May,  070  inch;  June,  0*34  inch; 
July,  1-69  inch  ;  August,  2*47  inches  ;  September,  0-69  inch;  October, 
0*28  inch;  November,  o'9i  inch;  December,  072  inch:  total 
annual  average,  i4'35  inches.  In  1883,  only  9*8  inches  of  rain  fell  in 
Peshawar,  namely,  3*8  inches  from  January  to  May;  4*3  inches  from 
June  to  September;  and  17  inch  from  October  to  December.  Snow- 
seldom  falls  in  the  valley,  and  only  remains  unmelted  for  a  very 
short  time.  In  the  hills  surrounding  the  valley,  reaching  to  upwards 
of  3000  feet,  there  are  generally  repeated  falls  of  snow  each  winter ; 
while  in  the  loftier  ranges  behind  snow  lies  sometimes  for  weeks  at  a 
time  from  the  middle  of  November  till  the  middle  of  May.  Slight 
shocks  of  earthquake  are  frequently  experienced,  usually  in  the  spring. 

Peshdwar  {Peshawur).  —  Tahs'il  of  Peshawar  District,  Punjab; 
extending  from  Peshawar  city  to  the  Khaibar  Hills,  together  with  the 
Jvlohmand  country  in  the  south-eastern  corner  of  the  District.  Area, 
374  square  miles,  with  139  towns  and  villages,  24,849  houses,  and 
38,330  families.      Population  (188 1)  172,031,  namely,  males   99,581, 


and  females  72,450;  average  density  of  population,  460  persons 
per  square  mile,  or  excluding  Peshawar  city,  246  per  square  mile. 
Classified  according  to  religion,  Muhammadans  number  147,232; 
Hindus,  20,025  ;  Sikhs,  1739  ;  Christians,  2991  ;  Parsis,  39;  Jains,  3, 
and  'others,'  2.  Of  the  139  towns  and  villages,  79  contain  less 
than  five  hundred  inhabitants  ;  30  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand, 
29  from  one  to  five  thousand  ;  and  only  i  (Peshawar  city)  has 
upwards  of  five  thousand  inhabitants.  Principal  crops — Indian  corn, 
wheat,  barley,  with  a  little  rice,  cotton,  vegetables,  sugar-cane,  and 
inferior  food-grains.  Revenue  of  the  tahsi/,  ^^19,272.  The  admini- 
strative staff,  including  the  Divisional  and  District  head-quarters 
officers,  comprises  the  Commissioner  and  Judicial  Commissioner  of 
the  Division,  the  Deputy  Commissioner  and  Judicial  Assistant 
Commissioner  of  the  District,  Cantonment  Magistrate,  and  Small 
Cause  Court  Judge,  5  Assistant  or  Extra-Assistant  Commissioners, 
I  tahsilddr,  i  munsif,  and  2  honorary  magistrates  ;  besides  a  staff  of 
subordinate  village  officials.  These  officers  preside  over  12  civil  and 
13  criminal  courts.  Number  of  police  stations,  6,  namely,  at  Peshawar 
city  and  cantonments,  Badhber,  Mattani,  Burj  Hari  Singh,  and  Mathra  ; 
strength  of  regular  police,  321  men  ;  village  police  {chaukiddrs),  197. 

Peshawar. — City,  municipality,  and  administrative  head-quarters  of 
Peshawar  Division  and  District,  Punjab.  Situated  in  lat.  34°  i'  45"  n., 
and  long.  71°  36'  40"  e.,  in  a  small  plain  near  the  left  bank  of  the  Bara 
stream,  13I  miles  south-east  of  the  junction  of  the  Swat  and  Kabul 
rivers,  and  io|  miles  from  Jamrud  fort  near  the  entrance  of  the 
Khciibar  (Khyber)  Pass.  Distant  from  Lahore  276  miles,  from  Kabul 
190  miles.  Ancient  capital  of  Gandhara  Province,  and  historically 
important  at  all  later  periods  {see  Peshawar  District).  Buddhist 
remains  still  mark  its  early  greatness.  The  modern  city  has  but  slight 
architectural  pretensions,  the  houses  being  chiefly  built  of  small  bricks 
or  mud,  held  together  by  a  wooden  framework.  It  is  surrounded  by 
a  mud  wall,  built  in  Sikh  times  by  General  Avitabile.  The  city  is 
entered  by  16  gates,  which  are  closed  every  night  at  gunfire.  The  main 
street,  entered  from  the  Kabul  gate  (recently  re-erected  as  a  memorial  to 
Sir  Herbert  Edwardes),  is  a  broad  roadway  50  feet  in  width,  consisting 
of  a  double  row  of  shops,  the  upper  rooms  of  which  are  generally  let 
out  as  lodgings ;  the  street  is  well  paved,  and  at  busy  times  presents  a 
very  picturesque  sight.  The  remainder  of  the  city  proper  consists  of 
octagons,  squares,  markets,  with  narrow  and  irregular  streets  and  lanes. 
A  masonry  canal  runs  through  the  centre  of  the  city,  which  supplies 
ample  water  for  washing  and  watering  the  streets.  Drinking  water 
is  procured  from  wells  which  are  numerous  in  all  quarters  of  the  city. 
The  sanitary  and  conservancy  arrangements  are  described  as  very 
good,  and  all  the  drains  are  paved.     There  are  now  very  few  old  houses 


of  architectural  importance,  most  of  them  having  been  destroyed  at  the 
time  of  the  capture  of  the  city  by  the  Sikhs  from  the  Duranis.  Several 
handsome  mosques  ornament  the  city ;  and  a  large  building  known  as 
the  Ghor  Khattri,  once  a  Buddhist  monastery,  and  then  rebuilt  into  a 
Hindu  temple,  is  now  used  as  a  sardi,  and  contains  the  tahsili  courts 
and  offices.  Just  without  the  wall,  on  the  north-western  side,  a  quadri- 
lateral fort,  the  Bala  Hissar,  crowns  a  small  eminence,  completely  domi- 
nating the  city.  Its  walls  of  sun-dried  brick  rise  to  a  height  of  92  feet 
above  the  ground,  with  2.  faicsse-braye  of  30  feet ;  bastions  stand  at  each 
corner  and  on  three  of  the  faces,  while  an  armament  of  guns  and 
mortars  is  mounted  above. 

South-west  of  the  city,  stretching  from  just  outside  the  walls,  are  the 
suburbs  of  Bhana  Mari  and  Baghban,  where  there  are  gardens  noted 
for  their  fruit,  producing  quinces,  pomegranates,  plums,  limes,  peaches, 
and  apples  in  abundance.  These  gardens  form  a  favourite  pleasure- 
ground  of  the  people ;  north  of  the  city  is  another  public  pleasure- 
ground,  the  Bagh  Shahi,  or  old  royal  gardens.  Two  miles  west  of 
the  city  lie  the  cantonments,  where  most  of  the  civil  offices  are  also 

Population. — Peshawar  city  and  suburbs,  comprising  the  municipality, 
has  a  total  population  (1881)  of  59,292,  namely,  males  33,089,  and 
females  26,203.  The  cantonments  contain  a  population  (1881)  of 
20,690,  namely,  males  17,233,  and  females  3457.  Including  the  city 
proper,  suburbs,  and  cantonments,  Peshawar  contains  a  total  population 
of  79,982,  namely,  males  50,322,  and  females  29,660.  Classified  accord- 
ing to  religion,  Muhammadans  number  57,378 ;  Hindus,  18,105  i  Sikhs, 
1465;  Christians,  3028;  Jains,  3  ;  and  'others,'  3.  The  municipal 
income  (chiefly  derived  from  octroi  duties)  amounted  in  1883-84  to 
^18,616,  or  an  average  of  6s.  3|d.  per  head  (59,292)  of  municipal 

Trade  and  Mafiufadiires. — The  larger  commercial  transactions  are  in 
the  hands  of  Hindu  Khattri  and  Arora  merchants,  although  there  are 
also  many  Muhammadan  merchants  of  position  and  importance.  The 
mass  of  the  town  population  is  sub-divided  into  petty  trade  guilds, 
recruited  from  miscellaneous  tribes  of  every  race  to  be  found  in  Northern 
India  or  in  Afghanistan  and  the  neighbouring  countries  to  the  south 
and  west.  Peshawar  forms  the  great  commercial  market  for  Central 
Asia,  for  Afghanistan,  and  for  the  neighbouring  independent  States  and 
tribes  adjoining  the  British  frontier,  collecting  wheat  and  salt  from 
Kohat,  rice  and  ghi  from  Swat,  oil-seeds  from  Yusafzai,  and  sugar  and 
oil  from  the  Punjab  and  North-Western  Provinces.  These  articles  find 
their  market  principally  in  Bokhara,  Kabul,  and  Bajaur  ;  in  return  for 
which  are  imported  from  Bokhara  gold  coin  and  bullion,  gold  and 
silver  thread  and  lace,  and  prepared  skins  ;  and  from  Kabul  horses 


mules  and  donkeys,  fruits,  sheepskin  coats  {poshtins),  woollen  em- 
broidered coats  {chogas\  etc.  Indian  tea  and  English  piece-goods  are 
also  exported  in  considerable  quantities  to  Kabul. 

histiiiitions,  etc.  —  The  Commissioner  and  Deputy  Commissioner's 
courts,  and  the  District  offices  generally,  are  situated  in  the  cantonments. 
Within  the  city  are  the  Sub-divisional  offices  and  courts  in  the  Ghor 
Khatri,  the  large  sardL  The  Edwardes  gate,  a  newly  constructed 
entrance  to  the  city  in  place  of  the  old  Kabul  gate,  leads  to  the  main 
business  street ;  a  clock  tower  stands  in  front  of  the  city  police  station. 
The  principal  local  institutions  are  the  Church  Mission  Collegiate 
School,  the  Egerton  Hospital,  and  the  Martin  Lecture  Hall  and  Institute, 
with  its  reading  room  and  library,  also  maintained  by  the  Peshawar 

Peshawar.  —  Large  military  cantonment  in  Peshawar  District, 
Punjab;  situated  2  miles  west  of  Peshawar  city  {m'de  supra),  from 
whence  it  is  separated  by  a  slight  depression  occupied  by  the  civil 
bazar ;  lat.  34°  o'  15"  N.,  long.  71°  34'  45"  e-  The  cantonments  were 
occupied  by  British  troops  soon  after  the  annexation  of  the  Punjab  in 
1848-49.  There  are  no  old  buildings  of  note,  except  the  Residency. 
This  was  formerly  the  garden  retreat  of  Ali  Mardan  Khan,  one  of  the 
Durani  chiefs,  and  is  now  used  as  the  record-room  and  the  treasury  of 
the  District.  Among  the  modern  buildings  are  St.  John's  Church, 
double-storied  barracks,  etc.  The  site  of  the  cantonment,  a  curved 
elevation  looking  towards  the  Khaibar  hills,  is  one  of  the  best  and 
highest  points  in  the  valley,  the  only  objection  to  it  being  its  proximity 
to  the  city.  To  the  south-east  are  barren  and  stony  plains  intercepted 
by  occasional  watercourses  ;  to  the  north  lies  a  marshy  tract  extending 
in  the  direction  of  the  Kabul  river. 

The  cantonments  contained  in  1881  a  total  population  of  20,690, 
namely,  males  17,223,  and  females  345?-  The  fighting  strength  con- 
sisted in  1885  of  a  battery  of  Royal  artillery,  2  regiments  of  European 
infantry,  a  regiment  of  Bengal  cavalry,  and  three  regiments  of  Native 
infantry.  The  cantonments  of  Naushahra,  Jamriid,  and  Cherat  are 
subordinate  to  Peshawar,  which  also  supplies  garrisons  to  the  frontier 
forts  and  military  stations. 

The  cantonment  buildings  are  arranged  in  three  main  blocks— right, 
centre,  and  left,  forming  together  an  irregular  oblong  8  miles  and  540 
yards  in  circuit,  3  miles  and  925  yards  in  length  from  north-west  to 
south-west,  and  i  mile  1650  yards  in  breadth  at  its  widest  point.  The 
right  (or  eastern)  block  contains  the  artillery  lines,  and  barracks  for  two 
regiments  of  Native  infantry,  the  commissariat  stores,  the  District 
court-house  and  treasury,  the  jail  and  police  lines,  and  other  public 
buildings.  The  centre  block  contains  lines  for  a  regiment  of  Native 
infantry.     It  contains  also  the  church,  Roman  Catholic  chapel,  post- 


office,  staging  bungalow,  and  the  cantonment  magistrate's  office.  The 
left  (or  western)  block  contains  lines  for  a  regiment  of  British  infantry, 
two  companies  of  sappers,  a  regiment  of  Native  infantry,  and  one  of 
Native  cavalry.  In  front  of  this  block  are  the  race-course,  grand  parade, 
and  burial-ground.  In  the  rear  are  a  large  cricket-ground  and  public 
garden.  The  appearance  of  the  place  during  the  cold  and  rainy 
seasons  is  pleasing  and  picturesque.  The  gardens  attached  to  the 
officers'  bungalows,  which  line  the  main  roads,  are  well  planted 
with  trees,  and  in  most  cases  are  well  kept.  Much  public  energy 
and  good  taste  also  have  been  displayed  in  certain  improvements 
recently  carried  out.  Add  to  this  description  the  fact  of  a  considerable 
society  brought  together  by  the  presence  of  so  large  a  force,  and  it  will 
be  seen  that  the  place  combines  the  principal  qualifications  for  a 
pleasurable  station.  The  whole,  however,  is  marred  by  the  excessive 
unhealthiness  for  which  the  cantonment  is  proverbial  throughout 
Northern  India,  fever  of  a  very  bad  type  being  prevalent  at  all  seasons 
of  the  year.  Much  has  recently  been  done  to  remove  the  causes  of 
this  unhealthiness ;  a  large  marsh  near  the  fort  has  been  drained,  and  a 
belt  of  trees  planted  between  it  and  the  cantonments ;  a  pure  supply 
of  filtered  water  through  iron  pipes  from  the  Bara  river  has  been  intro- 
duced; and  lastly,  the  sanitation  of  Peshawar  city  has  been  vastly 
improved.  Moreover,  a  large  proportion  of  sickly  men  are  now 
annually  withdrawn  from  the  valley  during  the  hot  months  to  the 
comparatively  healthy  site  of  Cherat.  The  result  of  these  measures  is 
said  to  have  been  a  very  marked  decrease  in  the  former  insalubrity  of 
the  station. 

Pet  Budhwara. — Village  in  Katol  tahsil,  Nagpur  District,  Central 
Provinces.  Population  (1881)  2361,  namely,  Hindus,  1893;  Muham- 
madans,  378  ;  Jains,  34  ;  non-Hindu  aborigines,  56. 

Peth.  —  Head  -  quarters  of  Walwa  Sub-division,  Satara  District, 
Bombay  Presidency.  Lat.  17°  3'  n.,  long.  74°  17'  e.  Population 
(1881)  5672.  Hindus  number  5367;  Muhammadans,  239;  and  Jains, 
C6.  Situated  45  miles  south-east  of  Satara  town,  Peth  is  one  of  the  local 
trade  centres  ;  the  chief  articles  of  trade  being  grain  and  cattle.  A 
yearly  fair,  attended  by  about  5000  people,  is  held  in  the  village  in 
February.     Post-office,  and  school  with  in  pupils  in  1883-S4. 

Pethapur.  —  Native  State  within  the  Agency  of  Mahi  Kantha, 
Bombay  Presidency.  Population  (1881)  7081.  Agricultural  products 
— millet,  pulse,  and  wheat.  Cotton  cloth  is  imported  and  dyed,  for 
exportation  to  Siam.  The  chief  is  descended  from  a  branch  of  the 
Hindu  dynasty  of  Anhilwcira  Patan,  whose  power  was  destroyed  by 
Ala-ud-din  in  1298.  Siramshi  or  Sarangdeo,  one  of  the  two  sons  of 
the  last  king  of  Patan,  was  granted  the  town  of  Kalol  and  surrounding 
villages.     Descended  from  him  in  the  tenth  generation  was  Herutaji, 

VOL.  XL  L 


who  in  1445  slew  his  maternal  uncle,  Pitaji,  of  the  Gohel  tribe,  and 
took  possession  of  the  State  called  after  him,  Pethapur.  The  chief  has 
enjoyed  semi-independent  power  since  the  establishment  of  his  family 
in  Mahi  Kantha.  The  present  (1885)  chief,  Thakur  Gambhir  Singh,  a 
Hindu  of  the  Waghela  clan  of  Rajputs,  succeeded  his  father,  Himat 
Singh,  in  December  1878,  and  being  a  minor,  the  State  is  now  under 
Government  management.  Revenue  (1882),  ;£i725.  An  annual  tribute 
of  ;£"863  is  paid  to  the  Gdekwar  of  Baroda.  The  family  do  not  hold 
a  title  authorizing  adoption,  and  they  follow  primogeniture  in  matters 
of  succession.  Transit  dues  are  levied  in  the  State.  One  school,  with 
205  pupils  in  1882-83. 

Pethapur. — Principal  town  in  Pethdpur  State,  Mahi  Kantha,  Gujarat 
(Guzerat),  Bombay  Presidency,  and  the  residence  of  the  chief;  situated 
in  lat.  23°  13'  10"  N.,  and  long.  72°  2i2)  3°"  ^-t  ^"^  the  west  bank 
of  the  Sabarmati.  Noted  for  the  brilliancy  of  its  dyes.  Considerable 
quantities  of  cloth  are  brought  into  the  town  to  be  coloured,  and  are 
then  exported  to  Siam.     Population  (1881)  7081. 

Petlad. — Sub-division  of  Baroda  State  (Gaekwar's  territory).  Area, 
280  square  miles,  of  which  88,087  acres  are  under  cultivation.  Popu- 
lation (1881)  138,292.  Number  of  holdings,  16,159;  average  size  of 
holding,  6  acres.  Gross  revenue,  ;2{^87,8i4,  of  which  ;zf  77,666  is  derived 
from  land.  Ninety-three  per  cent,  of  the  people  are  supported  by 
agriculture.     The  region  is  famous  for  its  tobacco  cultivation. 

Petlad.  —  Town  in  Baroda  State,  head  -  quarters  of  Petlad  Sub- 
division. Lat.  22°  29'  N.,  long.  72°  50'  E.  Population  (1881)  14,418, 
namely,  7226  males  and  7192  females.  Thriving  trade  in  tobacco,  and 
considerable  weaving  manufacture,  in  which  hand-looms  are  employed. 
Post  and  police  offices,  jail,  dispensary,  customs  house,  and  schools. 
Twenty-one  sardis  for  travellers. 

Pettai. — Town  in  Tinnevelli  District,  Madras  Presidency. — See 

Phaeton. — Small  shoal  off  the  mouth  of  the  Bassein  river,  Lower 
Burma;  on  which  H.M.S.  Phaetoft  struck  on  the  i6th  of  February 
1810,  and  w^as  obliged  to  put  into  Calcutta  for  repairs.  It  bears  south- 
west by  south  from  Diamond  Island  (distant  4  miles),  and  north  by 
east  (distant  2,2  miles)  from  the  Alguada  Reef,  having  9  fathoms  of  water 
close  to,  and  2  fathoms  upon  it. 

PhagU.  —  Halting -place,  with  good  Government  rest-house  of 
several  rooms,  in  Keunthal  State,  Punjab,  1  2  miles  east  of  Simla  on 
the  pony  route  to  Kotgarh.  Lat.  31°  6'  n.,  long.  77°  21'  e.  Roman- 
tically situated  between  8000  and  9000  feet  above  sea-level,  and 
frequently  resorted  to  by  Simla  residents  as  well  as  travellers.  The 
noble  forests  which  clothed  the  mountain  slopes  have  been  in  great 
part  burned  down,  and  have  given  place  to  potato  cultivation.     Formerly 


a  chief  source  of  charcoal  fuel  for  Simla.  Of  late,  game  has  become 
very  scarce. 

Phagwara.— Town  in  Kapurthala  State,  Punjab.  Population  (1881) 
10,627,  namely,  Hindus,  6889;  Muhammadans,  3133;  Sikhs,  496; 
and  Jains,  109.     Number  of  houses,  2065. 

Phalalum  {Phalut). — One  of  the  loftiest  peaks  in  Darjiling  District, 
Bengal,  in  the  Singalila  spur  of  the  Himalayas;  12,042  feet  in  height. 
Lat.  27°  12'  30"  N.,  long.  88°  3'  e.  The  view  of  the  great  northern 
Snowy  Mountains  from  this  hill  is  said  by  the  District  officer  to  be 
one  of  '  indescribable  grandeur.  A  jagged  line  of  snow  connecting 
the  two  highest  mountains  in  the  world,  Everest  and  Kanchanjanga, 
dazzles  the  eye  ;  and  while  the  deep  silence  around  impresses  itself 
upon  the  spectator,  the  thick  clumps  of  pine  forest,  with  their  wide- 
spreading  arms,  add  a  weird  solemnity  to  the  scene.'  The  range  is 
crossed  by  the  Nepal  frontier  road ;  and  a  staging  bungalow  has  been 
recently  erected  on  the  Singalila  spur,  which  is  available  to  travellers 
on  application  to  the  Deputy  Commissioner  of  Darjiling. 

Phalauda. — Town  in  Muwana  tahsil,  Meerut  (Merath)  District, 
North-Western  Provinces.  The  town  is  said  to  have  been  founded  by 
Phalgu,  a  Rajput  of  the  Tuar  clan,  whose  descendants  held  possession 
of  it  till  they  were  ousted  by  the  Aluhammadans.  The  place  was 
abandoned  for  nearly  two  centuries,  on  account  of  a  curse  uttered  by 
Kutab  Shah,  ^  fakir ;  and  no  one  would  cultivate  it  at  the  settlement 
in  1836.  Some  Jats  were  afterwards  induced  to  occupy  the  village  at 
a  progressive  revenue  commencing  from  ^-^3.  It  is  now  again  in  a 
high  state  of  cultivation,  and  at  the  last  land  revenue  settlement  was 
assessed  at  a  revenue  of  ^99.  Population  (1881)  5163,  namely, 
Hindus,  3076;  Muhammadans,  2050;  and  Jains,  37.  Aluhammadans 
still  refuse  to  live  in  the  town,  as  they  say  they  are  immediately  seized 
with  disease. 

Phalgu. — River  of  Gaya  District,  Bengal ;  formed  by  the  union,  a 
few  miles  above  Gaya  town,  of  two  hill  torrents,  the  Lilajan  and  the 
Mohana,  which  both  enter  the  District  from  the  south.  When  the 
Phalgu  reaches  the  high  and  rocky  shores  of  Gaya,  it  is  above  500 
yards  wide,  and  for  the  next  half-mile  is  remarkable  for  its  sanctity. 
During  the  hot  weather  it  dries  up,  but  water  can  always  be  obtained 
by  digging  a  few  feet  below  the  surface.  After  leaving  Gaya,  the  river 
runs  in  a  north-easterly  direction  for  about  17  miles.  When  opposite 
the  Barabar  Hill,  it  divides  into  two  branches,  which  flow  eventually 
into  a  branch  of  the  Piinpun. 

Phalian. — Western  tahsil  of  Gujrat  District,  Punjab  ;  consisting  of  a 
plateau  bordering  on  Shahpur  District;  lying  between  32°  10'  30"  and 
32°  44'  N.  lat.,  and  between  73°  20'  and  73°  55'  30"  e.  long.  Area, 
772  square  miles,  with   308  towns  and  villages,    20,665    houses,  and 


35,753  families.  Population  (1881)  174,704,  namely,  males  92,425, 
and  females  82,279;  average  density  of  population,  226  persons  per 
square  mile.  Classified  according  to  religion,  Muhammadans  number 
150,946;  Hindus,  21,898;  Sikhs,  1858;  and  Christians,  2.  Of  the 
308  towns  and  villages,  178  contain  less  than  five  hundred  inhabitants  ; 
84  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand ;  and  46  from  one  thousand 
to  five  thousand,  there  being  no  place  with  upwards  of  five  thousand 
inhabitants.  Average  area  under  cultivation  for  the  five  years  1877-78 
to  1881-82,  317  square  miles,  or  202,891  acres;  the  area  under 
the  principal  crops  being — wheat,  100,464  acres ;  bdjra,  24,234  acres  ; 
barley,  14,686  acres;  moth,  4642  acres;  gram,  4318  acres;  Indian 
corn,  2226  acres;  rice,  1653  acres;  cotton,  5750  acres;  sugar-cane, 
2887  acres;  tobacco,  1247  acres;  vegetables,  10,284  acres,  etc. 
Revenue  of  the  tahsil,  ;£'i5,783.  The  local  administrative  staff  consists 
of  a  tahsilddr  ^nd  d^mimsif,  presiding  over  i  criminal  and  2  civil  courts; 
number  of  police  circles  {thdnds),  3;  strength  of  regular  police,  51 
men  ;  village  police  {chaukiddrs),  204. 

Phaljar. — Village  in  the  Jaintia  plains  in  the  north  of  Sylhet  District, 
Assam;  containing  a  celebrated  Hindu  temple.  A  human  sacrifice  at 
this  temple  led  to  the  British  annexation  of  Jaintia  in  1837. 

Phaltan. — Native  State  under  the  iVgency  of  Sc4tara,  in  the  Deccan, 
Bombay  Presidenc}',  lying  between  17°  56'  and  18°  6'  x.  lat.,  and  between 
74°  16'  and  74°  44'  E.  long.  Bounded  on  the  north  by  Poona  (Piina) 
District,  and  on  the  east,  west,  and  south  by  Satara  District.  Area,  397 
square  miles.  Population  (1872)  59,124;  (1881)  58,402,  namely,  29,199 
males  and  29,203  females,  occupying  7082  houses  in  i  town  and  71 
villages.  Hindus  number  55,389;  Muhammadans,  1670;  and  'others,' 
1343.  Gross  revenue,  inclusive  of  import  and  export  duties,  ;if  12,902. 
The  country  is  chiefly  flat ;  lines  of  stony  hills  divide  it  from  Satara 
District.  The  prevailing  soil  is  black,  and  the  rest  is  red.  About 
9000  acres  of  garden  cultivation  are  irrigated,  for  the  most  part  from 
wells.  Extensive  grazing  lands.  Indian  millet,  salt,  gram,  and  timber 
are  the  chief  products  ;  and  oil,  weaving  of  cotton  and  silk  goods,  and 
carving  of  stone  idols  are  the  chief  manufactures.  The  climate  is  hot, 
and  the  rainfall  scanty.  The  State  suffered  severely  during  the  famine 
of  1876-77  ;  much  land  was  abandoned,  and  has  not  yet  been  brought 
under  cultivation.  In  1882-83  the  State  had  3  civil  courts,  besides 
criminal  and  sessions  courts.  Regular  police,  52  men  ;  watchmen 
{i-akhvdlddrs)^  43.     Schools,  ]  6,  with  719  pupils. 

The  Phaltan  family  is  of  Rajput  origin.  One  Padakla  Jagdeo  entered 
the  service  of  the  Emperor  of  Delhi ;  and  on  his  death  in  battle,  in  1327, 
the  Emperor  gave  the  title  of  Nayak  and  a  grant  of  lands  to  his  son 
Nimbrdji,  who  died  in  1349.  In  1825  the  State  was  attached  by  the 
Raja  of  Satara.     In  1827,  Banaji  Nayak  was  permitted  to  succeed  on 


payment  of  a  relief  of  ^^3000.  On  his  dcaili  in  tlie  following  year, 
Phaltan  was  again  attached  by  the  Satara  Government  till  1841,  when 
the  widow  of  the  deceased  chief  was  allowed  to  adopt  a  son — the 
l)resent  chief  of  Phaltan — on  payment  of  a  relief  of  ^3000.  The 
present  (1SS2)  ruler,  who  ranks  as  a  '  First-Class  Sardar'  in  the  Deccan, 
is  Madhavji  Rao  Nayak  Nimbalkar,  Desmukh  Jagirdar.  He  is  a  Hindu 
of  the  Kshattriya  caste,  forty-four  years  of  age,  and  administers  his  estate 
in  person.  He  pays  a  tribute  of  £,^(io,  in  lieu  of  a  contingent  of  75 
horse.  The  family  hold  a  sanad  authorizing  adoption.  In  matters  of 
succession  they  follow  the  custom  of  primogeniture. 

Phaltan.  —  Chief  town  of  Phaltan  State,  in  the  Deccan,  Bombay 
Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  17°  59'  40"  n.,  and  long.  74°  28'  20"  e.,  37 
miles  north-east  of  Satara.  Population  (1872)  9741  ;  (1881)  10,842, 
namely,  5438  males  and  5404  females.  Hindus  in  1881  numbered 
8854;  Muhammadans,  794;  and  Jains,  1194.  The  town  was  founded 
by  Ximbraj  in  the  14th  century.  The  streets  are  well  ke[)t  and  clean, 
and  the  road  round  the  town  well  shaded  by  trees.  Municipality 
established  in  1868;  income  (1882),  ^£"580;  incidence  of  taxation,  3d. 
per  head. 

Phallit. — Lofty  peak  in  Darj fling  District,  Bengal. — See  Phalalum. 

Phaphlind.  —  Central  eastern  tahsil  of  Etaw^ah  District,  North- 
western Provinces ;  consisting  of  a  level  upland  plain,  traversed  by  the 
East  Indian  Railway,  and  watered  by  the  Etawah  branch  of  the  Ganges 
Canal.  Area,  228  square  miles,  of  which  124  are  cultivated.  Popula- 
tion (1872)  97,574;  (1881)  111,585,  namely,  males  61,193,  ^"^  females 
50,392,  show^ing  an  increase  of  population  since  1872  of  14,011,  or 
1 2 '5  per  cent,  in  nine  years.  Classified  according  to  religion,  there 
were  in  1881 — Hindus,  105,142;  Muhammadans,  6433;  and  'others,' 
10.  Of  the  240  towns  and  villages  in  the  ta/isil,  1S7  contain  less 
than  five  hundred  inhabitants  ;  38  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand;  14 
from  one  to  five  thousand;  and  i  upwards  of  five  thousand  inhabitants. 
Government  land  revenue  assessment,  ;£"2 1,391,  or  including  local 
rates  and  cesses  levied  upon  land,  ;£23,972  ;  estimated  rental  paid  by 
cultivators,  ;2{?39,i34.  In  1883,  Phaphiind  /^/^i-// contained  i  civil  and 
I  magisterial  court ;  number  of  police  circles  (//lanas),  3 ;  strength  of 
regular  police,  37  men;  village  police  (e/iaiikiddrs),  223. 

Phaphlind. — Town  in  Etawah  District,  North-Western  Provinces, 
and  head-quarters  of  Etawah  fa/isU.  Situated  in  lat.  26'  35'  30"  n., 
and  long.  79°  30'  25"  e.,  on  an  old  mound,  36  miles  east  of  Etawah 
town.  Population  (1881)  7796,  namely,  Hindus,  531 1  ;  Muhammadans, 
2480  ;  and  Christians,  5.  Area  of  town  site,  118  acres.  For  conservancy 
and  police  purposes,  a  house-tax  is  levied.  Phaphund  contains  several 
good  brick-built  houses  ;  wide,  busy  Msdr ;  open  modern  quarter  known 
as  Hume-ganj ;  handsome  sardi]  with  large  enclosure  shaded  by  trees. 


TahsUi,  police  station,  Anglo-vernacular  school.  The  Phaphiind  railway 
station  is  situated  6  miles  north-east  of  the  town,  with  telegraph  office  ; 
post-office  in  the  town.  Ruins  of  great  tanks  and  temples  surround  the 
site  on  every  side.  Two  mosques,  masonry  well,  4  tanks.  The  town 
was  twice  plundered  and  burnt  during  the  Mutiny  of  1857.  Annual 
fair,  attended  by  10,000  persons,  at  the  tomb  of  Shah  Bukhari,  a 
]\Iusalman  ascetic. 

Pharamgiri  (or  Fardiugiri). — Village  in  the  south-east  of  the  Garo 
Hills  District,  Assam  ;  on  the  southern  slope  of  the  Mimanram  Mountain, 
3952  feet  above  sea-level.  The  inhabitants  of  this  village  perpetrated 
the  massacre  of  the  survey  coolies  in  1871,  which  led  to  the  Garo 
expedition  of  the  following  year,  and  the  British  annexation  of  the 

Pharha  (Fharhiya). — Town  in  Mustafabad  tahsil,  Mainpuri  District, 
North-Western  Provinces.  Distant  from  Mainpuri  town  39^  miles,  and 
from  Mustafabad  8  miles.  Population  (1881)  4268,  namely,  Hindus, 
3043;  Muhammadans,  663  ;  and  'others,'  562.  The  conservancy  and 
police  arrangements  of  the  town  are  met  out  of  the  proceeds  of  a  small 
house-tax.  Trade  in  indigo,  cotton,  grain,  and  country  produce,  which 
has  declined  since  the  opening  of  the  railway.  Police  station,  post- 
office.     Branch  indigo  factory  of  the  Umargarh  establishment. 

Pheni  {Fomy). — Sub-division  of  Noakhali  District,  Bengal.  Area, 
343  square  miles;  number  of  villages,  636  ;  number  of  houses,  23,273. 
Population  (t  881),  males  118,332,  and  females  123,643;  total,  241,975. 
Classified  according  to  religion,  Muhammadans  numbered  166,751; 
Hindus,  75,209;  Christians,  3;  and  Buddhists,  12.  Density  of  popu- 
lation, 705  persons  per  square  mile;  villages  per  square  mile,  i'85; 
persons  per  village,  380;  houses  per  square  mile,  71;  persons  per 
house,  10-4.  The  Sub-division  comprises  the  two  police  circles  (thdnds) 
of  Pheni  and  Chhagalnaiya.  In  1883  it  contained  i  criminal  court, 
namely,  the  Sub-divisional  officers'  court  at  Pheni ;  and  2  civil  munsifs 
courts,  both  at  Diwanganj. 

Pheni. — River  of  Eastern  Bengal.  Rising  in  lat.  23°  20'  n.,  and 
long.  91°  49'  30"  E.,  in  Hill  Tipperah,  it  flows  south-west,  marking 
the  boundary  between  Hill  Tipperah  and  the  Chittagong  Hill  Tracts, 
which  it  leaves  at  Ramghar.  Thence  it  flows  west  and  south,  divid- 
ing Chittagong  from  Noakhali  on  the  north,  and  ultimately  falls 
into  the  Sandwip  Channel,  an  arm  of  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  in  lat. 
22°  46'  N.,  and  long.  91°  31'  e.  During  its  course  through  the  hills,  it 
is  of  little  use  for  navigation  ;  its  banks  are  abrupt,  and  covered  with 
heavy  grass  and  bamboo  jungle.  The  Pheni  is  of  considerable  depth 
during  the  rains,  but  is  rendered  dangerous  by  rapid  currents,  whirling 
eddies,  and  sharp  turns ;  at  every  full  and  new  moon,  especially  at  the 
time  of  the  equinox,  there  is  a  bore  in  the  Sandwip  Channel,  which  is 


liigliest  at  the  mouth  of  the  Pheni  river.     It  is  navigable  by  large  boats 
throughout  the  year  for  a  distance  of  30  miles. 

Phillaur.— Central  southern  /^^// of  Jalandhar  (Jullundur)  District, 
Punjab,  lying  between  30°  57'  15"  and  31°  13'  n.  lat.,  and  between 
75°  Zo  ^"d  76'  E.  long.,  along  the  bank  of  the  Sutlej  (Satlaj).  Area, 
294  square  miles,  with  220  towns  and  villages,  23,813  houses,  and 
38,058  families.  Population  (1881)  168,269,  namely,  males  92,871, 
and  females  75,398  ;  average  density  of  population,  573  persons  per 
square  mile.  Classified  according  to  religion,  Hindus  number  85,016; 
Muhammadans,  58,620;  Sikhs,  24,532;  Christians,  98;  and  Jains,  3. 
Of  the  220  towns  and  villages,  127  contain  less  than  five  hundred 
inhabitants;  57  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand  ;  31  from  one  to  five 
thousand ;  and  5  upwards  of  five  thousand  inhabitants.  Average 
cultivated  area  for  the  five  years  1877-78  to  1881-82,  261  square  miles, 
or  166,998  acres,  the  principal  crops  being — wheat,  55,165  acres; 
gram,  16,638  acres;  Indian  corn,  18,193  acres ;y^ir,  22,509  acres; 
moth,  4837  acres;  barley,  2222  acres;  rice,  1125  acres;  sugar-cane, 
10,488  acres;  cotton,  5793  acres;  tobacco,  76  acres,  etc.  Revenue 
of  the  tahsil,  ;^30jOi7-  T-'he  local  administrative  staff  consists  of 
I  tahs'ilddr  and  i  imi?ishi,  presiding  over  i  criminal  and  2  civil  courts  ; 
number  of  police  circles  {thdnds),  2,  with  head-quarters  at  Phillaur 
and  Niirmahal  ;  strength  of  regular  police,  45  men ;  village  watch 
{chaukiddrs),  307. 

Phillaur. — Town  and  municipality  in  Jalandhar  (Jullundur)  District, 
Punjab,  and  head-quarters  of  Phillaur  tahsil.  Situated  in  lat  31°  o' 
38"  X.,  and  long.  75°  49'  55"  e.,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Sutlej  (Satlaj), 
27  miles  south-east  of  Jalandhar  town.  The  modern  town  dates  from 
the  reign  of  Shah  Jahan,  when  its  site,  then  covered  with  ruins,  was 
selected  for  one  of  the  sard  is  or  resting-stages  on  the  imperial  route 
from  Delhi  to  Lahore.  It  was  seized  on  the  rise  of  the  Sikh  power  by 
one  Sudh  Singh,  who  made  it  the  capital  of  a  considerable  estate  ;  and 
fell  into  the  hands  of  Ranjit  Singh  in  1807,  w^ho  converted  the  sardi 
into  a  fort  to  command  the  passage  of  the  Sutlej.  After  the  British 
occupation,  the  fort  was  occupied  as  an  important  artillery  arsenal  and 
magazine  ;  and  a  cantonment  was  formed  in  the  neighbourhood,  which 
continued  to  be  occupied  till  the  Mutiny  of  1857,  when  the  detachment 
in  garrison  rebelled.  The  cantonment  was  not  reoccupied  after  the 
pacification.  Phillaur  owes  its  modern  importance  to  the  Sind,  Punjab, 
and  Delhi  Railway,  on  w'hich  it  forms  one  of  the  depot  stations.  Large 
colony  of  railway  employes.  Population  (1881)  7107,  namely, 
Muhammadans,  4022;  Hindus,  2749;  Sikhs,  260;  Christians,  75; 
and  Jain,  I.  Number  of  houses,  1 137.  Municipal  income  (1883-84), 
;^5i7,  or  IS.  5^d.  per  head  of  the  population.  Tahsili,  police 
station,  branch  dispensary,  middle-class  school,  post-ofifice.     The  town 


is  also  the  head-quarters  of  a  forest  division,  and  is  a  great  wood  mart, 
large  quantities  of  timber  being  floated  down  the  Sutlej  and  stored  and 
sold  here. 

Phingeswar  {Fmges^var).  —  Zaui'inddri  or  chiefship  attached  to 
Raipur  District,  Central  Provinces,  about  30  miles  south  of  Raipur 
town;  containing  80  villages,  and  valuable  forests.  Area,  208  square 
miles,  with  84  towns  or  villages,  and  4834  houses.  Population  (1881) 
16,325,  namely,  males  81 18,  and  females  8207;  average  density  of 
population,  78*5  persons  per  square  mile.  The  chief  claims  to  be  a 
Raj  -  Gond ;  and  the  chiefship  is  said  to  have  been  granted  to  his 
ancestor  in  1579.     Phingeswar  villag^e  lies  in  lat.  20°  58'  n.,  and  long. 

82°  5'  E. 

Phulaguri  {Fuldguri). — Village  in  Nowgong  (Naugaon)  District, 
Assam.  A  fair,  attended  by  about  5000  persons,  is  held  here  for  one 
day  in  March,  and  is  said  to  have  been  introduced  in  the  reign  of  the 
Aham  kings.  Its  primary  object  is  the  performance  of  religious  plays 
in  honour  of  certain  deities. 

Phuljhar. — Zai?ii?idd7'i  or  chiefship  attached  to  Sambalpur  District, 
Central  Provinces,  formerly  one  of  the  Hill  States  known  as  the 
Athdra  Garhjdt^  or  the  Eighteen  Forts.  Area,  787  square  miles,  two- 
thirds  of  which  are  cultivated.  The  soil  is  light  and  sandy,  except  here 
and  there  in  the  valleys.  In  the  west,  some  fine  strips  of  sdl  jungle 
fringe  the  main  road  between  Raipur  and  Sambalpur,  especially  near 
the  river  Jonk ;  the  tigers  which  infested  them  have  been  of  late  nearly 
exterminated.  Wild  buffaloes  are  found  near  the  Jonk,  and  bears, 
leopards,  etc.,  among  the  hills.  Rice  forms  the  staple  crop,  but  pulses, 
cotton,  oil-seeds,  sugar-cane,  and  gram  are  also  grown.  Excellent  iron- 
ore  has  been  found.  Population  (1881)  65,878,  namely,  males  33,395, 
and  females  32,483,  inhabiting  436  villages  and  17,010  houses;  average 
density  of  population,  837  persons  per  square  mile.  The  school  in 
Phuljhar,  the  chief  town  (lat.  21°  13'  n.,  long.  82°  53'  e.),  has  about  50 
pupils.  This  chiefship  is  sub-divided  into  eight  estates — Phuljhargarh, 
Kelinda,  Boitari,  Basna,  Balada,  Borsara,  Singhora,  and  Sankra.  About 
250  villages  are  held  by  the  farmers  direct  from  the  chief,  who  is  a  Raj- 
Gond.  His  annual  income  is  estimated  at  ;£i362,  and  he  pays  an 
annual  tribute  of  ^100.  The  chiefship  was  granted  to  his  ancestor  300 
years  ago  by  the  Patna  Rajas,  for  service  in  the  field. 

Phlilpur. — Tahsil  of  AUahdbad  District,  North-Western  Provinces, 
lying  on  the  north  bank  of  the  river  Ganges,  and  comprising  the 
pargaiids  of  Sikandra  and  Jhusi.  Area,  285  square  miles,  of  which 
i6i*3  are  returned  as  under  cultivation.  Population  (1872)  160,305; 
(1881)  173,001,  namely,  males  86,221,  and  females  86,780,  showing 
an  increase  of  12,696,  or  7-9  per  cent,  in  nine  years.  Classified 
according  to  religion,  there  were  in  18S1 — Hindus,  151,618;   Muham- 


madans,  21,378;  and  'others,'  5.  Of  the  4S8  towns  and  villages  in 
the  tahsil,  391  contain  less  than  two  hundred  inhabitants;  71  from 
five  hundred  to  a  thousand;  25  from  one  to  five  thousand;  and  i 
upwards  of  five  thousand  inhabitants.  Government  land  revenue 
assessment,  ;£^3o,o69,  or  including  local  rates  and  cesses  levied  upon 
land,  ;z{?34,5So.  In  1883,  Phiilpur  tahsil  contained  i  civil  and 
revenue  and  i  criminal  court ;  number  of  police  circles  {thdnds),  2  ; 
strength  of  regular  police  force,  28  men  ;  village  police  force  {cJiauhiddrs)^ 
■>  -■  o 

Piali. — River  in  the  District  of  the  Twenty-four  Parganas,  Bengal. 
A  cross  stream  from  the  Bidvadhari  to  the  Matla  ;  it  branches  off 
from  the  former  river  in  lat.  22°  25'  n.,  and  long.  88°  35'  e.,  near 
Bhagirathpur,  and  flows  a  southerly  and  south-westerly  course  till  it 
falls  into  the  Matla  about  15  miles  below  Port  Canning.  The  river  is 
bridged  at  the  point  where  the  Calcutta  and  South-Eastern  Railway 
crosses  it.  The  Piali  is  a  deep  stream,  about  100  yards  in  breadth 
where  it  leaves  the  Bidyadhari,  increasing  to  about  250  yards  on  its 

Pigeon  Island.  —  Island  off  the  coast  of  Vizagapatam  District, 
Madras  Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  17°  33'  n.,  and  long.  83°  14'  e., 
about  7  leagues  eastward  of  Wattada.  It  lies  low,  and  is  not  discernible 
from  a  distance. 

Pigeon  Island  (also  known  as  Netrdni  or  Nitrdn). — Island  ten 
miles  off  the  coast  of  North  Kanara  District,  Bombay  Presidency ; 
situated  in  lat.  14'  i'  x.,  and  long.  74°  19' e.,  about  15  miles  north-west 
of  Bhatkal.  The  island  is  about  300  feet  high  and  half  a  mile  broad. 
It  is  well  wooded,  and  has  2;ood  landing  on  the  west  side.  In  clear 
weather  it  is  visible  25  miles  off.  Its  shores  abound  in  white  coral  and 
quicklime,  which  are  taken  by  boats  to  the  mainland.  The  numbers  of 
pigeons  that  haunt  its  caves  have  given  the  island  its  name.  Besides 
pigeons,  the  island  is  frequented  by  the  swiftlet,  CoUccalia  unicolor, 
whose  nests  the  Chinese  esteem  a  delicacy.  It  also  contains  one  of  the 
largest  known  colonies  of  the  white-bellied  sea  eagle. 

Pihani.  —  Pargand  in  Shahabad  tahsil,  Hardoi  District,  Oudh ; 
bounded  on  the  north  by  Kheri  District,  on  the  east  by  Kheri  and 
Sitapur  Districts,  on  the  south  by  Gopamau  and  ]Mansurnagar/<7/y^//<7i", 
and  on  the  west  by  Mansiirnagar  and  Alamnagar.  Area,  So  square 
miles,  of  which  43  are  cultivated.  Population  (1881)  37,463,  namely, 
30,283  Hindus  and  4180  Muhammadans.  Government  land  revenue, 
;£402  8.  Number  of  villages  or  townships  {maiizds),  81.  The 
proprietary  class  consists  of  Brahmans,  Rajputs,  Kayasths,  and  Musal- 

Pihani.  —  Town  and  municipality  in  Shahabad  ta/isii,  Hardoi 
District,  Oudh,  and  head-quarters  of  Pihani  pargand ;  situated   in  lat. 


27°  37'  15"  N,,  and  long.  80°  14'  25"  e.,  on  the  road  l^etween  Sitapur 
and  Shahjahanpur.  Population  (1881)  7540,  namely,  4458  Hindus  and 
3082  Muhammadans,  residing  in  327  brick  and  1493  rnud  houses. 
Municipal  income  (1883-84),  £,2\^^  of  which  ;!^io3  was  derived  from 
taxation ;  average  incidence  of  taxation,  4jd,  per  head.  A  place  of 
considerable  importance  during  native  administration,  but  now  in  a 
state  of  decay.  A  handsome  mosque  and  tomb  marks  the  resting-place 
of  Akbar's  celebrated  chancellor,  Sadr  Jahan.  Pihani  was  formerly 
noted  for  its  manufacture  of  sword-blades  of  the  finest  temper,  and  of 
woven  turbans  {dastdr).  Both  these  industries  have  now  died  out. 
Police  station  ;  Government  school. 

Pihej. — Town  in  Baroda  Division,  Baroda  State  (Gaekwar's  territory). 
Population  (1881)  6294. 

Pihewa.  —  Town  in  Ambala  (Umballa)  District,  Punjab.  —  See 

Pilibhit. — District  in  the  Lieutenant-Governorship  of  the  North- 
western Provinces,  lying  between  28°  8'  and  28'  53'  30"  n.  lat.,  and 
between  79°  41'  and  So""  3'  e.  long.  Area,  13  71 '6  square  miles.  Popula- 
tion (1881)  451,601.  Pihbhit  is  a  District  of  the  Rohilkhand  Division; 
bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Tarai  District ;  on  the  east  by  the 
independent  territory  of  Nepal,  and  by  Shd-hjahanpur  District ;  on  the 
south  by  Shahjahanpur  ;  and  on  the  west  by  Bareilly  (Bareli)  District. 
The  administrative  head-quarters  are  at  the  town  of  Pilibhit. 

Physical  Aspects. — Pilibhit  District,  though  only  separated  by  the 
narrow  belt  of  the  Tarai  from  the  lower  spars  of  the  Himalayas,  con- 
sists chiefly  of  a  level  plain,  modified  by  gentle  undulations  and  inter- 
sected by  several  streams.  In  the  south,  the  country  is  well  wooded, 
nearly  every  village  possessing  groves  of  mango  and  other  fruit  trees. 
The  total  area  under  fruit  groves  is  returned  at  15,612  acres.  In  the 
north  and  east,  a  large  area  of  forest  land  fringes  Pilibhit  and  Puranpur 
pargands,  a  small  portion  of  which  is  the  private  property  of  zaminddrSy 
while  the  remainder  is  Government  property,  and  is  conserved  and 
managed  by  forest  ofticers.  In  Puranpur  pargajid,  the  cultivators 
are  allowed  to  cut  wood  for  their  domestic  consumption  free  of  duty, 
but  in  the  Pilibhit  forest  tract,  their  privileges  in  this  respect  are  much 

The  Sarda  and  the  Deoha,  with  their  affluents,  are  the  principal 
rivers  of  the  District.  The  former  river,  after  a  course  of  some  150 
miles  w^ithin  the  Kumaun  hills,  debouches  upon  the  plains  at  Barmdeo, 
and  marks  the  boundary  between  Nepalese  and  British  territory.  For 
about  nine  or  ten  miles,  as  far  as  the  old  fort  of  Banbasa  in  the  Tarai 
District,  it  flows  in  a  southerly  and  south-easterly  direction,  generally 
in  one  bed,  between  tolerably  high  and  picturesquely  wooded  banks. 
On  nearing  the  plains,  the  river  soon  changes  its  character ;  every  mile 

riLIBHIJ,  171 

rapids  become  rarer,  the  bed  less  strewn  with  boulders,  and  sandbanks 
ai)i)ear.  Near  Banbasa,  the  river  separates  into  two  main  streams, 
which  reunite  about  14  miles  lower  down,  enclosing  the  island  known 
as  Chandni  Chauk.  Within  living  memory,  the  western  channel 
carried  the  main  stream  of  the  Sarda.  But  of  late  years  the  current 
has  been  steadily  tending  towards  the  eastern  channel,  and  the 
western  now  carries  little  more  than  a  few  inches  of  water  during  the 
summer  months.  The  western  channel  marks,  however,  the  Nepalese 
boundary.  About  a  mile  below  the  reunion  of  the  two  branches  is 
Mandiyaghat,  an  important  station  on  the  main  road  between 
Bareilly,  Pilibhit,  and  Nepal.  From  Mandiyaghat,  the  Sarda  flows 
south-eastwards  through  Pilibhit  District,  marking  at  parts  the  boundary 
between  British  and  Nepalese  territory,  but  with  many  bifurcations  and 
interlacing  channels,  till  it  passes  into  Kheri  District,  where  it  receives 
the  Kauriala;  and  the  united  river  is  thence  known  as  the  Sarju  or 
(jogra,  the  great  river  of  Oudh,  down  to  its  confluence  with  the  Ganges 
at  Chapra,  in  the  Bengal  District  of  Saran,  in  lat.  25''  43'  n,,  long. 
84°  43'  30"  E.  Ferries  are  maintained  across  the  Sarda  at  Sherpur 
and  Jatpura.  The  principal  affluent  of  the  Sarda  is  the  Chauka,  a 
considerable  stream,  which,  after  a  long  course  through  the  Tarai 
District  and  the  Puranpur  pargand  of  Pilibhit,  almost  parallel  with 
the  Sarda,  falls  into  that  river  on  its  right  bank  near  Dhanaura- 

The  Deoha,  known  to  the  neighbouring  mountaineers  as  the  Nanda, 
rises  in  the  Bhabar  tract  of  Kumaun.  Here  its  waters,  like  that  of 
other  streams  to  the  eastward,  contains  large  quantities  of  lime  in 
solution,  and  blanch  after  rain  to  a  milky  whiteness.  The  springs 
from  the  hills,  below  which  the  river  debouches  on  to  the  plains,  are 
similarly  impregnated,  and  deposit  their  lime  either  pure  or  in  stalac- 
tites. Such  lime  is  exported  to  Bareilly,  Pilibhit,  and  Shahjahanpur, 
where  its  excellent  quality  commands  a  ready  sale.  The  Deoha  enters 
Pilibhit  from  the  north  in  the  centre  of  the  District,  and  flowing  a 
tortuous  southerly  course,  marks  the  boundary  between  Jahanabad  and 
Y'i^\\:i\\\\.  pargafids^  till  it  passes  into  Bareilly,  and  ultimately  into  Shah- 
jahanpur and  Hardoi  Districts,  in  the  latter  of  which  it  joins  the 
Kamganga  under  the  name  of  the  Garra.  Swollen  by  violent  floods 
from  the  mountains,  the  river  is  at  times  very  broad  and  deep,  with 
a  maximum  flood  discharge  of  26,000  cubic  feet  per  second;  its  hot- 
weather  discharge  does  not  exceed  200  feet  per  second.  Pilibhit  town 
is  situated  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Deoha,  and  below  this  point  the 
river  is  navigable  during  the  rains  by  boats  of  four  tons  burthen,  while 
logs  may  be  floated  down  it  for  most  of  the  year.  The  affluents  of  the 
Deoha  in  Pilibhit  District  are  the  Kailas,  Absara,  Lohiya,  and  Khakra. 
A  good  deal  of  water  for  irrigation  is  supplied  from  these  streams  ;  but 

172  FI LIB  II  IT. 

the  Deoha  itself  having  a  wide  bed  much  below  the  level  of  the 
surrounding  country,  cannot  prove  similarly  useful.  The  Giimti  river 
takes  its  rise  near  Mainakot  in  the  Puranpur  forest  tract.  Its  course  in 
Pilibhit  District  before  entering  Shahjahanpur  consists  of  a  series  of 
swamps,  all  bearing  a  bad  reputation  for  malaria.  A  similar  line  of 
swamps,  forming  the  upper  part  of  the  Mala,  is  of  a  particularly 
malarious  character,  and  renders  the  country-side  uninhabitable  for 
miles  around. 

Generally  speaking,  it  may  be  said  that  on  the  western  and  southern 
portions  the  District  is  populous,  well  cultivated,  and  undistinguish- 
able  in  general  character  from  the  adjacent  fertile  Districts  of  Bareilly 
and  Shahjahanpur;  while  to  the  north  and  east  in  Puranpur /^rg-^/z^  it 
lapses  more  or  less  abruptly  into  a  tract  of  malarious  swamp,  forest,  and 
grassy  waste,  interspersed  with  clumps  of  miserable  huts  and  patches 
of  poor  cultivation.  It  would  be  hard  to  find  a  stronger  dissimilarity 
than  exists  between  Puranpur  '  and  its  neighbouring  pargands  of 
Pilibhit  and  Jahanabad,  either  in  soil,  produce,  water-supply,  or  even 

In  the  wilder  parts  of  Puranpur,  especially  along  the  line  of  the 
Mala  swamp,  tigers  and  leopards  are  numerous,  but  elsewhere  scarce. 
The  damage  done  by  them  in  the  open  country  is  small,  and  their  raids 
on  cattle  are  forgiven  in  consideration  of  their  services  against  the 
husbandman's  more  serious  enemies — the  wild  hog  and  the  deer,  who 
commit  serious  depredations  among  the  crops.  Of  wild  beasts  that  are 
not  game,  the  jackal  and  the  wolf  are  the  most  conspicuous.  Both  are 
respected  as  pet  dogs  of  the  goddess  Kah,  and  as  such  are  rarely 
molested.  The  superstition  is  strongest  in  the  case  of  the  wolf,  whom, 
in  spite  of  the  rewards  set  on  his  head,  it  is  considered  extremely 
unlucky  to  kill.  Tne  principal  game  birds  consist  of  the  black  and 
grey  partridge,  quail,  sand-grouse,  jungle-fowl,  pea-fowl,  geese,  ducks, 
teal,  snipe,  and  floriken. 

History. — Authentic  history  of  Pilibhit  District  may  be  said  practi- 
cally to  commence  with  the  ascendency  of  the  Rohilla  Pathans. 
Previous  to  their  time,  and  from  a  very  early  date,  the  country  was 
occupied  by  tribes  of  Ahirs,  Banjaras,  and  Rajputs  of  the  Bachhal 
and  Katheriya  clans,  who  predominated  in  turn,  and  have  left 
behind  them  as  sole  relics  of  their  occupation,  ruins  of  nmd  forts, 
irrigation  tanks,  and  in  one  instance  a  canal,  with  a  stone  inscription 
900  years  old  commemorating  its  construction.  These  tribes  were 
afterwards  ousted  by  successive  irruptions  of  Muhammadans,  who 
gradually  possessed  themselves  of  the  w^iole  country.  Local  history, 
however,  does  not  commence  before  the  i8th  century,  when  Pilibhit 
fell  into  the  hands  of  a  Rohilla  chief,  Hafiz  Rahmat  Khan,  who  has 
left  his  mark  on  the  history  of  all  Rohilkhand,  and  to  whom  Pilibhit, 



wliich  he  selected  for  a  time  as  his  residence,  is  indebted  for  its  pubh'c 
buildings,  markets,  and  all  that  distinguished  it  before  the  advent  of 
British  rule. 

On  the  permanent  establishment  of  Rahmat  Khan's  supremacy  in 
1754,  Pilibhit  became  the  recognised  capital  of  Rohilkhand.  Hafiz 
Rahmat  Khan  surrounded  the  city  first  with  a  mud,  and  afterwards 
with  a  brick  wall.  The  latter  was  demolished  after  his  death,  but  traces 
of  the  long  lines  of  curtains  and  bastions  still  mark  the  city  boundaries 
on  the  northern  and  eastern  sides.  The  Jama  Masjid  or  cathedral 
mosque  which  he  built  in  imitation  of  the  great  Jama  Masjid  at  Delhi, 
is  the  chief  architectural  ornament  of  the  city;  and  the  hainmajji  or 
public  bath  which  he  established,  is  still  maintained  and  resorted  to 
by  the  people. 

Hafiz  Rahmat  Khan  was  killed  in  the  battle  of  Miranka  Katra  in 
1774,  fought  between  the  Rohillas  and  the  Nawab  Wazir  of  Oudh, 
who  was  aided  by  a  European  force  lent  by  Warren  Hastings.  Pihbhit 
was  occupied  without  resistance,  and  became  a  part  of  the  new 
dominions  added  to  the  territories  of  the  Nawab  Wazi'r.  In  i8or, 
with  the  rest  of  Rohilkhand,  it  passed  to  the  British,  being  ceded  in  lieu 
of  the  payment  of  tribute.  Pilibhit  was  made  the  head- quarters  of  a 
tahsilv^  i'^2)Z^  when  it  became  the  capital  of  a  separate  District  known 
as  the  Northern  Division  of  Bareilly.  In  1842,  Pilibhit  again  became  a 
Sub-division  of  Bareilly  District. 

At  the  time  of  the  outbreak  of  the  IMutiny  in  1857,  Pilibhit  Sub- 
division was  under  the  charge  of  Mr.  C.  P.  Carmichael,  Joint  Magis- 
trate. Tidings  of  the  rising  of  the  troops  at  Bareilly  reached  Pilibhit  on 
the  I  St  June,  and  tumults  at  once  broke  out  among  the  population. 
Tlirongs  of  excited  and  fanatical  Muhammadans,  low  castes,  and 
bad  characters,  besieged  the  tahsili  for  the  purpose  of  plunder.  The 
leading  citizens,  who  had  been  charged  by  the  Joint  Magistrate  with 
the  duty  of  dividing  and  removing  the  treasure  to  a  place  of  safety,  fell 
out  among  themselves,  and  the  whole  city  became  a  scene  of  uproar 
and  bloodshed.  Mr.  Carmichael,  finding  it  impossible  to  allay  the 
tumult,  and  that  his  continued  presence  could  serve  no  useful  purpose, 
was  forced  to  retire  to  Naini  Tal,  whither  he  had  previously  despatched 
his  family  for  safety.  Until  the  restoration  of  British  authority  in 
1858,  the  villages  of  the  Pilibhit  Sub-division  remained  a  prey  to  the 
rapacity  and  extortions  of  rival  zafnUiddrs,  while  the  city  nominally 
submitted  to  the  authority  of  Khan  Bahadur  Khan,  the  rebel  Nawab 
of  Bareilly,  grandson  of  Hafiz  Rahmat  Khan.  Since  the  restora- 
tion of  British  authority,  the  only  occasion  on  which  order  has  been 
disturbed  was  in  187 1,  when  a  riot,  which  was  not  suppressed  without 
bloodshed,  occurred  between  the  Muhammadan  and  Hindu  fiictions  on 
the  occasion  of  a  Hindu  festival. 

174  PI  LIB  HI  1. 

Pilibhi't  continued  to  remain  a  Sub-division  of  Bareilly  until  1879, 
when  the  three  tahsils  of  PiHbhit,  Puranpur,  and  Baheri  were  separated 
from  Bareilly,  and  erected  into  the  separate  District  of  Pilibhi't.  In  the 
following  year  (1880),  Baheri  tahsilwdiS  restored  to  Bareilly,  and  Bisalpur 
tahsil  added  to  Pilibhit,  thus  constituting  the  District  as  it  at  present 

Population. — The  population  of  Pilibhit  District,  as  now  constituted, 
was  returned  in  1872  at  492,098.  The  last  Census  in  1881  disclosed 
a  total  population  of  451,601,  showing  a  decrease  of  40,497,  or  8*2 
per  cent.,  in  nine  years.  The  decrease  is  ascribed  to  the  severe  scarcity 
of  1878-79,  and  the  consequent  heavy  mortality.  The  results  of 
the  Census  of  1881  may  be  summarized  as  follows: — Area  of  the 
District,  i37i*6  square  miles;  number  of  towns  and  villages,  1053; 
number  of  occupied  houses,  64,625.  Total  population,  451,601, 
namely,  males  239,787,  and  females  211,814;  proportion  of  males  in 
total  population,  53*1  per  cent.  Average  density  of  population,  329 
persons  per  square  mile;  towns  and  villages  per  square  mile,  76; 
persons  per  town  or  village,  429  ;  houses  per  square  mile,  47'i  ;  persons 
per  occupied  house,  6*9.  Classified  according  to  sex  and  age,  there  are 
— under  15  years  of  age,  boys  94,806,  and  girls  79,805  ;  total  children, 
1 74.611,  or  387  per  cent,  of  the  population:  15  years  and  upwards, 
males  144,981,  and  females  132,009;  total  adults,  276,990,  or  61  "3  per 

ReIigio7i. — Hindus  number  377,003,  or  83-5  per  cent,  of  the  popula- 
tion ;  Muhammadans,  74,580,  or  16-5  per  cent.  The  remainder  con- 
sists of  18  Christians,  of  whom  12  are  Europeans,  2  Eurasians,  and  4 
natives.  Among  the  higher  classes  of  Hindus,  Brahmans  number 
25,028;  Rajputs,  9756;  Baniyas,  7356;  and  Kayasths,  5148.  The 
lower  castes  include  the  following — Kiirmi,  the  principal  agricultural 
class,  and  most  numerous  caste  in  the  District,  98,427  ;  Lodhi,  33,953; 
Chamar,  30,025;  Kachhi,  24,063;  Kahar,  13,689;  Ahir,  13,250; 
Pasi,  10,712;  Barhai,  10,524;  Teli,  10,101;  Dhobi,  8774;  Lobar, 
7372;  Kori,  7080;  Nai,  7014;  and  Gadaria,  6445.  The  Muham- 
madans,  who  are  almost  without  exception  Sunnis  by  sect,  include  1642 
descendants  of  Hindu  Mewatis. 

Town  a?id  Riwal  Population. — Pilibhit  District  contains  only  two 
towns  with  a  population  exceeding  five  thousand,  namely,  Pilibhit, 
29721,  and  Bisalpur,  8903;  total,  38,624,  or  8-5  per  cent,  of  the 
District  population.  These  are  also  the  only  municipalities ;  total 
municipal  income  (1883-84),  ^3893,  of  which  ^3069  was  derived 
from  taxation;  average  incidence  of  taxation,  is.  7d.  per  head  of  town 
population.  Of  the  1053  towns  and  villages,  353  contain  less  than  two 
hundred  inhabitants  ;  441  from  two  hundred  to  five  hundred  ;  198  from 
five   hundred  to  a  thousand;  42  from  one  to  two  thousand;  14  from 

PI  LIB  HIT.  175 

two  to  three  thousand  ;  3  from  three  to  five  thousand  ;  and  2  upwards 
of  five  thousand  inhabitants.  As  regards  occupation,  the  male  popula- 
tion is  dividetl  into  the  following  six  main  classes — (i)  Professional 
class,  including  civil  and  military,  2527;  (2)  domestic  class,  602;  (3) 
commercial  class,  including  bankers,  traders,  carriers,  etc.,  5316;  (4) 
agricultural  and  pastoral  class,  including  gardeners,  116,964;  (5) 
industrial  class,  including  all  manufacturers  and  artisans,  23,500;  (6) 
indefinite  and  non-productive  class,  comprising  general  labourers  and 
male  children,  90,878. 

Agriculture. — In  1883-84,  out  of  a  total  area  assessed  for  Govern- 
ment revenue  amounting  to  12 20 J  square  miles,  or  781,109  acres, 
419,164  acres  were  returned  as  under  cultivation,  287,792  acres  as 
cultivable  waste,  and  74,153  acres  as  uncultivable.  The  three  tahsils 
of  which  the  District  is  composed  differ  widely  in  soil,  products,  and 
climate.  In  the  northern  tahsil  of  Pilibhit,  with  its  clayey  soil  and 
heavy  rainfall,  rice  forms  the  predominant  crop ;  but  owing  to  the 
canals  which  have  been  constructed  west  of  the  Deoha,  and  to  a 
more  laborious  system  of  cultivation  now^  generally  observable,  a  con- 
siderable area  has  of  late  years  been  devoted  to  wheat  and  barley;  and 
the  cultivation  of  the  sugar-cane  is  rapidly  extending.  The  cultivated 
portion  of  the  eastern  tahsU  of  Puranpur  consists  mainly  of  a  level 
plateau  of  light  sandy  loam,  producing  chiefly  urd  and  bdjra  for  the 
autumn,  and  wheat  and  barley  for  the  spring  harvests.  The  large 
uncultivated  area  in  Puranpur  tahsil  is  mostly  utilized  as  pasture  land ; 
and  the  cattle  bred  here,  although  of  small  size,  are  noted  for  their 
hardiness  and  endurance.  In  the  southern  tahsil  of  Bisalpur,  where 
irrigation  from  wells  is  the  rule,  as  elsewhere  it  is  the  exception,  every 
variety  of  crop  common  to  Rohilkhand  is  grown  with  success.  The 
style  of  cultivation  varies  as  much  as  the  produce.  In  the  south  and 
west,  it  will  bear  comparison  with  the  best  of  the  Rohilkhand  Districts ; 
but  in  the  north-east  and  east,  where  the  energies  of  the  cultivator  are 
devoted  to  protecting  his  crops  from  the  depredations  of  wild  beasts, 
cultivation  is  slovenly  and  irrigation  rare.  The  total  area  irrigated  in 
Pilibhit  District  in  1883-84  was  81,417  acres,  of  which  11,161  acres 
were  irrigated  from  Government  works,  and  70,256  acres  by  private 

Rents  are  paid  in  every  possible  way,  and  at  widely  differing  rates. 
For  rice  cultivation,  the  system  of  batdi  or  division  of  the  crop 
prevails ;  while  in  Puranpur  tahsil  a  peculiar  system  of  crop  rates  is 
universally  found,  by  which  rents  are  paid  in  cash,  at  rates  regulated 
according  to  the  nature  of  the  crop  grown,  and  without  any  reference 
to  the  quality  of  the  soil  or  its  situation.  The  total  male  adult  agricul- 
tural population  of  Pilibhit  District,  as  returned  by  the  Census  of  188 1, 
is  116,303,  with  an  average  of  3"4i  cultivated  acres  for  each.     Includ- 

176  PI  LIB  HIT. 

ing  males  and  females,  the  adult  agriculturists  number  144,433,  of 
whom  1859  are  landed  proprietors,  3507  are  engaged  in  estate  service, 
131,903  are  cultivators,  and  7164  are  agricultural  labourers.  In- 
cluding children,  the  total  agricultural  population  dependent  on  the 
soil  numbers  326,574,  or  72-31  per  cent,  of  the  District  population. 
Total  Government  assessment  in  1881,  including  rates  and  cesses 
levied  on  the  land,  ^83,811,  or  at  the  rate  of  4s.  3M.  per  cultivated 
acre;  estimated  rental  paid  by  cultivators,  ;£^i38,334,  or  at  the  rate  of 
6s.  ii|d.  per  cultivated  acre.  The  cultivators  are  mostly  poor,  but 
independent,  with  strong  migratory  instincts,  which  are  markedly 
developed  in  the  sparsely  populated  tracts  along  the  forest  borders. 
The  general  absence  of  irrigation  in  these  tracts,  coupled  with  the 
roving  character  of  the  population,  render  cultivation  so  uncertain,  that 
it  has  been  found  necessary  to  introduce  in  many  villages  a  system  of 
annual  assessment  by  which  the  revenue  varies  according  to  the  area 
of  land  under  cultivation. 

Natural  Calamities.  —  Pilibhit  District  has  never  suffered  very 
severely  from  famine  caused  by  floods  or  droughts,  and  the  diseases  con- 
sequent thereon.  The  Sarda  and  the  Deoha  occasionally  rise  suddenly 
and  inundate  their  banks  owing  to  heavy  rainfall  in  the  hills ;  but  the 
Sarda  flows  through  sandy  wastes  and  jungles,  and  cultivation  is  scanty 
along  the  Deoha.  The  loss  arising  from  floods  is  seldom  more  serious 
than  the  drowning  of  a  few  head  of  cattle,  or  the  destruction  of 
a  it'N  hundred  acres  of  rice.  The  natural  moisture  of  the  soil,  the 
scanty  population,  and  the  resources  of  the  forests  have  hitherto  served 
to  protect  the  people  from  the  extremity  of  famine. 

Commerce  and  Trade. — The  trade  of  the  District  is  chiefly  centred  in 
Pilibhit  town,  the  principal  staples  consisting  of  rice,  borax,  spices, 
sugar,  timber,  hides,  and  cattle.  1  he  finer  descriptions  of  rice,  grown 
in  the  Tarai  District,  are  mostly  collected  at  Neoria,  a  town  inhabited 
by  Banjaras,  about  nine  miles  north  of  Pilibhit  town.  The  rice  is 
husked  here,  and  when  re-sold  passes  under  the  name  of  Pilibhit 
rice.  Borax  and  spices  come  principally  from  Barmdeo,  a  mart  in 
Kumaun  District  at  the  foot  of  the  hills,  to  which  the  hillmen  come 
every  cold  season  to  exchange  their  products  for  those  of  Pilibhit 
traders,  consisting  chiefly  of  salt,  cloth,  brass  vessels,  and  hardware. 
Large  timber  comes  principally  from  the  Kuniciun  and  Nepal  forests, 
but  the  supply  of  late  years  has  been  scanty  and  uncertain.  Sugar- 
cane is  largely  grown  in  the  District,  and  the  raw  material  is 
manufactured  into  sugar  in  Pilibhit  and  Bisalpur  towns.  Consider- 
able capital  is  employed  in  this  manufacture.  The  cattle  trade  is 
in  the  hands  of  dealers  from  other  Districts,  who  annually  visit 
Pilibhit,  and  purchase  young  animals  from  the  vast  herds  which 
graze  in  the  open  pastures  of  the  Sarda  and  in  the  forests.      Trade  is 


PI  LIB  HIT.  177 

also  carried  on  with  Nepal,  which,  although  at  present  comparatively 
small,  is  capable  of  indefinite  expansion,  contingent  on  the  openin-r 
of  new  and  improved  means  of  communication,  and  the  removal  of 
harassing  restrictions  imposed  by  the  Nepal  authorities.  The  imports 
from  Nepal,  consisting  chiefly  of  rice  and  grain,  gi^ms  and  resins, 
amounted  in  1882  to  the  value  of  ^14,908;  while  the  exports  into 
Nepal  from  Pilibhit,  principally  salt  and  cotton  goods,  were  valued  at 

Means  of  Commu7iication.—-\Y\\.\i  the  single  exception  of  the  road  to 
Bareilly,  no  metalled  roads  exist  in  the  District;  but  fair-weather  roads, 
partially  bridged,  converge  from  every  direction  on  Pilibhit  town. 
Total  length  of  made  roads,  245  miles.  A  continuation  of  the  Oudh 
and  Rohilkhand  Railway  from  Bareilly  to  Pilibhit,  for  a  distance  of  30 
miles,  was  opened  for  trafific  in  1884. 

Administratio?i.~Y\X\\Mx  District  is  under  the  administrative  charge 
of  a  Magistrate-Collector,  assisted  by  two  Deputy  Magistrates.  The 
Pilibhit  and  Bisalpur  tahsils  are  each  under  the  separate  charge  of  a 
tahsilddr,  while  Puranpur  tahsil  is  entrusted  to  an  officer  of  inferior 
rank,  styled  a  peshkdr.  Two  mtmsifs,  subordinate  to  the  Judge  of 
Bareilly,  are  stationed  in  the  District  at  Pilibhit  and  Bisalpur  towns. 
They  exercise  civil  powers  only,  and  their  jurisdiction  extends  over  a 
portion  of  Bareilly  District.  The  total  revenue  of  the  District  in 
1881-S2  amounted  to  ^86,489,  namely,  imperial,  ^70,531;  local, 
^11,967;  and  municipal,  ^3991.  In  1883-84,  the  imperial  revenue 
of  the  District  amounted  to  ^88,617,  of  which  the  following  were  the 
principal  items  :— Land  revenue,  ^68,293;  stamps,  ^4492;  excise, 
^4574;  provincial  rates,  ^8361;  assessed  taxes,  ^840;  registration, 
;£6oo  ;  and  irrigation  and  navigation  receipts,  ^200.  The  District  con- 
tains 8  civil  and  revenue  and  12  magisterial  courts.  The  regular 
District  and  town  police  force  in  1883-84  numbered  354  men,  main- 
tained at  a  cost  of  ^3393;  besides  a  village  w^atch  or  rural  police  of 
1047  men,  maintained  at  a  cost  of  ^3778.  Long-term  prisoners  are 
confined  in  the  Bareilly  District  jail.  The  lock-up  at  Pilibhit  contained 
a  daily  average  of  13-50  prisoners  in  1883-84,  all  males. 

Ediu-atwn.—ThQYQ  is  no  District  or  zi/d  school  in  Pilibhit ;  but  its 
place  is  supplied  by  a  good  Anglo-vernacular  school,  named  after  its 
founder,  a  former  Collector  of  the  District,  the  Honourable  Robert 
Drummond,  which  is  under  the  management  of  the  Pilibhit  municipality; 
total^  number  of  pupils  (1882),  243.  There  were  also  in  1882,  2 
tahsili  schools  with  52  pupils,  and  62  halkabandi  or  village  schools 
with  2263  pupils.  In  1883-84,  the  total  number  of  inspected  schools 
in  Pilibhit  District  was  73,  attended  by  2465  pupils.  There  is  also  a 
well-managed  girls'  school  in  Pilibhit  town,  under  a  Muhammadan 
schoolmistress.     In  1881,  the  Census  Report  returned  2448  bnvs  and 

VOL.  XI.  j^j 


31  girls  as  under  instruction,  besides  7510  males  and  83  females  able 
to  read  and  write,  but  not  under  instruction. 

Medical  Aspects.  —  Fever,  usually  intermittent,  though  sometimes 
changing  to  the  remittent  type,  is  endemic  throughout  the  District,  but 
localizes  itself  most  malignantly  about  the  swamps  that  border  on  and 
intersect  the  forests  in  Puranpur  tahsil.  It  is  most  prevalent  as  well 
as  most  fatal  in  its  character  at  the  end  of  the  rains  and  the  commence- 
ment of  the  cold  season.  It  is  least  frequent  in  the  cold-weather 
months,  and  it  is  popularly  believed  that  the  malaria  is  destroyed  or 
rendered  innocuous  by  the  first  frosts  of  December.  Apart  from  fever, 
Pilibhit  may  be  considered  to  be,  on  the  whole,  a  healthy  District, 
and  visits  of  epidemic  disease  are  rare.  In  1883-84,  the  registered 
deaths  in  Pilibhit  District  numbered  13,412,  or  a  rate  of  3179  P^r 
thousand  of  the  population,  as  against  a  rate  of  37*80  per  thousand  for 
the  previous  five  years.  Of  the  total  deaths  in  1883-84,  8841  were 
assigned  to  fevers,  and  3123  to  small-pox,  which  appeared  in  an  epidemic 
form  in  that  year  throughout  Rohilkhand,  and  in  the  adjacent  Districts 
of  Oudh.  Two  charitable  dispensaries  at  Pilibhit  and  Bisalpur  towns 
afforded  medical  relief  in  1883-84  to  532  in-door  and  23,006  out-door 
patients.  [For  further  information  regarding  Pilibhit,  see  the  Gazetteer 
of  Bareilly  (from  which  District  the  present  District  of  Pilibhit  was 
severed  in  1879),  published  in  the  Gazetteer  of  the  North- Western 
Froviftces^  by  Mr.  E.  T.  Atkinson,  C.S.,  vol.  v.  pp.  499-694 
(Government  Press,  Allahabad,  1879);  also  the  Census  Report  for 
the  North-lVester7i  Provinces  a?id  Oudh  for  1881  ;  and  the  several 
Provincial  Administration  and  Departmental  Reports  from  1881  to 

Pilibhit. — North-western  tahsil  of  Pilibhit  District,  North-Western 
Provinces,  lying  to  the  south  of  the  submontane  Tarai  District,  and 
comprising  the  pargands  of  Pilibhit  and  Jahanabad.  Area,  372  square 
miles,  of  which  248  square  miles  are  returned  as  under  cultivation. 
Population  (1872)  200,501;  (1881)  183,344,  namely,  males  96,111, 
and  females  87,233,  showing  a  decrease  in  population  of  17,157,  or 
8'5  per  cent.,  in  nine  years.  Classified  according  to  religion,  the 
population  in  1881  consisted  of — Hindus,  135,636;  Muhammadans, 
47,695;  and  Christians,  13.  Of  the  393  villages  in  the  tahsil,  300 
contain  less  than  five  hundred  inhabitants ;  74  from  five  hundred  to  a 
thousand;  18  from  one  to  five  thousand;  and  i  upwards  of  five 
thousand  inhabitants.  Government  land  revenue  assessment,  exclusive 
of  local  rates  and  cesses  levied  upon  land,  ;£34,954;  estimated  rental 
paid  by  cultivators  in  money  or  in  kind,  ;£"54,i39.  In  1883,  Pihbhit 
tahsil  contained,  besides  the  head-quarter  courts,  i  civil  and  revenue 
and  5  magisterial  courts  ;  number  of  police  circles  (thdnds),  5  ;  strength 
of  regular  police,  69  men;  village  police  {chaukiddrs),  590. 

PI  LIB  HIT  TO  IVN.  1 7  ^ 

Pilibhit. — Town,  municii)ality,  and  administrative  head-quarters  of 
Pilibhit  District,  North-Western  Provinces,  situated  in  lat.  28^  38'  n., 
and  long.  79°  50'  50"  e.,  about  30  miles  north-east  of  Bareilly  city,  on  the 
left  bank  of  the  Deoha  river.  It  is  impossible  to  say  when  the  town  was 
first  founded.  Nothing  appears  to  be  known  of  it  prior  to  1740, 
about  which  year  the  Rohilla  leader,  Hafiz  Rahmat  Khan,  seized  both 
Pilibhit  town  and  pargajid,  and  established  his  capital  in  the  former. 
The  history  of  the  city  under  Maratha  and  British  rule  is  given  in  the 
District  article.  Population  (1881)  29,721,  namely,  males  14,889,  and 
females  14,832.  Hindus  number  17,197;  Muhammadans,  12,520; 
and  Christians,  4.  Municipal  income  (1883-84),  ^3579,  of  which 
£21^)-]  was  derived  from  taxation,  chiefly  octroi  duties;  average 
incidence  of  taxation,  is.  lojd.  per  head. 

Pilibhit  is  a  long  and  straggling  town,  with  more  than  the  usual 
number  of  brick-built  houses,  and  of  a  business-Hke  appearance.  It 
contains  two  large  markets,  one  of  which,  Drummond-ganj,  named 
after  a  former  District  officer,  consists  of  a  large  number  of  good  shops, 
well  arranged  on  a  good  site.  Rice  from  the  Tarai,  borax  and  pepper 
from  Kumaun  and  Nepal,  honey,  wax,  wool,  etc.,  are  bought  up  at 
Barmdeo  and  other  submontane  marts,  by  Pilibhit  merchants,  who 
afterwvards  distribute  the  produce  throughout  this  and  neighbourin^r 
Districts.  In  former  years,  a  good  deal  of  timber  was  imported  from 
the  trans-Sarda  Tarai ;  but  since  the  forests  of  that  tract  were  made 
over  to  Nepal,  the  timber  import,  and  with  it  the  boat-building  trade 
of  Pilibhit,  has  declined.  The  coarser  kind  of  carpentry  still  flourishes  ; 
and  though  all  wood  intended  for  furniture  passes  on  to  Bareilly,  country 
carts  are  largely  made.  A  small  trade  is  carried  on  in  catechu,  boiled 
from  the  bark  of  the  khair  tree  (Acacia  Catechu).  There  is  a  brisk 
manufacture  of  metal  vessels  made  from  imported  materials,  and  a  small 
manufacture  of  hempen  sacking.  But  the  most  important  industry  is 
that  of  sugar-refining.  The  expressed  syrup,  after  a  rude  boiling 
process  in  its  native  village,  is  carted  into  Pilibhit  town,  where  it 
is  refined.  Sugar  forms  the  main  export  both  of  the  town  and  Dis- 
trict. The  chief  imports  are  grain,  salt,  cotton  goods,  and  cleaned 

The  handsomest  portion  of  Pilibhit  town  is  its  western  outskirt,  where 
stand  the  remains  of  the  old  Rohilla  chiefs  palace,  his  cathedral 
mosque  (a  brick  and  plaster  imitation  of  \he /a ?n d  Ma sj id  Zit  Delhi), 
the  Anglo-vernacular  school,  and  the  dispensary.  All  these  buildings 
stand  on  an  open  space  enclosed  and  planted  with  trees.  The  other 
public  buildings  include  the  Government  courts  and  offices;  police 
station,  post-office,  public  bath  {Jiammdm),  and  a  sardi  or  native  inn. 
The  northern  portion  of  the  town  is  especially  liable  to  inundation 
during  the  rains.     Pilibhit  is  now  connected  by  railway  with  Bareilly 


city,  36  miles  distant,  and  six  lines  of  roads  converge  on  the  town  from 
different  quarters.  The  Bareilly  and  Jahanabad  roads  meet  on  the 
opposite  or  right  bank  of  the  Deoha,  which  they  cross  together  on  a 
bridge  of  boats.  A  military  encamping  ground  is  situated  amidst 
groves  just  outside  the  town  on  the  south. 

Pilkhuwa. — Town  and  municipality  in  Meerut  (Merath)  District, 
North-Western  Provinces.  Situated  in  lat.  28°  42'  45"  n.,  and  long. 
77°  42'  E.,  in  a  depression  of  the  plain,  19  miles  south-west  of  Meerut 
(Merath)  city.  Population  (1881)  5661,  namely,  Hindus,  5027; 
Muhammandans,  632;  Jain,  i;  and  Christian,  i.  Area  of  town  site, 
43  acres.  Municipal  income  (1883-84),  ;£"365,  of  which  £,z^Af  was 
derived  from  octroi  duties  ;  average  incidence  of  taxation,  is.  o|d.  per 
head.  The  Hindu  manufacturing  population  is  engaged  in  cotton- 
weaving,  which  employs  100  looms.  There  is  also  some  trade  in 
leather  and  shoes.  Mr.  Michel  of  the  Masuri  factory  owns  the  town 
with  13  neighbouring  villages,  having  purchased  the  estate  after  the 
Mutiny.       Two    large    Hindu    temples;    police    station,    post-ofhce, 

2  sardis. 

Piming. — Pass  in  Bashahr  (Bussahir)  State,  Punjab,  traversing  a 
lofty  ridge  in  Kunawar,  which  forms  the  boundary  between  Chinese 
and  British  territory.  Lat.  31°  49'  x.,  long.  78°  46'  e.  ;  elevation  above 
sea,  13,518  ffeet. 

Pimpalgaon  Raja. — Town  in  Buldana  District,  Berar.  Said  to 
have  been  founded  800  years  ago,  by  a  prince  of  the  herdsman  (Ahir) 
caste,  named  Pirat  Singh  ;  situated  in  lat.  20°  43'  n.,  and  long.  76°  30' 
E.,  on  the  river  Dayanganga.  Population  (188 1)  4357.  It  is  said  to 
have  suffered  much  from  marauders  towards  the  end  of  the  last  century, 
and  to  have  been  subsequently  ruined  by  the  black-mail  levied  by 
Mahadaji  Sindhia  in  1790,  on  his  way  to  Poona  (Piina)  after  his 
expedition  against  Ghulam  Kadir  Beg  of  Delhi.  On  the  south  side 
of  the  town  is  a  temple  to  the  goddess  Renuka,  about  30  feet  under 
ground.  At  the  end  of  the  narrow  rock-hewn  gallery  or  temple 
is  the  idol.  Ganesh  Dew^adaya,  a  Hindu  theologian,  flourished  here 
about  1 619  A.D.  Some  of  his  works  are  still  read  and  preserved  in 
the  neighbourhood.  Two  Government  schools,  post-office,  and  police 

Pimpalner. — Sub-division  of  Khandesh  District,  Bombay  Presidency. 
Area,  1339  square  miles,  containing  236  villages.  Population  (1872) 
60,125;  (1881)  87,549,  namely,  44,563  males  and  42,986  females. 
Hindus  number  39,762;  Muhammadans,  1629;  and  'others,' 46,158. 
Land  revenue  (1883),  ;£'i2,63i. 

The  Sub-division  lies  partly  above  and  partly  below  the  Sahyadri 
Hills.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north-west  by  Baroda  territory ;  on  the 
north  by  Nandurbar ;  on  the  east  by  Virdel  and  Dhulia ;  on  the  south 


by  Ndsik  District  ;  and  on  the  west  by  Barocln.  The  desk  or  plains  are 
intersected  by  abrupt  mountain  ranges,  of  which  the  range  of  the  Selbari 
hills  is  the  most  considerable.  The  dd?ig,  or  tract  below  the  Sahyadris, 
is  composed  of  steep  hill  ranges  clothed  with  forest,  inhabited  by  Bhils. 
Climate  unhealthy,  especially  to  Europeans  and  natives  of  the  Deccan  ; 
annual  rainfall,  25  inches.  Fair  water-supply,  the  rivers  being  utilized 
for  irrigation  by  means  of  baudlidrds  or  masonry  dams.  In  1868, 
when  the  survey  settlement  was  introduced,  there  were  4180  holdings, 
with  an  average  area  of  24  acres,  paying  an  average  assessment  of  ^2,  2s. 
9d.  Incidence  of  land-tax  per  head,  about  4s.  5d.  In  1878  there  were 
176,320  acres  actually  under  cultivation;  grain  crops  occupied  121,781 
acres;  pulses,  19,609  acres;  oil-seeds,  25,167;  fibres,  8169  acres; 
and  miscellaneous  crops,  1594  acres.  The  Sub-division  contained  in 
1883 — criminal  courts,  3;  police  circles  {thdnds),  3;  regular  police, 
115  men;  village  watch  {chaukiddrs).^  232. 

Pimpalner.  —  Town  in  Khandesh  District,  Bombay  Presidency, 
and  head-quarters  of  Pimpalner  Sub-division,  Situated  40  miles  west 
of  Dhulia.  Population  (1872)  2972.  Not  separately  returned  in  the 
Census  Report  of  188 r.  Trade  with  Surat  in  oil  made  from  grass. 
Old  fort.     Dispensary  ;  post-office. 

Pimpladevi.— Bhil  State  in  the  Dang  country,  Khandesh  District, 
Bombay  Presidency. — See  Dang  States. 

Pimpri.  —  Bhfl  State  in  the  Dang  country,  Khandesh  District, 
Bombay  Presidency. — See  Dang  States. 

Pin  {^Pinu  or  Pirn). — River  in  Kangra  District,  Punjab ;  the  most 
important  tributary  of  the  Spiti.  Rises  in  the  angle  of  the  Mid- 
Himalaya  and  Manirang  ranges,  and  with  its  affluent,  the  Parakio, 
drains  one  quarter  of  the  Spiti  valley.  Flows  through  a  barren  and 
rocky  glen,  shut  in  on  either  side  by  bare  precipices;  but  near  the 
mouth  the  basin  broadens  out  so  as  to  afford  room  for  1 1  villages  with 
their  cultivated  lands.  Finally  joins  the  Spiti,  in  lat.  32°  6'  n.,  and 
long.  78°  n'  E.,  a  litde  above  Dankar,  the  principal  village  in  the 
Spid  valley,  after  a  course  of  45  miles.  Width  of  bed  near  the  mouth, 
from  300  to  800  yards. 

Pinahat.  —  South-eastern  tahsil  of  Agra  District,  North-Western 
Provinces ;  consisting  of  the  broken  strip  of  country  between  the 
Jumna  (Jamuna)  and  the  Chambal  rivers,  and  conterminous  with 
Pinahat  pargaiid.  Area,  341 '5  square  miles,  of  which  167  square 
miles  were  returned  as  under  cultivation  in  1882.  Population  (1872) 
142,155;  (1881)  120,529,  namely,  males  63,524,  and  females  57,005, 
showing  a  decrease  of  21,626,  or  15-2  per  cent.,  in  nine  years. 
Classified  according  to  religion,  there  were  in  1881 — Hindus,  115,154  ; 
Muhammadans,  3491;  Jains,  1880;  and  'others,'  4.  Of  the  204 
villages  in  the  tahsil,  126  contain  less  than  five  hundred  inhabitants; 


48  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand;  29  from  one  to  five  thousand; 
and  I  upwards  of  five  thousand  inhabitants.  Government  land 
revenue  assessment,  ^20,862,  or  including  local  rates  and  cesses 
levied  on  land,  ^25,114.  Estimated  rental  paid  by  cultivators, 
p/^45,052.  In  1883,  Pinahat  tahsil  contained  i  magisterial  court; 
number  of  police  circles  {thd?ids)j  4  ;  strength  of  regular  police,  56 
men ;  village  police  {chaukiddrs),  348. 

Pinahat. — Town  in  Pinahat  tahsil,  Agra  District,  North-Western 
Provinces,  :^t,  miles  south-east  from  Agra  city,  and  14  miles  west  of  Bah, 
the  head-quarters  of  Pinahat;  lat.  26°  52'  39"  n.,  long.  78°  24'  58"  e. 
Population  (1881)  5697,  namely,  Hindus,  5005 ;  Muhammadans, 
653;  and  Jains,  39.  First-class  police  station;  post-office;  school; 
three  Hindu  temples.  Station  of  the  great  Trigonometrical  Survey. 
Until  January  1882,  the  town  was  the  head-quarters  of  the  Pinahat 
tahsil,  which  was  then  removed  to  Bah,  and  the  tahsil  is  now  generally 
known  as  Bah-Pinahat. 

Pinakini,  Northern  and  Southern.— Two  rivers  in  Southern 
India. — See  Penner. 

Pind  Dadan  Khan.  —  South  central  tahsil  of  Jehlam  (Jhelum) 
District,  Punjab ;  occupying  the  Salt  Range  and  country  to  the  south. 
Lat.  32°  26'  to  32°  49'  N.,  and  long.  72°  32'  to  73°  22'  e.  Area, 
887  square  miles,  with  211  towns  and  villages,  26,654  houses,  and 
38,028  families.  Population  (1881)  166,186,  namely,  males  87,047, 
and  females  79,139;  average  density  of  population,  166  persons 
per  square  mile.  ■  Classified  according  to  religion,  Muhammadans 
number  143,273  ;  Hindus,  21,713;  Sikhs,  1091 ;  Jains,  58;  and  Chris- 
tians, 51.  Of  the  211  towns  and  villages,  106  contain  less  than  five 
hundred  inhabitants;  52  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand;  52  from 
one  thousand  to  five  thousand ;  and  i  upwards  of  five  thousand 
inhabitants.  Average  cultivated  area  for  the  five  years  1877-78  to 
1881-82,  290  square  miles,  the  principal  crops  being  wheat,  bdjra, 
barley,  moth,jodr,  gram,  Indian  corn,  cotton,  and  vegetables.  Revenue 
of  the  tahsil,  ^19,362.  The  administrative  staff  consists  of  an 
Assistant  Commissioner,  tahsilddr  and  niunsif,  presiding  over  3  civil 
and  2  criminal  courts  ;  number  of  police  circles  {thdnds),  3,  with  head- 
quarters at  Pind  Dadan  Khan,  Ahmadabad,  and  Jalalpur ;  strength  of 
regular  police,  126  men  ;  village  watch  {chaiikiddrs),  109. 

Pind  Dadan  Khan. — Large  and  flourishing  commercial  town  and 
municipality  in  Jehlam  (Jhelum)  District,  Punjab,  and  head-quarters  of 
Jehlam  tahsil.  Situated  in  lat.  32°  35'  n.,  and  long.  73°  5'  20"  £., 
I  mile  from  the  north  bank  of  the  Jehlam  river,  and  5  miles  from  the 
foot  of  the  Salt  Range.  Founded  in  1623  by  Dadan  Khan,  whose 
descendants  still  reside  in  the  town.  Population  (1868)  17,814; 
(1881)  16,724,  namely,  Muhammadans,  10,001;  Hindus,  6419;  Sikhs, 


246  ;  and  Jains,  58.  Number  of  houses,  2780.  Municipal  income 
(18S3-S4),  ^2822,  or  an  average  of  3s.  4W.  per  head  of  the  town 

Find  Uadan  Khan  was  till  quite  lately  the  trade  emporium  for  the 
whole  neighbourhood,  and  carried  on,  besides  its  local  traffic,  an 
extensive  export  and  import  trade  with  the  distant  marts  of  the 
Province.  Its  traders  had  their  agents  at  Amritsar,  Sakkar,  Miiltan, 
Peshawar,  and  in  the  countries  beyond  the  border.  Lying  low,  near 
the  bank  of  the  river,  its  situation  was  admirably  adapted  to  secuie 
the  traffic  in  salt  from  the  Mayo  mines  at  Kheura,  and  most  of  the 
export  trade  of  the  District,  which  goes  down  the  river  to  Miiltan  and 
Karachi.  The  latter  item,  however,  is  very  uncertain  in  amount ; 
and  since  the  opening  of  the  new  Salt  Railway  to  Miani,  the  trade  in 
salt  is  seriously  threatened.  It  is  impossible  to  jforesee  the  result. 
In  certain  contingencies,  Find  Dadan  Khan  might  recover  its  hold 
on  the  trade ;  but  at  present  it  seems  probable  that  the  trade  will 
gravitate  to  Lala  Miisa,  or  eventually  to  Kheura  itself  or  to  Miani. 
Meanwhile  carriage  of  salt  by  boat  between  Find  Dadan  Khan  and 
Jehlam  has  almost  ceased.  But  there  is,  and  probably  will  continue 
to  be,  a  large  general  trade  in  Find  Dadan  Khan  for  the  supply 
of  the  Fotwar  and  Talagang.  The  braziers  of  the  town  are  an 
important  body,  and  the  pots  and  pans  and  other  utensils  turned  out 
by  them  are  in  request  in  many  parts  of  the  Punjab.  There  is  also  a 
considerable  weaving  industry,  and  embroidered  lungis  are  often  sold 
at  high  prices.  The  principal  exports  are  salt  towards  the  south,  silk 
and  cotton  piece-goods  northwards  and  westwards,  and  brass  and 
copper  wares  to  the  whole  neighbourhood.  An  extensive  trade  is 
carried  on  also  in  grain,  ghi^  and  oil.  Find  Dadan  Khan  imports 
English  piece-goods,  cast-iron,  zinc,  and  raw  silk  from  Amritsar  and 
Miiltan  ;  woollen  fabrics  from  Kashmir ;  dried  fruits,  furs,  and  woollen 
stuffs  of  Central  Asia  from  Peshawar.  Among  other  industries,  that 
of  boat-building  is  largely  carried  on,  and  river  boats  of  Find  Dadan 
Khan  make  are  in  request  throughout  the  whole  course  of  the  Jehlam. 
Unglazed  pottery  of  a  deep  red  colour,  ornamented  with  black  patterns, 
and  remarkably  strong  and  good  in  quality,  are  a  speciality  of  the 
town,  as  are  also  stout  leather  riding  whips  made  after  English  patterns. 
The  principal  buildings  consist  of  the  usual  Sub-divisional  courts  and 
offices,  mission  house,  and  dispensary. 

Pindigheb. — South-western  tahsil  of  Rawal  Findi  District,  Punjab ; 
lying  between  33°  and  33°  47'  n.  lat.,  and  between  71°  45'  and  72°  42' 
E.  long.,  and  consisting  of  a  rugged  hilly  tract  lying  along  the  eastern 
bank  of  the  Indus.  Area,  15 17  square  miles,  with  129  villages  and 
towns,  14,428  houses,  and  23,475  families.  Population  (1881) 
103,581,  namely,  males  54,328,  and  females  49,253;  average  density 



of  population,  68  persons  per  square  mile.  Classified  according 
to  religion,  Muhammadans  number  91,839;  Hindus,  11,277;  Sikhs, 
448;  Christians,  15;  and  Parsis,  2.  Of  the  129  towns  and  villages, 
69  contain  less  than  five  hundred  inhabitants ;  2>?>  from  five  hundred 
to  a  thousand;  26  from  one  to  five  thousand;  and  i  from  five  to 
ten  thousand  inhabitants.  The  average  area  under  cultivation  for 
the  five  years  from  1877-78  to  1881-82  was  310^  square  miles,  or 
198,782  acres,  the  area  occupied  by  the  principal  crops  being — wheat, 
100,946  acres  ;  /^4;>^,  27,792  acres  ;  barley,  16,190  acres;  gram,  10,940 
acres;  moth,  8304  acres  ;  yWr,  6549  acres;  Indian  corn,  3921  acres; 
and  cotton,  8359  acres.  Revenue  of  the  tahsil,  £']6()6.  The  only  local 
administrative  officer  is  a  iahsilddr,  who  presides  over  i  civil  and 
I  criminal  court ;  number  of  police  circles  {thdrids),  3,  with  stations  at 
Pindigheb,  Find  Sultani,  and  Makhad,  besides  4  outpost  stations; 
strength  of  regular  police,  86  men  ;  village  police  {chaukiddrs),  90. 

Pindigheb.  —  Town  and  municipality  in  Rawal  Pindi  District, 
Punjab,  and  head-quarters  of  Pindigheb  tahsil.  Situated  in  lat.  33° 
14'  30"  N.,  and  long.  72°  iS'  e.,  on  the  road  between  Rawal  Pindi  and 
Kalabagh.  Residence  of  chiefs  of  the  Jodrah  clan  of  Rajputs,  by  whom 
the  town  was  founded.  Population  (1881)  8583,  namely,  Muham- 
madans, 5342;  Hindus,  3221;  and  Sikhs,  20.  Number  of  houses, 
15 1 7.  Municipal  income  (1883-84),  ;£"334,  or  94^.  per  head  of  the 
town  population.  The  neighbourhood  of  the  town  is  famous  for  its 
excellent  breed  of  horses ;  but  owing  to  the  scarcity  of  water,  and  the 
consequent  absence  of  pasturage,  colts  are  generally  sold  across  the 
Indus  after  being  kept  for  one  year  only.  Trade  in  grain,  cotton,  oil, 
and  wool.  The  surplus  grain  supplies  the  cantonments  of  Rawal 
Pindi  and  Attock.  Manufactures  of  country  cloth  and  soap,  exported 
beyond  the  Indus.  Tahsili,  police  station,  excellent  school,  dispensary, 
Government  rest-house. 

Pinjar. — Village  in  Akola  District,  Berar.  Lat.  20°  -^-^  n.,  long.  77' 
17'  E.,  24  miles  east  of  Akola  town.  Population  (1881)  3311.  Pinjar 
formerly  had  2000  houses,  of  which  only  589  now  remain  ;  its  dechne 
dates  from  1772  a.d.,  when  Madhuji  Bhonsla  laid  a  heavy  tax  upon 
the  people.  A  fine  specimen  of  a  Hindu  temple  exists  here,  with  a 
Sanskrit  inscription.     Police  station. 

Pinjaur  {Pinjore). — Decayed  town  in  Patiala  State,  Punjab.  Lat. 
30°  48'  N.,  long.  76°  59'  E,  ;  situated  at  the  confluence  of  two  tributaries 
of  the  Ghaggar.  Residence  and  pleasure-grounds  of  the  Raja. 
Thornton  describes  an  ancient  covered  well  and  numerous  fragments 
of  Hindu  sculpture  and  architecture  that  are  found  here.  Fort  dis- 
mantled by  Bourquin,  Sindhia's  partisan  leader. 

Pinu  or  Pirn. — River  in  Kangra  District,  Punjab. — See  Pin. 
Pipalgaon.— Village  in  Brahmapuri  tahsil,  Chanda  District,  Central 


Provinces.  Population  (1881)  2162,  namely,  Hindus,  2140; 
Muhammadan,  i  ;  non-Hindu  aborigines,  21. 

Piparia. —  Village  in  Jabalpur  (Jubbulpore)  tahs'il,  Jabalpur  District, 
Central  Provinces.  Population  (1881)  2177,  namely,  Hindus,  1805; 
Jains,  224;  Muhammadans,  73  ;  non-Hindu  aborigines,  75. 

Piparia. — Village  in  Kawardha  State,  attached  to  Bilaspur  District, 
Central  Provinces.  Population  (1881)  2205,  namely,  Hindus,  1758; 
Satnamis,  209;  Kabirpanthis,  70;  Muhammadans,  147;  non-Hindu 
aborigines,  21. 

Piparwani. — Village  in  Seoni  tahs'il^  Seoni  District,  Central  Pro- 
vinces;  situated  35  miles  south  of  Seoni  town.  Population  (1881) 
2065,  namely,  Hindus,  1627;  Muhammadans,  115;  Jains,  11;  and 
non-Hindu  aborigines,  312.  Village  school,  weekly  market,  and  police 
outpost  station. 

Piplianagar. — Guaranteed  Thakurate  or  chiefship  under  the  Bhopal 
Agency  of  Central  India.  One  of  the  shares  of  the  estate  granted 
to  Rajan  Khan,  brother  of  the  notorious  Pindari  leader,  Chitu,  on  the 
set  dement  of  ^lalwa. — See  Jabria  Bhil. 

Pippli. — Tahsil  of  Ambala  (Umballa)  District,  Punjab;  comprising 
the  tract  of  country  around  Thaneswar,  and  embracing  the  three 
pargands  of  Thaneswar,  Shahabad,  and  Ladwa,  The  Thaneswar 
pargand  (including  Pihewa)  contains  a  population  consisting  chiefly  of 
Jats,  Rajputs,  Rors,  and  Gujars.  It  consists  of  a  high  tract  of  poor 
soil  dependent  for  cultivation  chiefly  on  rain,  and  on  the  very  uncertain 
floods  of  the  Sarsuti  (Saraswati).  The  villages  in  the  south  of  Pihewa 
get  no  hill-stream  navigation.  Shahabad  pa7'ga?id  is  locally  known  as 
Tiiharwara,  from  the  fact  of  the  villages  being  owned  by  Rajputs  of 
the  Tiihar  clan.  It  is  a  rich  tract,  and  watered  by  the  overflowings  of 
the  Markanda  and  Umla  streams.  In  the  Ladwa  pargafid,  the  eastern 
portion  is  protected  from  drought  by  the  Jumna  river  and  canal,  which 
has  raised  the  water  level,  and  made  well-irrigation  easy.  The  western 
part  of  \\-\^  pargand  is  much  ])Oorer. 

Area  of  Pippli  tahsil^  745  square  miles,  with  495  towns  and 
villages,  14,122  houses,  and  47,899  families.  Population  (1881) 
209,341,  namely,  males  113,700,  and  females  95,641;  average  density 
of  population,  281  persons  per  square  mile,  or  excluding  towns,  244 
per  square  mile.  Classified  according  to  religion,  Hindus  number 
142,160;  Muhammadans,  62,126;  Sikhs,  5020;  Jains,  29;  and  Chris- 
tians, 6.  Of  the  495  towns  and  villages,  386  contain  less  than  five 
hundred  inhabitants ;  80  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand;  27  from 
one  to  five  thousand  ;  and  2  upwards  of  five  thousand  inhabitants.  The 
average  cultivated  area  for  the  five  years  from  1877-78  to  1881-82 
was  285^  square  miles,  or  182,746  acres,  the  principal  crops  being — 
wheat,  87,900  acres;  gram,  34,720  acres;  barley,  i5,47<^  acres;  Indian 


corn,  12,541  acres;  rice,  7685  acres;  jodr,  3665  acres;  sugar-cane, 
6547  acres;  cotton,  2386  acres;  and  tobacco,  1389  acres.  Revenue 
of  the  tahsil,  ;£iS,'ji2.  The  local  administrative  staff  consists  of  i 
tahsilddr  and  i  munsif^  presiding  over  i  criminal  and  2  civil  courts  ; 
number  of  police  circles  {thdnds),  7,  with  stations  at  Pippli,  Shahabad, 
Thaneswar,  Pihewa,  Radaur,  Sanghaur,  and  Ladwa,  with  a  Baluch 
guard  at  Ismailabad.  Strength  of  regular  police,  146  men  ;  village  police 
{chaukiddrs)^  491. 

Pippli. — Village  on  the  Subarnarekha  river,  Balasor  District,  Bengal. 
Lat.  21°  34'  N.,  long.  87°  22'  E.  The  site  of  the  first  English  factory 
on  this  coast,  founded  in  1634  on  the  ruins  of  an  earlier  Portu- 
guese settlement.  Pippli  was  ruined  by  the  silting  up  of  the  river  at  its 
mouth.  During  the  first  half  of  the  present  century,  the  place  lingered 
on  as  a  silt-locked  village  ;  but  a  recent  report  states  that  no  trace  of 
the  town  now  exists,  at  any  rate  under  the  same  name.  The  name  is 
apparently  preserved  in  one  or  two  villages  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  Subarnarekha,  called  Pimpal. 

Pipraich. — Market  village  in  Maharajganj  tahsil,  Gorakhpur  Dis- 
trict, North- Western  Provinces ;  situated  on  the  Pharend  river,  and  on 
the  unmetalled  Padrauna  road,  13  miles  east-north-east  of  Gorakhpur 
town.  Population  (188 1)  2932.  The  market  flanks  either  side  of  the 
road  as  it  passes  through  the  town.  A  fair  local  trade  in  grain,  cloth, 
and  metal  vessels  is  carried  on ;  and  a  good  deal  of  sugar  is  refined. 
The  village,  however,  is  not  a  thriving  one,  and  the  progress  of  the 
market  has  been  checked  by  competition  with  the  neighbouring  mart 
of  Sidhawa.  Police  station,  post-ofifice,  elementary  school,  and  Sivaite 

Piram. — Island  in  the  Gulf  of  Cambay. — See  Perim. 

Pirmaid. — Hill  station  in  Travancore  State,  Madras  Presidency; 
the  centre  of  the  northern  coffee  country  of  Travancore,  with  a  growing 
European  community.  Lat.  9°  36'  n.,  long.  77°  e.  ;  average  elevation, 
3000  feet.  Round  the  station  are  numerous  coffee-gardens,  occupying 
about  10,000  acres,  of  which  a  considerable  proportion  is  in  bearing. 
Eairly  constructed  roads  communicate  with  Alleppi  and  Trevandrum 
on  the  west,  and  Madura  on  the  east. 

Pir  Mangho  {Pir  Magar). — Valley,  hot  springs,  temple,  and  tank 
in  Karachi  (Kurrachee)  District,  Sind,  Bombay  Presidency. — See 
Magar  Talao. 

Pirnagar.  —  Pargand  in  Sitapur  tahsil,  Sitapur  District,  Oudh ; 
bounded  on  the  north  and  north-east  by  Biswan,  on  the  east  by  Bari,  on 
the  south  by  Gundlamau,  and  on  the  west  by  Machhrehta.  Area,  44 
square  miles,  or  27,956  acres,  of  which  17,164  acres  are  cultivated 
and  4830  acres  cultivable.  Population  (1881)  19,692,  namely,  males 
10,428,  and  females  9264.     The  incidence  of  the   Government  land 


revenue  is  at  the  rate  of  2s.  5^d.  per  cultivated  acre ;  is.  iid.  per  acre 
of  assessed  area ;  and  is.  6Jd.  per  acre  of  total  area.  The  parga?id 
contains  54  villages,  of  ^vhich  15  are  held  under /(f/z/Xv/^/// and  39  under 
zamindd?i  tenure.  Bais  Kshattriyas  own  48  villages  ;  Ikahmans,  3  ; 
Kavasths,  2  ;  and  Musalmans,  i.  The  villages  are  all  small,  none 
having  a  population  exceeding  icoo.  There  is  not  a  single  masonry 
house  in  the  pargand,  the  people  having  a  superstition  against  using 
burnt  bricks  or  tiles  for  their  dwellings.  This  superstition  is  not 
peculiar  to  Pirnagar,  being  found  in  many  other  parts  of  the  District. 

Pirozpur.  —  Sub-division  of  Bakarganj  District,  Bengal.  Area, 
692  square  miles;  villages,  945;  houses,  52,049.  Population 
(1872)  405,797;  (1881)  447,306,  namely,  males  225,436,  and  females 
221,870,  showing  an  increase  of  41,509,  or  10*23  per  cent.,  in 
nine  years.  Classified  according  to  religion,  there  were  in  1881 — 
Muhammadans,  246,569;  Hindus,  200,681;  Brahmos,  11  ;  and  Chris- 
tians, 45.  Proportion  of  males  in  total  population,  50-4  per  cent. ; 
average  density  of  population,  644  persons  per  square  mile  ;  number 
of  inhabitants  per  village,  473;  houses  per  square  mile,  77;  inmates 
per  house,  ^'6.  This  Sub-division  comprises  the  four  police  circles  of 
Pirozpur,  Mathbari,  Bhandaria,  and  Swariikati.  It  contained  in  1883, 
3  civil  and  2  criminal  courts,  a  regular  police  force  of  90  men,  and  a 
village  watch  numbering  968.  The  Sub-divisions  of  Pirozpur  and 
Madaripur  (now  in  Faridpur  District)  were  originally  established  with 
the  object  of  suppressing  robberies  on  the  Kachna  river. 

Pirpainti  {Peerpoifitee). — Large  village  in  Bhagalpur  District,  Bengal, 
and  a  station  on  the  loop-line  of  the  East  Indian  Railway.  Lat.  25°  17' 
52"  N.,  long.  87°  27'  40"  E.  The  village,  which  is  also  the  site  of  a 
flourishing  indigo  factory,  is  situated  about  2  miles  from  the  railway 
station,  and  contains  a  bdzdr  about  half  a  mile  in  length.  Local 
traders  are  connected  with  firms  at  Sahibganj  and  Colgong,  and  a  con- 
siderable business  is  carried  on  in  the  export  of  country  produce. 
Some  stone  is  quarried  in  the  neighbourhood.     Police  outpost. 

Pir  Panjal  ('  The  Sainfs  Mountain'). — A  lofty  range  in  the  Native 
State  of  Kashmir  (Cashmere)  ;  separating  that  State,  on  its  south- 
western side,  from  the  Punjab.  Runs  north-west  and  south-east,  from 
the  Baramula  Pass  to  that  of  the  Pi'r  Panjal  or  Nandan  Sar,  a  distance 
of  about  forty  miles  ;  the  highest  peaks  attaining  an  elevation  of  about 
16,500  feet  above  sea-level.  The  geological  formatition  is  basaltic, — an 
amygdaloidal  trap,  beautifully  marked  in  some  places.  The  range  is 
named  from  a  pir  or  Muhammadan  saint,  whose  shrine  in  the  Pi'r 
Panjal  Pass  receives  the  offerings  of  all  devout  Musalman  travellers. 
The  most  picturesque  road  into  Kashmir,  and  one  of  the  easiest  and 
most  frequented,  traverses  the  Pir  Panjal  Pass,  and  is  known  as  the 
Gujavdt  and  Pir  Panjal  route.    The  pass  itself  is  crossed  in  the  eleventh 


stage  from  Gujavat,  between  the  halting-stations  of  Porhiana  and 
AHdbad  Sarai.  The  top  of  the  pass,  about  six  miles  from  Porhiana,  is 
a  fine  grassy  plateau  about  half  a  mile  wide,  with  an  elevation  of  about 
11,500  feet,  gradually  sloping  down  to  the  Aliabad  sardi.  In  clear 
weather  the  Shahdera  mind?'s  at  Lahore  are  visible,  though  distant 
about  130  miles. 

Pisangan. — Town  in  Ajmere  District,  Ajmere-Merwara  Division, 
Rajputana,  Lat.  26°  24'  n.,  long.  74°  25'  E.  Population  (1881) 
3375.  Distant  from  Ajmere  city  20  miles.  Residence  of  the 
Istimrdrddr  of  Pisangan.  By  reason  of  its  position  in  the  immediate 
neighbourhood  of  Marwar,  it  is  the  centre  of  the  cotton  and  tobacco 
trade.  There  is  here  an  old  Jain  temple  which  derives  its  name  from  its 
being  situated  near  the  Priya  Sangam,  or  junction  of  the  Saraswati  and 
Sagarmati  streams.     Water-supply  good.     Post-office  and  dispensary. 

Pishin  (or  Feshiii). — Formerly  a  District  of  Southern  Afghanistan, 
situated  between  30°  10'  and  31°  15'  n.  lat.,  and  66°  10'  and  67°  50'  e. 
long.  Estimated  area,  3600  square  miles  ;  estmiated  population,  which 
has  been  under  British  administration  since  1878,  60,000. 

Physical  Aspects. — Pishin  may  be  roughly  described  as  a  large  plain 
(Pishin  proper),  surrounded  on  three  sides  by  hills,  which  are  all 
included  in  the  District.  From  the  scarp  of  Toba  hill  on  the  north  and 
the  line  of  the  main  watershed  on  the  east,  the  whole  country  slopes 
away  to  the  south-west.  It  consists  of  treeless  flats  or  alluvial  valleys 
(of  which  the  Pishin  plain  is  by  far  the  most  important),  divided  by 
ranges  of  bare  and  rocky  hills,  preserving  a  remarkable  parallelism 
with  one  another,  and  all  running  north-east  and  south-west.  The 
average  elevation  of  the  Pishin  plain  is  about  5000  feet  above  sea-level, 
while  the  sub-districts  to  the  east  and  north  are  higher.  On  the 
west,  the  Khwaja  Amran  peak  rises  8864  feet  above  sea-level ;  and  the 
general  height  of  the  range  is  between  7000  and  8000  feet.  On  the 
north,  the  edge  of  Toba  nearest  to  Pishin  is  about  8000  feet ;  and  the 
Kund  mountain  nearly  1 1,000  feet.  Takatii,  on  the  south,  is  also  about 
11,000  feet. 

The  streams  on  quitting  the  stony  ddnian,  or  hill  country,  for  the  soft 
soil  of  the  plain,  have  cut  for  themselves  immense  beds,  quite  out  of  pro- 
portion to  the  amount  of  water  which  they  bring  down.  These  cuttings 
are  30  to  50  yards  wide  and  10  to  25  feet  deep,  with  perpendicular  and 
scarped  banks.  The  alluvial  soil,  where  it  exists,  is  rich  and  deep,  and 
from  its  clayey  nature  is  apt  to  become  soft  and  slippery  after  rain  or 
snow.  Irrigation  is  conducted  with  a  total  disregard  of  any  roads  or 
pathways  that  may  exist. 

Hares  and  ravine  deer  are  found  in  the  valleys,  and  a  few  iiridl  or 
wald  sheep  in  the  hills.  Ibex  are  fairly  numerous  on  Takatii.  Wolves, 
jackals,  and  foxes  are  common.     The  hill  leopard  and  small  sloth  bear 

PI  SHIN.  189 

occur  on  the  higher  and  more  remote  hills.  Of  game  birds,  the  chikor 
and  partridge  are  common.  Sand-grouse  are  often  extremely  numerous. 
The  migratory  game  birds  which  visit  India  in  the  winter  are  found 
in  Pishi'n,  being  most  abundant  at  the  times  when  they  are  coming 
from  and  returning  to  their  northern  breeding  jjlaces  in  October  and 
November,  and  again  in  March. 

History. — Pishin  formed  a  portion  of  the  dominions  of  Ahmad  Shah, 
Durani.  A  fragment  of  what  is  now  Pishin  was  ceded  by  Ahmad  Shdh  to 
NasirKhan,  MirofKhelat,  in  1770.  On  the  fall  of  the  Sadozai  dynasty 
and  the  partition  of  the  kingdom  among  the  sons  of  Paindah  Khan, 
Barakzai,  Pishin  was  included  in  the  Province  allotted  to  the  Kandahar 
sarddrs,  who  exercised,  however,  only  a  limited  administration  over  this 
tract.  The  British  occupation  of  Quetta  in  1876  aroused  an  increased 
interest  in  Pishin  on  the  part  of  the  Amir  of  Kabul,  and  he  attempted 
to  stop  the  through  traffic.  The  Amir's  Government  was  thoroughly 
unpopular,  and  not  the  faintest  show  of  resistance  was  offered  to  the 
British  troops  on  their  advance  from  Quetta,  nor  has  dissatisfaction 
been  shown  during  the  years  the  tract  has  remained  in  the  hands  of  the 
British.  Pishin  was  occupied  by  British  troops  in  December  1878,  and 
assigned  to  the  British  by  the  treaty  of  Gandamak,  25th  May  1879. 
Since  the  assignment,  Pishin  has  remained  under  British  administration, 
and  its  history  has  been  generally  uneventful.  The  only  exception 
worth  noticing  is  the  conduct  of  the  Achakzai  tribe  (on  the  Khwaja 
Amran  range)  in  the  autumn  of  1880.  While  the  British  force  in 
Kandahar  was  besieged  by  Ayub  Khan,  the  Achakzais  were  openly 
hostile ;  but  they  dispersed  on  Ayiib  Khan's  defeat,  and  their  submission 
was  completed  by  a  punitive  expedition  led  against  them  at  the  end  of 
September  1880  by  Brigadier-General  Baker. 

Population.  —  In  May  1881,  Colonel  (now  Sir  Oliver)  St.  John 
estimated  the  gross  population  of  Pishin  at  from  50,000  to  60,000. 
Deducting  the  Achakzais,  a  wandering  tribe  on  the  further  side  of  the 
Khwaja  Amran,  and  those  members  of  other  tribes  who  may  be  absent 
for  various  reasons,  the  latter  number  approximately  represents  the 
resident  population. 

The  tribes  of  Pishin  and  their  approximate  numbers  are — Achakzais, 
20,000;  Tarins,  14,500;  Sayyids,  6500 ;  and  Kakars,  40,000  :  total, 
81,000.  The  Achakzais  are  a  Durani  clan  and  an  offshoot  of  the 
Barakzais.  The  sections  who  are  more  or  less  directly  connected  with 
the  District  are  alone  included  in  the  above  total,  and  even  of  these 
a  considerable  number  are  always  beyond  its  limits.  It  is  doubtful 
whether  more  than  about  5000  ^Achakzais  are  ever  in  the  District. 
They  are  a  purely  pastoral  tribe.  The  Tarins  belong  to  the  Tor  branch 
of  that  race.  They  are  agriculturists  and  carriers.  The  Sayyids  are 
traders  and  cultivators,  and  hold  more  land  than  any  other  class.     The 

iQo  PI  SHIN. 

Kakars  are  nearly  all  settled  agriculturists,  but  they  also  possess  large 
flocks  and  own  112  villages  and  hamlets. 

A  good  many  Ka'kars  and  a  few  Achakzais  and  Tarins  proceed 
to  India  every  year  in  search  of  employment  as  labourers  on  public 
works,  etc.  Many  Sayyids  also  are  always  absent  engaged  in  trade. 
Taken  as  a  whole,  the  inhabitants  of  Pishin  are  peaceable  and  well 
disposed.  The  Achakzais,  indeed,  are  predatory,  and  have  a  reputa- 
tion for  turbulence ;  but  they  have  not  given  much  trouble.  The 
Sayyids,  being  comparatively  well  off  and  enlightened,  have  been  the 
best  friends  of  the  British.  The  dress,  manners,  and  customs  of  the 
people  are  in  all  essentials  those  of  the  inhabitants  of  Southern  Afghan- 
istan generally.  They  are  a  hardy  and  fairly  industrious  peasantry,  not 
particularly  fanatical,  and  seem  well  satisfied  with  British  rule. 

The  settled  population  of  Pishin  (cultivators  and  traders)  live  in 
houses ;  the  pastoral  people  in  tents  {kizhdis).  It  is  not  uncommon  for 
families  to  spend  part  of  the  year  in  one  description  of  habitation,  and 
part  in  another.  The  houses  in  Pishin  proper  are  built  of  mud  in  a 
rectangular  form,  and  contain  only  one  room,  with  a  raised  circular 
hearth  to  serve  as  a  fireplace  at  one  end,  while  the  other  end  is  frequently 
occupied  by  sheep  and  cattle. 

The  tents  {kizhdis)  are  comfortable,  roomy,  clean,  and  warm,  not- 
withstanding that  camels,  goats,  sheep,  and  poultry  are  sheltered 
under  one  roof  with  their  owners.  The  tents  are  about  30  feet  long 
by  15  wide.  The  centre  is  supported  by  slim  poles  7  feet  high,  and 
the  sides  by  others  4  feet  high,  across  which  are  passed  light  ribs  of 
wood.  Over  this  framework  is  stretched  a  single  sheet  of  tough  and 
waterproof  black  haircloth  woven  in  lengths  two  yards  wide  and  sewn 
together.  The  interior  is  divided  into  two  by  a  curtain  of  corn  sacks. 
Of  these  divisions,  one  is  excavated  to  a  depth  of  2  feet  for  the  camels 
and  oxen ;  the  other  is  smooth  and  swept  clean.  In  the  centre  is  a 
circular  hole  for  a  fireplace,  for  the  smoke  of  which  there  is  no  outlet, 
except  the  openings  at  either  end  of  the  tent. 

Agriculture. — The  cultivable  area  of  Pishin  is  probably  about  one- 
third  of  the  w^hole,  say  1200  square  miles.  The  methods  of  cultivation 
are  simple  and  careless.  The  chief  food-grains  grown  are  wheat,  barley, 
maize,  and  millet.  The  straw  of  the  first  three,  when  chopped,  is  a 
valuable  commodity,  and  much  used  instead  of  grass  for  feeding  horses 
and  other  animals.  In  addition  to  grain,  lucerne,  water-melons,  and 
musk -melons  are  cultivated.  Irrigation  is  carried  on  either  from 
natural  streams,  or  from  karezes,  a  series  of  shafts  connected  under 
ground  by  tunnels.  The  irrigated  area  is  estimated  at  three-fourths 
of  the  total  cultivated  area.  The  use  of  manure  is  well  understood, 
but  the  supply  is  deficient,  and  is  confined  to  lucerne  and  melon 

PI  SHIN.  191 

Trade  and  Manufacture, — Except  the  transit  trade  between  India  and 
Afghanistan,  Pishin  has  Httle  or  no  commerce,  and  no  manufactures  or 
produce  for  export.  A  considerable  trade  in  horses,  however,  is 
carried  on ;  the  Sayyids  of  Pishin  being  large  dealers,  and  sui)plying 
many  hundred  remounts  yearly  to  the  Bombay  and  Madras  Presidencies. 
The  horses  exported  to  India  are  purchased  at  Herat,  or  in  countries 
lying  to  its  west  and  north ;  and  they  are  only  kept  in  Pishin  long 
enough  to  get  them  into  condition.  About  1000  maunds  of  salt  are 
annually  made.  Formerly  the  greater  portion  was  exported  to  Kanda- 
har, but  it  is  now  (1881)  bought  up  locally  for  commissariat  purposes. 

Reve7iue  and  Administration. — Pishin  is  under  the  control  of  the 
Governor-General's  Agent  in  Baluchistan,  whose  head-quarters  are  at 
Quetta.  A  Political  Agent  is  in  subordinate  charge  of  the  administra- 
tion, and  lives  generally  at  the  small  town  of  Pishin  (formerly  known  as 
New  Bazar),  where  there  are  also  a  tahsilddr^  ndib  tahsi/ddr,  police 
thdfid,  sub-treasury,  commissariat  store,  telegraph,  and  post  offices. 
Pishin  fort  is  the  only  military  station ;  it  is  occupied  by  one  regiment 
of  Bombay  infantry  and  a  squadron  of  Bombay  cavalry.  Bodies  of 
tribal  levies  are  distributed  at  important  points. 

The  revenue  of  Pishin  is  derived  principally  from  land.  A  report 
submitted  by  the  Political  Agent  in  1885  classifies  the  inhabitants  of 
Pishin  from  a  revenue  point  of  view  as  follows  : — 

'I.  The  mudfiddrs  or  those  who  pay  nothing,  a  very  large  class, 
mostly  Sayyids  and  Achakzais. 

'II.  Those  who  pay  a  fixed  assessment  in  cash  or  kind,  or  both,  the 
assessment  being  calculated  originally  on  a  rough  valuation  of  the  gross 
produce  of  their  lands.  To  this  class  belong  the  Kakars  of  the  Balozai 
and  Gwal  valleys,  and  the  Kakar  Lorah  villages. 

'III.  Those  who  pay  a  fixed  cash  assessment  in  lieu  of  military 
service,  the  assessment  being  calculated  at  so  much  per  head  on  the 
total  number  of  men-at-arms  the  village  was  formerly  bound  to  furnish. 
To  this  class  belong  about  half  the  Tarins  and  Parezuns  of  the  Pishin 
Valley  and  the  Kakars  of  Barshor.  The  Tarins  pay  ;£i,  9s.  per  Jiaukar 
or  man-at-arms,  and  the  Kakars  £2,  los.  and  £2,  i8s.  Those  paying 
this  assessment  (known  locally  as  ghdni-i-naukar)  are  exempt  from 
all  other  dues  whatever. 

'  IV.  The  villages  in  which  hatai  or  a  division  of  the  crops  is  made, 
the  Government  share  varying  from  \  to  \.  To  this  class  belong 
nearly  all  the  Tarins  on  the  east  of  the  Lorah  river— that  is  to  say,  the 
Tor  Tarins  proper  as  distinguished  from  the  Parezuns.  These  men 
originally  paid  the  ghdm-i-naukar.,  or  tax  in  lieu  of  personal  service,  now 
paid  only  by  class  III. ;  but  years  ago,  they  voluntarily  adopted 
the  present  system  in  exchange.  Grass  and  straw  and  other  village 
produce  were  at  that  time  of  little  or  no  value,  and  they  preferred 


parting  with  a  heavy  share  of  their  produce  to   paying  a  fixed  sum 
in  cash.' 

The  land  revenue  collections  in  1884-85  amounted  to  nearly  ^9000. 
Under  the  Afghan  system,  which  is  still  maintained,  a  vialdaghi^  or  poll- 
tax  on  cattle  is  also  levied,  except  from  Sayyids  and  the  class  paying  a 
fixed  cash  assessment  in  lieu  of  military  service.  The  rates,  per  head 
of  cattle,  are — camel,  2s.;  bullock,  2s.;  donkey,  is.;  sheep,  ijd.;  lamb, 
ofd.  There  are  also  a  few  dues  yielding  from  ;£"io  to  ^30  per  annum. 
Excise  revenue  is  also  collected,  but  the  amount  fluctuates  greatly, 
the  highest  total  in  any  year  since  the  British  occupation  being  ^716, 
and  the  lowest  ^26,  4s. 

Military  Importance. — The  strategic  value  of  Pishin  is  considerable. 
It  is  the  meeting-place  of  a  great  number  of  routes  leading  from  Sind 
and  the  Punjab  Frontier  Districts  to  Kandahar.  These  routes  are 
perfectly  practicable  for  troops,  and  have  been  traversed  by  considerable 
bodies.  They  are,  however,  impassable  by  wheeled  carriage,  and 
indifferently  furnished  with  supplies.  The  possession  of  Pishin  places 
the  occupant  within  easy  reach  of  Kandahar,  which  is  only  six  marches 
from  Chaman. 

Medical  Aspects. — The  climate  of  Pishin  is  trying,  not  only  to  natives 
of  India,  but  also  to  Europeans,  until  both  are  acclimatized.  There  are 
four  well-marked  seasons,  as  in  England,  and  the  temperature  ranges 
from  a  moderate  heat  in  summer  to  a  severe  cold  in  winter.  The 
climate,  however,  is  rather  relaxing.  In  summer,  Europeans  are  apt  to 
suffer  from  diarrhoea,  dysentery,  and  affections  of  the  liver;  natives 
from  diarrhoea  and  dysentery.  In  winter,  pneumonia  and  other  lung 
diseases  are  very  fatal  to  natives. 

Pitari. — Town  in  Unao  District,  Oudh,  about  4  miles  north-west 
of  Unao  town.  Population  (1881)  2964,  namely,  2781  Hindus  and 
183  Muhammadans.  An  ancient  village,  dating  from  the  time  of 
Raja  Unwant  Singh,  the  reputed  founder  of  Unao. 

Pithapur  (Fittdpur). — Tdluk  or  Sub-division  of  Godavari  District, 
Madras  Presidency.  For  the  most  part  an  important  zaminddji  tract. 
Area,  200  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  68,161,  namely,  33,502 
males  and  34,659  females,  dwelling  in  i  town  and  50  villages,  con- 
taining 12,610  houses.  Hindus  number  66,517;  Muhammadans, 
1 641 ;  and  Christians,  3.  The  zamifiddri  lies  between  the  eastern 
branch  of  the  Godavari  and  the  District  of  Vizagapatam,  and  contains 
128  villages  in  different  taluks.  The  Raja's  ancestors  are  said  to  have 
come  from  Oudh.  The  grant  of  the  estate  dates  from  about  1647. 
Total  rental,  ^81,150 ;  peshkash  or  quit-rent,  ^24,900. 

Pithapur.  —  Town  in  Pithapur  tdliik^  and  head-quarters  of  the 
Pithapur  zamifiddri^  Godavari  District,  Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  17° 
6'  45"  N.,  long.  82''  18'  40"  E.     Population  (187 1)  9240,  living  in  2318 


houses;  (1881)  11,593,  namely,  5636  males  and  5957  females,  occupy- 
ing 1894  houses.  Hindus  number  10,512,  and  Muhammadans  1081. 
Post-office,  courts,  and  good  schools.  The  town  is  the  centre  of  the 
Pithai)ur  ziunhiddri,  and  the  residence  of  the  zamUiddr. 

Pithoragarh. — Military  outpost  in  Kumaun  District,  North-Western 
Provinces.  Lat.  29°  35'  35"  N.,  long.  80°  14  30"  e.  The  troops  are 
cantoned  on  a  low  ridge  in  the  Shore  valley,  for  the  protection  of  the 
Nepal  frontier.  Population  (1881)  438.  Bazar,  stone-built  hospital. 
Fort  Loudoun,  100  yards  west  of  the  lines,  commands  the  station. 
Elevation  above  sea-level,  5334  feet. 

Pithorid. — Estate  in  Sagar  (Saugor)  District,  Central  Provinces  ;  20 
miles  north-west  of  Sagar  town.  Area,  51  square  miles;  comprising  26 
villages.  In  18 18,  when  Sagar  was  acquired  from  the  Peshwa  by  the 
British,  Rao  Ramchandra  Rao,  a  child  ten  years  old,  held  Deori  and 
the  Panch  Mahal.  In  1819  the  Panch  Mahal  was  transferred  to  Sindhia, 
and  the  Rao's  mother  received  in  lieu  thereof  a  pension  of  ^125  per 
month.  On  her  death,  the  Rao  requested  the  Government  to  assign 
him  a  tract  of  land  instead  of  the  money  payment.  Pithoria  with 
18  other  villages  was  granted  to  him;  but  as  their  revenue  did  not 
equal  the  required  amount,  7  other  villages  were  added.  Govern- 
ment assessment,  ;£"3i3.  Pithoria,  the  chief  village  (lat.  24°  4'  n.,  long. 
78°  38'  E.),  contains  a  fort,  built  about  1750  by  Umrao  Singh,  a  Rajput, 
to  whom  the  place  had  been  granted  rent-free  by  Govind  Pandit,  the 
Peshwa's  governor  at  Sagar.  At  the  market,  held  every  Thursday,  little 
trade  takes  place. 

Pitihra  (/Vz/^r^).— Estate  in  the  extreme  south-east  of  Sagar  (Saugor) 
District,  Central  Provinces.  Area,  120  square  miles;  comprising  86 
villages,  and  yielding  a  revenue  of  about  :£2472  to  the  Raja.  The 
whole  estate,  except  8  villages,  lies  in  the  Sub-division  of  Deori. 
About  1730,  the  Gond  Raja  of  Gaurjhamar  seized  Deori,  but  was 
expelled  ten  years  later  by  the  Marathas.  His  son  then  plundered 
the  country,  till  the  Marathas  pacified  him  by  the  cession  of  the  four 
estates  of  Pitihra,  Muar,  Kesli,  and  Tarara,  containing  8  villages.  He 
died  in  1747;  and  his  grandson  Kiraj  Singh  obtained  from  the  Marathas 
in  1798  another  estate,  called  Ballai,  comprising  53  villages.  At  the 
cession  of  Sagar  to  the  British  in  1 8 1 8,  Kiraj  Singh  was  not  disturbed ; 
but  on  his  death  in  1827,  30  villages  in  Ballai  were  resumed,  and  the 
remainder  were  secured  to  his  son  Balwant  Singh.  The  residence  of 
the  Raja  is  at  Pitihra,  a  village  on  the  Narbada  (Nerbudda)  river,  with 
a  population  of  about  800. 

Pitlad. — Sub-division  and  town  in  Baroda  State. — See  Petlad. 

Plassey  {Pahisi,  from  pahis,  the  red  flower  of  the  Butea  frondosa). — 
Battle-field  on  the  Bhagirathi  river,  Nadiya  District,  Bengal.  Lat.  23" 
47'  N.,  long.  88^  17'  45"  E.     Of  this  memorable  scene  of  dive's  victory 

VOL.  XI.  N 


over  Suraj-ud-dauld,  on  the  23rd  June  1757,  only  a  small  fragment  now 
remains.  The  Bhagirathi,  on  whose  left  or  east  bank  the  battle  was 
fought,  has  eaten  away  the  scene  of  the  fight ;  as  the  Jalangi  river,  in 
the  same  District,  has  eaten  away  the  city  of  Nadiya,  the  ancient 
capital  of  Bengal.  In  1801,  3000  trees  of  Clive's  famous  mango  grove 
were  still  standing ;  now,  only  one  has  survived  the  ravages  of  the 
river  and  of  time.  A  general  of  the  Nawab,  who  fell  in  the  battle,  lies 
buried  beneath  it.  As  early  as  1801,  the  river  had  eaten  away  the 
actual  field  of  batde ;  and  a  traveller  recorded  in  that  year  that  '  a  few 
miserable  huts,  literally  overhanging  the  water,  are  the  only  remains  of 
the  celebrated  Plassey.'  The  neighbourhood  relapsed  into  jungle,  and 
w^as  long  a  favourite  haunt  of  river  dakdits.  Part  of  the  site  is  now 
covered  by  the  waters  of  the  Bhagirathi,  the  rest  stretches  out  as  a 
richly  cultivated  plain ;  and  the  solitary  surviving  tree  of  the  historic 
mango  grove  is  held  sacred  by  the  Muhammadans.  The  high  road 
from  Calcutta  viti  Krishnagar  to  Berhampur  passes  close  by  the  field ; 
96  miles  north  of  Calcutta,  and  22  south  of  Berhampur. 

Poddatliru. — Town  in  Cuddapah  District,  Madras  Presidency. — 
See  Proddutur. 

Pohra. — Village  in  Sakoli  tahsil^  Bhandara  District,  Central  Pro- 
vinces. Population  (1881)  3111,  namely,  Hindus,  2587;  Muham- 
madans, 169;  Jains,  12;  non-Hindu  aborigines,  343. 

Poicha. — Petty  State  of  the  Pandu  Mehwas  in  Rewa  Kantha,  Bombay 
Presidency.  Area,  3!  square  miles.  There  are  6  shareholders.  The 
revenue  was  estimated  in  1882  at  £,20,^  ;  tribute  of  ;£"i5o,  2s.  is  paid 
to  the  Gaekwar  of  Baroda.  The  estate  lies  on  the  Mahi  river  between 
Kanora  and  Bhadarwa. 

Poini  (more  correctly  Pomie). — River,  called  near  the  source  Damal- 
cheruvu,  rising  among  the  high  hills  south-west  of  Chandragiri,  in  the 
north  of  North  Arcot  District,  Madras  Presidency,  and  flowing  about 
45  miles  south  to  the  Palar  between  Vellore  (Velliir)  and  Arcot. 
Largely  used  for  irrigation  by  m^eans  of  anicuts,  which  force  the  water 
into  tanks.     Chittur  is  on  the  bank  of  one  of  the  tributaries. 

Point  Calimere  {Kalli?nedu).  —  The  most  southerly  point  of  the 
Coromandel  coast,  Madras  Presidency. — See  Calimere. 

Point,  False. — Cape,  with  lighthouse,  on  the  west  coast  of  the  Bay 
of  Bengal. — See  False  Point. 

Point  Palmyras.  —  Headland  in  Cuttack  District,  Bengal. — See 
Palmyras  Point. 

Pokaran  {Pokham). — Town  in  Jodhpur  State,  Rajputana;  situated 
in  lat.  26°  55'  N.,  and  long.  71°  57'  45"  e.,  on  the  route  from  Phulodi 
to  Jaisalmer  (Jeysulmere  city),  66  miles  east  of  the  latter  place.  It  is 
situated  close  to  the  deserted  town  of  the  same  name,  and  contained 
when  Thornton  wrote  (1862)  3000  houses.     No  information  as  to  the 


population  was  supplied  by  the  darbdr  authorities  for  the  Census  of 
1 88 1.  The  town  is  surrounded  by  an  uncemented  stone  wall.  A 
conspicuous  Jain  temple,  on  an  elevated  situation,  marks  the  site  of 
the  old  deserted  city,  and  near  it  are  the  monuments  of  the  deceased 
members  of  the  chiefs  family.  Being  situated  on  one  of  the  great 
commercial  routes  between  Eastern  Rajputana  and  Sind,  the  transit 
trade  is  considerable.  Red  sandstone  crops  out  or  lies  near  the  surface, 
and  there  are  several  tanks  near  the  town.  It  is  an  appanage  of 
the  leading  noble  of  Jodhpur,  who  holds  the  post  of  pardhan,  and  is 
entitled  to  a  seat  on  the  royal  elephant  immediately  behind  the 

Pokhar. — Town,  lake,  and  place  of  pilgrimage  in  Ajmere-Merwara, 
Rajputana. — See  Pushkar. 

Pokri. — Village  in  Garhwal  District,  North-Western  Provinces.  Lat. 
30°  20'  N.,  long.  79°  15'  E.  Population  (tS8i)  185.  Small  copper 
mines,  once  very  productive,  but  now  of  little  value.  Elevation  above 
sea-level,  61 10  feet. 

Pol  {Pal). — Petty  State  within  the  ISIahi  Kantha  Agency,  Gujarat, 
Bombay  Presidency  ;  situated  on  the  north-eastern  frontier  of  Mahi 
Kantha.  The  boundary  marches  \vith  that  of  Me  war  in  Rajputana. 
Population  (1872)  4919  ;  (1881)  6629.  The  tract  is  wild  and  moun- 
tainous. Cultivated  area,  42  square  miles  (27,500  acres).  Chief 
agricultural  products  —  millets,  wheat,  maize,  gram,  etc.  No  mines 
or  manufactures.  The  ruling  family  is  descended  from  Jai  Chand, 
the  last  Rahtor  sovereign  of  Kanauj.  Jai  Chand  (1193)  left  two 
sons,  Seoji  and  Sonakji.  The  former  founded  the  present  family 
of  Marwar;  the  latter  established  himself  at  Edar  in  1257.  For 
twenty-six  generations,  the  chiefs  of  this  line  bore  the  title  of  Rao  of 
Edar ;  but  the  last  independent  prince,  Jagannath,  was  driven  out  by 
the  Muhammadans  in  1656.  The  family  retired  into  the  hills,  fixed 
their  head  -  quarters  at  Pol,  and  were  known  thenceforward  as  the 
Raos  of  that  mountainous  tract.  The  Raos  of  Pol  pay  no  tribute, 
the  difficult  nature  of  their  territory  having  apparently  saved  them 
from  the  exactions  of  the  Gaekwar.  The  present  (1883)  chief,  Rao 
Hamir  Singhji,  is  thirty-six  years  of  age,  and  manages  the  State  in 
person.  He  enjoys  an  estimated  gross  revenue  of  ^^2800.  The  State 
has  one  school  with  24  pupils.  The  family  follows  the  rule  of 
primogeniture  in  matters  of  succession,  and  hold  no  deed  allowing 
adoption.  Transit  duties  are  levied  in  the  State.  Rainfall  in  1882, 
26  inches. 

Polavaram.  —  Zaminddri  estate  in  the  '  Northern  Circars,'  Goda- 
vari  District,  Madras  Presidency,  containing  128  villages.  Assessment 
imposed  at  the  Permanent  Settlement  (1803),  ;^io,57o.  Previous  to 
that  time,  this  estate,  like  the  others  in  the  District,   was  the  scene 


of  constant  disputes  and  struggles  {see  Godavari  District).  Between 
1785  and  1790  especially,  the  disturbances  became  so  serious  that  it 
was  necessary  to  repress  them  with  the  help  of  the  military.  Again,  in 
1800,  the  zaminddr's  fort,  situated  on  the  Godavari  river,  was  captured 
and  destroyed,  and  the  whole  tract  was  placed  under  martial  law. 
The  population  of  Polavaram  village,  situated  in  Ernagudem  idluk 
(lat.  17°  14'  50"  N.,  long.  81°  40'  40"  E.),  was  2734  in  1872,  and  3552 
in  i88r.     Number  of  houses  (1881),  737. 

Polekurru  {Pdlhiru). — Town  in  Coconada  tdluk^  Godavari  District, 
Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  16°  47'  n.,  long.  82°  18'  e.  Population 
(1871)  6429,  inhabiting  1333  houses;  and  (1881)  5141,  inhabiting 
1243  houses. 

Poll.  —  Town  in  Pullampet  tdlulz^  Cuddapah  (Kadapa)  District, 
Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  14°  12'  45"  n.,  long.  79°  13'  e.  Population 
(1881)  6947,  inhabiting  1577  houses.  Hindus  number  6351  ; 
Muhammadans,  595  ;  and  Christian,  i. 

Pollachi. — Tdhik  or  Sub-division  of  Coimbatore  District,  Madras 
Presidency.  Area,  710  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  172,909, 
namely,  83,737  males  and  89,172  females,  dwelling  in  i  town  and  160 
villages,  and  occupying  37,815  houses.  Hindus  number  169,570; 
Muhammadans,  3235  ;  Christians,  95  ;  and  '  others,'  9.  In  1883 
the  tdhik  contained  3  criminal  courts ;  police  circles  {thdnds),  6  ;  and 
regular  police,  59  men.     Land  revenue,  ;^24,o69. 

Pollachi. — Head-quarters  town  of  Pollachi  fdliik,  Coimbatore  Dis- 
trict, Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  10°  39'  20"  n.,  long.  77°  3'  5"  e. 
Population  (187 1)  4922,  inhabiting  724  houses;  and  (1881)  5082, 
inhabiting  700  houses.  Hindus  number  4468  ;  Muhammadans,  548  ; 
and  Christians,  66.  Large  weekly  fair,  hospital,  and  travellers' 
bungalow.  Residence  of  Head  Assistant  Collector  and  Magistrate  of 
Coimbatore  District. 

PoUillir.  —  Town  in  Conjeveram  taluk,  Chengalpat  (Chingleput) 
District,  Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  12°  58'  20"  n.,  long.  79°  45'  20"  e. 
Population  (1871)  933,  inhabiting  139  houses;  and  (1881)  1068, 
inhabiting  155  houses. 

Pollir. — Tdhik  or  Sub-division  of  North  Arcot  District,  Madras 
Presidency.  Area,  443  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  106,818, 
namely,  52,713  males  and  54,105  females,  dwelling  in  i  town  and 
194  villages,  containing  13,357  houses.  Hindus  number  101,147  ; 
Muhammadans,  3292;  Christians,  1585;  and  'others,'  794.  The 
northern  and  western  parts  of  the  tdhik  are  hilly,  the  rest  is  tolerably 
flat.  The  soil  is  black  and  red  clay  mixed  with  sand  and  gravel; 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  hills  a  rich  loam  is  found.  On  the  whole, 
Pollir  is  a  fertile  tdhik,  and  raises  good  crops  of  rice,  spiked  millet, 
varagu  (Panicum  miliaceum),  and  ?'agi  (Eleusine  corocana).     Twenty- 


three  square  miles  are  reserved  forests;  leopards,  bears,  sdmbhar 
deer,  and  wild  hog  are  common  ;  bison  are  not  rare,  and  tigers  and 
elephants  are  occasionally  found.  The  manufactures  are  weaving 
and  shoemaking.  In  1883  the  taluk  contained  i  criminal  court; 
police  circles  {thd?ids\  9 ;   regular  police,   84  men.       Land    revenue, 


Pollir. — Head-quarters  town  of  Poliir  taluk,  North  Arcot  District, 
Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  12°  30'  45"  n.,  long.  79°  9'  30"  e. 
Situated  about  27  miles  south  of  Vellore.  Population  (1881)  5649, 
dwelling  in  765  houses.  Hindus  number  4310;  Muhammadans, 
1227  ;  and  Christians,  112.  Polur  is  poorly  built,  with  narrow  and  ill- 
arranged  streets.  A  small  ruined  fort  stands  near  the  town.  To  the 
west  is  a  large  tank,  which  irrigates  iioo  acres,  bearing  an  assessment 
of  nearly  ;£"5oo.  Five  miles  from  the  town  magnetic  iron-ore  occurs 
in  small  nodules.     Sub-jail ;  post-office. 

Ponampet. — Village  in  the  Kiggatnad  taluk  of  Coorg,  on  the  road 
from  Gonikopal  to  Hudikeri.  Founded  by  Ponapa,  a  former  Diwan, 
from  whom  it  takes  its  name.  Population  (1881)  783.  Head-quarters 
of  the  parpattigdr.     Weekly  market  on  Mondays. 

Ponani. — Tdluk  or  Sub-division  of  Malabar  District,  Madras  Presi- 
dency. Area,  390  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  392,654,  namely, 
194,150  males  and  198,504  females,  dwelling  in  72  parishes  or  a?nshdms, 
containing  70,625  houses.  Hindus  number  231,402  ;  Muhammadans, 
146,868;  Christians,  14,363;  and  'others,'  21.  In  1883  the  tdluk 
contained  3  civil  and  2  criminal  courts ;  police  circles  {thd?ids),  1 7  ; 
regular  police,  159  men.     Land  revenue,  ^31^238. 

Pondni.— Head-quarters  town  of  Ponani  tdluk,  Malabar  District 
Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  10°  47'  10"  n.,  long.  75°  57'  55"  e.  Popula- 
tion (1881)  12,421,  inhabiting  19 19  houses.  Muhammadans  number 
9916;  Hindus,  2478;  Christians,  26;  and  'other,'  i.  A  busy  Map- 
pilla  seaport,  the  most  important  between  Cochin  and  Calicut,  trading 
largely  in  salt,  and  possessing  water  communication  with  the  Tiriir  station 
on  the  south-west  line  of  the  Madras  Railway,  as  well  as  with  Cochin 
and  Travancore.  Ponani  is  inhabited  almost  exclusively  by  Mappilla 
Muhammadans,  whose  Tangal  or  high  priest  lives  here ;  and  it  is  the 
centre  of  Musalman  education  on  the  coast,  possessing  a  kind  of 
religious  college,  which  confers  degrees. 

In  1662,  after  the  Dutch  took  Cochin,  the  English  retired  to  Ponani. 
In  1782,  Colonel  IMacleod  landed  troops  here  from  Bombay,  and  was 
joined  by  Colonel  Humberstone's  force.  The  latter  had  given  up  the 
projected  siege  of  Palghat,  and,  abandoning  the  siege  train  at  Mangari- 
kota,  fell  back  by  forced  marches,  followed  and  harassed  by  Tipii  and 
Lally.  Once  within  Macleod's  lines,  however,  the  united  forces  turned 
on  the  pursuers  and  repulsed  them.     Owing  to  the  death  of  Haidar 


All,  the  attack  was  not  renewed.  When  Colonel  Hartley  (1790)  made 
his  brilliant  descent  upon  the  west  coast,  the  Ponani  people  gave  in 
their  adhesion  readily.  Average  annual  value  of  the  trade  of  Ponani 
for  the  five  years  ending  1883-84 — imports,  ;£^9567,  and  exports, 
;;^44,i95.  In  1883-84,  the  imports  were  valued  at  ^11,467,  and  the 
exports  at  ;£'5 1,696. 

Pondni. — River  rising  in  the  Anamalai  Mountains,  Madras  Presidency. 
Flows  past  Palghat  across  Malabar  District,  and  enters  the  sea  at 
Ponani  town,  in  lat.  10°  47'  30"  n.,  and  long.  75°  58'  e.  It  is  about 
120  miles  in  length,  and  flows  for  about  70  miles  parallel  to  the 
south-west  line  of  the  Madras  Railway.  Navigable  by  small  craft 
for  many  months  to  a  considerable  distance  above  its  mouth,  and  is 
largely  used  for  timber-floating. 

Pondamalai. — Town  in  Chengalpat  District,  Madras  Presidency. — 


Pondicherri  {Puducheri,  Puthuvai,  Pidcheri). — Chief  settlement  of 
the  French  in  the  East  Indies ;  situated  on  the  Coromandel  coast, 
surrounded  by  the  Cuddalore  taluk  of  South  Arcot  District,  Madras 
Presidency.  The  town  lies  in  lat.  11"  55'  57"  n.,  and  long.  79°  52' 
33°  E.     Population  (1876)  156,094;  (1882)  140,945. 

The  settlement  forms  part  of  the  delta  of  the  Penner  (Ponnaiyar) 
river,  and  a  great  portion  of  its  surface  is  alluvial.  Many  artesian  wells 
have  been  sunk,  and  excellent  drinking  water  is  obtainable.  The  hills 
known  as  Les  Montag?ies  Rouges  form  a  natural  girdle  to  the  country 
about  Pondicherri.  The  climate  is  healthy.  In  January,  the  tempera- 
ture is  from  25°  to  28°  centigrade,  and  from  May  to  September  from 
31°  to  40°  centigrade. 

'  The  first  French  settlement  at  Pondicherri,'  says  Mr.  Garstin, 
'was  in  1674,  under  Francois  Martin.  In  1693  it  was  captured  by 
the  Dutch,  but  restored  in  1699.  It  was  besieged  four  times  by  the 
English.  The  first  siege,  under  x\dmiral  Boscawen,  was  unsuccessful. 
The  second,  under  Colonel  (afterwards  Sir)  Eyre  Coote,  in  1761, 
resulted  in  the  capture  of  the  place;  it  was  restored  in  1763.  It 
was  again  besieged  and  captured  in  1778,  by  Sir  Hector  Munro,  and 
restored  in  1785.  It  was  captured  a  third  time,  by  Colonel  Braithwaite, 
in  1793,  and  finally  restored  in  1816.'  [For  a  fuller  account  of  the 
history  of  Pondicherri,  see  article  French  Settleivients.] 

'  The  territory  of  Pondicherri  comprises  four  Districts — Pondicherri, 
Villiamir,  Oulgaret,  and  Bahur — containing  93  large  villages  and  141 
hamlets.  Its  area  is  29,145  hectares  =  115  square  miles,  and  its  popu- 
lation, according  to  the  Annuaire  des  Etablissements  Era?i(ais  da?is 
LPnde  for  1884,  140,945  souls.  The  town  of  Pondicherri  is  divided  into 
two  parts,  the  White  Town  and  the  Black  Town,  separated  from  one 
another  by  a  canal.     The  White  Town  is  by  the  seaside,  and  is  well 


built.  The  chief  pubHc  buildings  are — Government  house,  the  parish 
church,  the  Foreign  Missions  church,  two  pagodas,  the  new  bazar,  the 
clock  tower,  the  lighthouse,  the  barracks,  the  military  hospital,  and  the 
town  hall.  A  handsome  statue  of  Dupleix  stands  on  the  esplanade 
opposite  the  landing-place.  There  is  also  a  neat  and  well-cared-for 
iron  screw-pile  pier ;  and  a  supply  of  drinking  water  has  been  brought 
into  the  town  which  for  purity  is  perhaps  unrivalled  in  any  other  town 
in  Southern  India.' 

A  colonial  college  (with  185  pupils  in  1883)  and  172  other  schools, 
attended  by  nearly  5000  children,  provide  for  the  educational  wants 
of  the  territory;  and  a  public  library  of  12,000  volumes,  a  Catholic 
mission,  2  orphanages,  and  2  refuges  are  among  its  institutions.  The 
chief  industries  are  weaving  and  dyeing.  The  former  has  of  late  years 
languished  in  consequence  of  European  competilicn,  but  there  are 
siill  4000  weavers.  The  revenue  of  Pondicherri  was  in  1883  ;^57, 315. 
In  1879,  railway  communication  was  opened  between  Pondicherri  and 
the  South  Indian  system  at  Villupuram. 

Ponnani. — Town  and  river,  Malabar  District,  Madras  Presidency. — 
See  PoNANi. 

Pon-na-reip  {Pun-na-riep  or  Poon-na-riep). — Village  in  the  Mo-nyo 
township  of  Tharawadi  District,  Pegu  Division,  Lower  Burma.  Popu- 
lation (1S81)  351. 

Ponne.  —  River  in  North  Arcot  District,  Madras  Presidency. — 
See  PoiNi. 

Ponneri. — Tdbik  of  Chengalpat  District,  Madras  Presidency.  Area, 
347  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  107,543,  namely,  54,522  males 
and  53,021  females,  dwelling  in  241  villages,  containing  17,249 
houses.  Hindus  number  103,569;  Muhammadans,  3674 ;  Christians, 
294 ;  and  '  others,'  6.  The  taluk  is  an  almost  unbroken  flat  of  rice- 
fields  and  desert  plain,  while  its  eastern  and  northern  borders 
are  covered  with  salt  swamps  and  sandy  tracts.  Average  rainfall, 
35  inches.  Once  famous  for  its  manufacture  of  muslins  at  Arni,  but 
the  skill  and  the  manufacture  (except  of  common  cloth)  are  now 
extinct.  Red  handkerchiefs  and  Muhammadan  cloths  are  woven 
at  Pulicat.  Casuarina  planting  is  in  progress.  The  hamlet  of 
Coromandel  (Dutch  and  English  corruption  of  Kareimanal  =  santl 
coast)  is  thought  to  have  given  its  name  to  the  eastern  coast  of 
the  Presidency.  In  1883  the  taluk  contained  2  criminal  courts ; 
police  circles  {thd?ids\  6 ;  regular  police,  45  men.  Land  revenue, 
;£"2o,837.  The  high  road  from  Madras  to  Calcutta  traverses  the 

Ponneri. — Town  in  Chengalpat  District,  Madras  Presidency,  and 
head-quarters  of  Ponneri  taluk ;  situated  on  the  right  or  south  bank  of 
the  Naranavaram  (known  more  commonly  as  the  Araniyanadi).  about 


20  miles  north-west  of  Madras  city.     Population  (1872)  1170;  (1881) 
779,  dwelling  in  120  houses.     Sub-jail ;  post-office. 

Poodoocottah.  —  State    and    town    in    Madras    Presidency.  —  See 


Poo-loo. — Creek  in  Bassein  District,  Lower  Burma. — See  Pu-lu. 

Poona  {Puna). — British  District  in  the  Deccan,  Bombay  Presidency, 
lying  between  17°  54'  and  19°  23'  n.  lat.,  and  between  73°  24' and  75° 
13'  E.  long.  Area,  5348  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  900,621. 
Poona  District  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  District  of  Ahmad- 
nagar ;  on  the  east  by  Ahmadnagar  and  Sholapur ;  on  the  south 
by  the  Nira  river,  separating  it  from  Satara  and  the  estate  of  the 
chief  of  Phaltan ;  and  on  the  west  by  Kolaba  and  Thana.  Two 
isolated  blocks  of  Bhor  State,  one  in  the  west  and  the  other  in 
the  south,  are  included  within  the  limits  of  Poona  District.  The 
administrative  head-quarters  are  at  Poona  city. 

Physical  Aspects. — Towards  the  west,  the  country  is  undulating,  and 
intersected  by  numerous  spurs  of  the  Sahyadri  range,  which  break  off 
in  a  south-easterly  direction,  becoming  lower  as  they  pass  eastwards, 
and  in  the  end  sinking  to  the  general  level  of  the  plain.  On  the 
extreme  western  border,  the  land  is  so  rugged  and  cut  up  by  valleys 
and  ravines,  that  on  the  slopes  and  sides  of  the  hills  a  system  of  spade 
tillage  takes  the  place  of  ordinary  cultivation  by  bullocks  and  ploughs. 
Along  the  western  border  of  the  District,  the  Sahyadri  hills  form  a 
barrier  inaccessible  except  by  a  few  difficult  passes  or  ghats.  Of  these, 
the  Borghat,  traversed  both  by  a  road  and  a  railway,  is  the  only  line 
fi'ted  for  wheeled  vehicles.  The  spurs  which  form  the  main  line  of  the 
Sahyadri  mountains  have  the  flat  tops  and  steep  sides  common  to 
basaltic  hills.  Within  the  limits  of  the  District  not  a  few  of  the  hills 
have  had  their  sides  hewn  into  rock  temples,  or  their  summits  crowned 
with  fortresses.  Many  streams  rise  in  the  Sahyadri  range,  and  flow 
eastwards,  until  they  join  the  Bhima  river,  which  passes  through  the 
District  from  north-west  to  south-east.  The  water  of  the  rivers  is  good 
for  all  purposes,  and  all  of  them  are  sources  of  supply  to  the  many 
villages  along  their  banks.  About  10  miles  south-west  of  Poona  city, 
the  Khadakwasla  lake,  with  an  area  of  5 J  square  miles,  supplies 
water  to  Poona  and  Kirki.  The  District  is  not  rich  in  minerals, 
but  trap  rock  fit  for  road-making  and  stone  for  building  purposes  are 
found.  There  are  no  tracts  producing  large  timber  of  any  value.  Of 
late  years,  efforts  to  afforest  the  denuded  hill-sides  have  met  with  some 
success.  Except  in  the  west,  where  tigers,  leopards,  bears,  and 
sdmbhar  deer  are  sometimes  to  be  found,  the  District  contains  no  wild 
animals  larger  than  the  antelope,  boar,  and  wolf. 

History. — The  District  of  Poona,  with  the  adjacent  tracts  of  Satara 
and  Sholapur, — the  home  of  the  Marathas,    and  the  birthplace  of 

FOONA.  201 

the  dynasty, — stretches  for  about  150  miles  along  the  Sahyadri  range 
between  the  17th  and  19th  degrees  of  latitude,  and  extends  at  one  point 
as  far  as  160  miles  inland.  The  great  Maratha  capitals  —  Poona, 
Satara,  Kolhapur — lie  close  to  the  mountains  under  the  shelter  of  some 
hill  fort;  while  the  Musalman  capitals — Ahmadnagar,  Bijdpur,  Bidar, 
Giilbarga — are  walled  cities  out  in  the  plains.  The  history  of  the 
three  Districts  forms  the  subject  of  a  monograph  by  Mr.  W.  W.  Loch  of 
the  Bombay  Civil  Service,  from  which  the  following  section  has  been 
condensed.  The  three  Districts  can  be  best  historically  considered 
together,  and  they  are  so  treated  here ;  but  the  reader  is  also  referred 
for  topographical  details  to  the  articles  on  Satara  and  Sholapur.  The 
rise  and  progress  of  the  Maratha  power,  on  the  other  hand,  forms  an 
important  and  essential  part  of  the  general  history  of  India,  and  will 
be  only  very  briefly  noticed  in  this  place. 

Of  little  consequence  under  the  early  Musalman  rulers  of  the 
Deccan  ;  growing  into  importance  under  the  kings  of  Bijapur  and 
Ahmadnagar ;  rising  with  the  rise  of  the  State  founded  by  Sivaji  the 
Great  in  the  17  th  century,  —  these  Districts  of  Poona,  Sitara,  and 
Sholapur  became  in  the  i8th  century  the  seat  of  an  empire  reaching 
from  the  Punjab  to  the  confines  of  Bengal,  and  from  Delhi  to  Mysore. 

Early  in  the  Christian  era,  Maharashtra  is  said  to  have  been  ruled 
by  the  great  Salevahana,  whose  capital  was  at  Paitan  on  the  Godavari. 
At  a  later  period,  a  powerful  dynasty  of  Chalukya  Rajputs  reigned 
over  a  large  part  of  Maharashtra  and  the  Karnatik,  with  their  capital 
at  Kalliani,  not  far  from  Sholapur.  The  founder  of  the  line,  Jaisingh, 
had  overthrown  another  Rajput  tribe,  the  Pallavas.  The  Chalukyas  rose 
to  their  greatest  power  under  Talapa  Deva  in  the  loth  century,  and 
became  extinct  about  the  end  of  the  12th  century,  when  the  Yadava 
Rajas  of  Deogiri  (Daulatabad)  became  supreme.  This  was  the 
dynasty  which  was  ruling  at  the  time  of  the  Musalman  invasion. 
We  find,  besides,  that  there  was  a  Raja  at  Punalla,  near  Kolhapur, 
at  the  end  of  the  12th  century,  whose  power  extended  as  far  north 
as  the  Nira  river.  He  was  conquered  by  Singhan,  the  Rajput  Raja  of 
Deogiri,  whose  camp  is  shown  at  ^Mhasurna,  near  Pusesauli,  in  Satara 

The  first  Musalman  invasion  took  place  in  1294,  but  the  Yadava 
dynasty  was  not  finally  extinguished  until  13 12.  The  conquest  of  the 
country  was  long  imperfect ;  and  Ferishta  records  an  attack  made  by 
Muhammad  Tughlak,  the  Emperor  of  Delhi,  in  1340,  on  Nagnak,  a 
Roll  chief,  who  held  the  strong  fort  of  Kondhana  (now  Singarh), 
which  was  only  reduced  after  eight  months'  siege. 

The  Deccan  remained  subject  to  the  Emperor  of  Delhi  till  1345, 
when  the  Musalmin  nobles  revolted  from  Muhammad  Tughlak,  and 
established  the  Bahmani  dynasty,  whose  first  capital  was  at  Giilbarga, 

202  POONA, 

about  60  miles  east  of  Sholapur.  The  open  country  acknowledged 
the  power  of  the  Bahmani  sovereigns  without  a  struggle.  In  the  year 
1426  the  capital  was  changed  by  Ahn:iad  Shah  Bahmani  to  Bidar,  said 
by  Ferishta  to  have  been  an  old  Hindu  capital,  about  100  miles  farther 

A  terrible  famine,  know^n  as  the  Durgadevi,  is  said  to  have  lasted 
throughout  Maharashtra  for  twelve  years — from  1396  to  1408.  Taking 
advantage  of  the  general  depopulation,  the  local  Maratha  chiefs  obtained 
possession  of  the  hills  and  strong  places,  which  had  been  conquered 
by  the  Musalmans.  Several  expeditions  were  sent  by  the  Bahmani 
kings  to  recover  the  Ghat  country,  but  without  success,  until,  in  the 
year  1472,  Mahmiid  Gawan,  the  great  minister  of  the  last  independent 
Bahmani  king,  made  another  effort ;  he  forced  his  way  through  the 
forests,  and  did  not  leave  the  country  till  he  had  reduced  the  lesser 
forts,  and  finally  Kelna  itself. 

Subsequently  he  made  a  new  distribution  of  the  Bahmani  dominions. 
Junnar  became  the  head-quarters  of  a  Province  which  comprehended 
Indapur,  the  Mandesh,  Wai,  Belgaum,  and  parts  of  the  Konkan.  The 
other  districts  on  the  Bhima  were  under  Bijapur,  while  Sholapur, 
Giilbarga,  and  Purenda  formed  a  separate  Province.  Yusaf  Adil  Shdh, 
the  founder  of  the  Bijapur  dynasty,  was  made  governor  of  Bijapur; 
Ahmad  Shah,  the  founder  of  the  Ahmadnagar  dynasty,  was  sent  to 
Junnar  ;  Giilbarga  was  entrusted  to  Dastiir  Dinar,  an  Abyssinian ;  while 
Purandhar,  Sholapur,  and  1 1  districts  were  held  by  two  brothers,  Zein 
Khan  and  Khwaja  Jahan. 

When  Ahmad  Shah  went  to  Junnar  about  the  year  1485,  he  found 
that  the  fort  of  Junnar  Shivner  had  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  Marathas, 
and  he  at  once  reduced  it.  He  then  took  Chawand,  Logarh,  Purandhar, 
Kondhana  (Singarh),  and  many  forts  in  the  Konkan,  and  brought  his 
charge  into  good  order. 

The  fall  of  the  Bahmani  dynasty  was  now  at  hand,  for  the  great 
nobles  had  become  virtually  independent.  The  first  who  rose  in  revolt 
was  Bahadur  Gelani,  who  governed  the  country  south  of  the  Warna 
river ;  he  was  soon  defeated  and  killed.  Then  Zein  -  ud  -  din,  the 
idgirddr  of  Chakan,  rebelled  with  the  aid  of  Yusaf  Adil  Shah.  Next, 
in  the  year  1489,  Ahmad  Shah  threw  off  his  allegiance ;  he  was 
attacked  by  Zein-ud-din,  but  the  latter  w^as  driven  into  the  fort  of 
Chakan  ;  the  fort  was  stormed,  and  Zein-ud-din  killed  in  the  fight. 

About  this  time,  Yusaf  Adil  Shah  of  Bijapur  also  asserted  his  inde- 
pendence, and  made  himself  master  of  the  country  as  far  north  as  the 
Bhima.  The  new  kings  of  the  Deccan  made  a  kind  of  partition  treaty 
in  149 1,  by  which  the  country  north  of  the  Nira  and  east  of  Karmala, 
together  with  some  of  the  present  District  of  Sholapur,  was  assigned 
to  the  Nizam   Shahi  king,  while  the  country  south  of  the   Nira  and 

POONA.  203 

Bhi'md  was  allotterl  to  Bijapur.  The  lesser  chiefs,  who  had  joined  in 
the  revolt  against  the  Bahmani  kings,  were  gradually  subdued  by  the 
more  powerful,  Dastiir  Dinar,  who  held  Giilbarga,  was  defeated  in 
1495,  ^'^"d  again  in  1498,  by  Yusaf  Adi'l  Shdh  ;  but  he  returned  after 
each  defeat,  and  it  was  not  till  1504  that  he  was  slain,  and  Giilbarga 
annexed  to  the  Bijapur  dominions. 

In  151 1,  Sholapur  was  annexed  to  Bijapur.  Amir  Berid  took 
Gulbarga ;  but  Kamal  Khdn  was  soon  after  assassinated,  and  Gulbarga 
recovered.  Purandhar  and  the  neighbouring  tracts  remained  for  many 
years  under  Khwaja  Jahan,  who  seems  to  have  been  a  semi-indepenclent 
vassal  of  the  king  of  Ahmadnagar. 

In  1523,  as  a  condition  of  peace  between  the  kings  of  Bijapur  and 
Ahmadnagar  after  one  of  their  many  wars,  the  sister  of  Ismail  Adil 
Shah  was  given  in  marriage  to  Burhan  Nizam  Shah,  and  Sholapur 
was  promised  as  her  dowry,  but  it  was  not  given  up.  The  claim  to 
Sholapur  by  the  Nizam  Shahi  kings  was  the  cause  of  constant  wars 
during  the  next  forty  years.  At  last  the  Musalman  kings,  alarmed 
at  the  power  of  Ramraj,  Hindu  king  of  Bijanagar,  formed  a  league 
against  him  (1563-64).  In  January  1565  was  fought  the  great  battle 
of  Talikot,  which  resulted  in  the  death  of  Ramraj  and  the  complete 
defeat  of  his  army. 

For  some  years  there  was  peace;  but  in  1590,  Dilawar  Khan, 
who  had  been  regent  of  Bijapur,  fled  to  Ahmadnagar,  and  urged 
Burhan  Nizam  Shah  11.  to  recover  Sholapur.  In  the  year  1592  they 
advanced  into  the  Bijapur  territory,  but  Ibrahim  Adil  Shah  managed 
to  win  back  Dilawar  Khan  ;  and  having  got  him  into  his  power,  sent 
him  as  a  prisoner  to  the  fort  of  Satara,  and  quickly  forced  the 
Ahmadnagar  troops  to  retire. 

Soon  after  this,  the  Mughal  princes  of  Delhi  began  to  invade  the 
Deccan,  and  in  1600  Ahmadnagar  fell.  The  country  was,  however, 
only  temporarily  subdued,  and  was  speedily  recovered  by  Malik 
Ambar,  an  Abyssinian  chief,  who  made  Aurangabad,  then  called 
Kharki,  the  capital  of  the  Nizam  Shahi  kings.  In  161 6,  Shah  Jahan 
again  conc^uered  the  greater  part  of  the  Ahmadnagar  territory  ;  but  in 
1629,  the  country  was  given  up  by  the  Mughal  governor.  Khan  Jahan 
Lodi.  A  war  ensued,  and  in  1633  Daulatabad  was  taken,  and  the  king 
made  prisoner;  but  Shahji  Bhonsla,  one  of  the  leading  Maratha  chiefs, 
set  up  another  member  of  the  royal  family,  overran  the  Gangthari  and 
Poona  districts,  and,  with  the  help  of  the  Bijapur  troops,  drove  back 
the  Mughals  from  Purenda.  Shah  Jahdn  now  marched  into  the  Deccan 
in  person,  besieged  Bijapur,  and  forced  the  king  to  come  to  terms, 
1636.  The  country  seized  by  Shahji  was  then  easily  recovered; 
that  chief  surrendered  in  1637,  and  the  Nizam  Shahi  dynasty  came  to 
an    end.       The   country  north  of   the  Bhima,  including   Junnar,  was 

204  POONA. 

annexed  to  the  Mughal  territory,  and  that  south  of  it  was  made  over  to 
Bijapur.  Shahji  took  service  under  the  king  of  Bijapur,  and  received 
the  jdg'ir  of  Poona  and  Supa,  to  which  Indapur,  Baramati,  and  the 
Mawal  country  near  Poona  were  added. 

It  was  under  the  Bijapur  kings  that  the  Marathas  first  began  to  make 
themselves  conspicuous.  The  Bargirs  or  light  horse  furnished  by  the 
Maratha  chiefs  played  a  prominent  part  in  the  wars  with  the  Mughals  ; 
the  less  important  forts  were  left  in  their  hands,  and  the  revenue  was 
collected  by  Hindu  officers  under  the  Musalmdn  mokdsddrs.  Several 
of  the  old  Maratha  families  received  the  offices  of  deshjnukh  and  sar- 
deshmukh.  The  kingdom  of  Bijapur  survived  that  of  Ahmadnagar  by 
fifty  years  ;  but,  weakened  by  internal  dissensions,  it  was  gradually 
falling  to  pieces.  This  was  the  opportunity  for  the  predatory  Maratha 
chiefs  ;  and  a  leader  arose  in  Sivaji,  the  son  of  Shahji  Bhonsla,  who 
knew  how  to  unite  the  Marathas  into  a  nation  by  inspiring  them  with 
a  hatred  for  their  Musalman  masters,  and  how  to  take  advantage  of  the 
constant  quarrels  and  increasing  weakness  of  those  masters. 

The  story  of  the  rise  and  progress  of  the  great  Maratha  power  belongs 
to  the  general  history  of  the  countr}\  It  will  be  found  in  the  article  on 
India,  and  need  not  be  repeated  here. 

With  the  fall  of  Baji  Rao,  the  last  of  the  Peshwas,  in  1818,  the 
Maratha  power  ended ;  and  since  then,  no  events  of  political  import- 
ance have  taken  place  in  Poona  District.  Throughout  the  Mutiny, 
peace  was  maintained,  and  no  open  outbreak  took  place,  though  the 
mutiny  of  a  regiment  at  Kolhapur  gave  rise  to  uneasiness,  and  there 
was  undoubtedly  a  good  deal  of  disaffection  at  Satara  among  the  classes 
whom  the  annexation  of  the  country  had  impoverished.  The  notorious 
Nana  Sahib  was  the  adopted  son  of  Baji  Rao. 

Population. — The  Census  of  1872  showed  a  total  population  of 
921,353  persons,  on  an  area  corresponding  to  that  of  the  District  as  at 
present  constituted.  The  next  general  Census  of  1881,  taken  over  an 
area  of  5348  square  miles,  disclosed  a  total  population  of  900,621 
inhabitants,  residing  in  8  towns  and  1177  villages,  and  occupying 
153,401  houses.  This  decrease  of  population,  amounting  to  2-25  per 
cent,  in  the  nine  years  between  1872  and  1881,  is  ascribed  to  the 
famine  of  1876-77,  in  which  the  eastern  portion  of  the  District 
suffered  severely.  Density  of  population,  168-4  persons  per  square 
mile;  houses  per  square  mile,  38*3;  persons  per  village,  624;  persons 
per  house,  5*87.  Classified  according  to  sex,  there  were  455»ioi 
males  and  445,520  females;  proportion  of  males,  5o'5o  per  cent. 
Classified  according  to  age,  there  were — under  15  years,  boys  181,706, 
and  girls  170,951  ;  total  children,  352,657,  or  39'! 5  per  cent,  of 
the  population  :  15  years  and  upwards,  males  273,395,  and  females 
274,569 ;    total   adults,    547,964,    or   60-85    per   cent.      In   point   of 



religion,  Hindus  number  834,843;  Muhammadans,  42,036;  Jains, 
10,880;  Parsis,  1574;  Christians,  9503;  Jews,  619;  Sikhs,  30;  non- 
Hindu  aborigines,  1058;  and  Buddhists,  78.  Hindus  are  sub-divided 
into  castes  as  follows  : — Brahmans,  49,060 ;  Rdjputs,  3364 ;  Kunbi's 
(cultivators),  396,586;  Kolis  (cultivators),  42,829;  Malfs  (gardeners), 
52,543;  Lobars  (blacksmiths),  2587;  Darjis  (tailors),  8857;  Chamars 
(skinners),  15,790;  Lingayats  (traders),  5364;  Sondrs  (goldsmiths), 
9239;  Sutars  (carpenters),  9534;  Telis  (oil-men),  8694;  and  depressed 
castes,  like  the  Mangs  and  Mahars.  The  Mangs  and  Mahars  together 
are  returned  at  88,019.  Muhammadans  are  distributed  according  to 
tribe  as  follows: — Pathans,  5912;  Sayyids,  4226;  Shaikhs,  30,498;  and 
'others,'  1400.  As  regards  sects  of  Muhammadans,  there  are  41,253 
Sunni's  and  783  Shias.  Christians  are  divided  into  5039  Roman 
Catholics,  3426  Episcopalians,  560  Presbyterians,  91  Methodists,  92 
Baptists,  6  Plymouth  Brethren,  and  289  belonging  to  miscellaneous 
Christian  creeds.  Among  the  aborigines,  the  Bhils  are  returned  at  376, 
probably  a  large  under-estimate  ;  Kathodis  and  Warlis,  682. 

The  Census  of  i88t  divides  the  male  population  into  the  following 
six  main  classes  : — (i)  Professional  class,  including  State  officials  of  every 
kind  and  members  of  the  learned  professions,  27,234;  (2)  domestic 
servants,  inn  and  lodging-house  keepers,  8585  ;  (3)  commercial  class 
including  bankers,  merchants,  carriers,  etc.,  8348  ;  (4)  agricultural  and 
pastoral  class,  including  gardeners,  174,341  ;  (5)  industrial  class,  in- 
cluding all  manufacturers  and  artisans,  49.388 ;  and  (6)  indefinite  and 
non-productive  class,  comprising  male  children,  general  labourers,  and 
persons  of  unspecified  occupation,  187,205. 

Of  the  1 1 85  towns  and  villages  in  Poona  District  in  1881,  255  contain 
less  than  two  hundred  inhabitants  ;  438  from  two  to  five  hundred  ;  300 
from  five  hundred  to  one  thousand;  135  from  one  to  two  thousand; 
24  from  two  to  three  thousand  ;  22  from  three  to  five  thousand  ;  8  from 
five  to  ten  thousand ;  i  from  ten  to  fifteen  thousand ;  i  from  twenty 
to  fifty  thousand;  and  i  over  fifty  thousand.  The  following  towns, 
including  Poona  and  Kirki  cantonments  as  separate  places,  are  the 
most  important  in  the  District: — Poona  (99,622);  Poona  Canton- 
ment (30,129)  ;  Junnar  (10,373) ;  Kirki,  cantonment  (7252) ;  Saswad 
(5684);  Baramati  (5272);  Talegaon  (4900);  and  Lonauli  (3334). 
Excepting  the  cantonments,  all  these  have  municipalities,  the  aggregate 
municipal  revenue  (including  minor  municipalities,  6  in  number)  in 
1882-83  being  ^32,671  ;  the  aggregate  municipal  population,  179,739; 
and  the  incidence  of  municipal  taxation,  2s.  ii|d.  per  head  of  the 
population  within  municipal  limits.  The  incidence  varied  in  different 
municipalities  from  2|d.  to  5s.  10 id. 

Agriculture. — Agriculture  supports  (according  to  the  Census  Returns 
of  1881)  511,943  persons,  or  56*8  per  cent,  of  the  entire  population. 

2o6  POONA. 

The  agricultural  workers  were  returned  at  291,798,  giving  an  average  of 
8-9  cultivable  and  cultivated  acres  to  each.  Kunbis  and  Malis  are  the 
chief  cultivating  classes,  although  men  of  all  castes  own  land.  About 
four-fifths  of  the  landholders  till  with  their  own  hands.  The  rest  let 
the  land  to  tenants,  and  add  to  their  incomes  by  the  practice  of  some 
craft  or  calling.  Kunbis  depend  almost  entirely  on  the  produce  of  their 
fields.  They  work  more  steadily,  and  have  greater  bodily  strength  than 
other  husbandmen,  and  show  high  skill  in  their  occupation.  The 
uncertain  rainfall  over  a  great  part  of  the  District,  the  poverty  of  much 
of  the  soil,  the  want  of  variety  in  the  crops,  and  a  carelessness  in 
their  dealings  with  money-lenders,  have,  since  the  beginning  of  British 
rule,  combined  to  keep  the  bulk  of  the  Poona  landholders  poor  and  in 
debt.  Between  1863  and  1868  they  suffered  from  the  introduction  of 
enhanced  rates  of  assessment,  based  on  very  high  prices  which  were 
wrongly  believed  to  have  risen  to  a  permanent  level.  To  their  loss 
from  the  fall  in  prices  was  added  the  suffering  and  ruin  of  the  1876-77 
famine.  In  spite  of  these  recent  causes  of  depression,  the  records  of 
former  years  seem  to  show  that,  except  during  the  ten  years  of  unusual 
prosperity  ending  about  1870,  when  great  public  w^orks  and  the  very 
high  price  of  cotton  and  other  field  produce  threw  much  wealth  into 
the  District,  the  mass  of  the  landholding  classes,  though  poor  and 
largely  in  debt,  are  probably  at  present  less  harassed,  and  better  fed, 
better  clothed,  and  better  housed  than  they  have  been  at  any  time  since 
the  beginning  of  the  present  century. 

For  the  relief  of  landholders,  who,  though  hampered  by  debt,  were 
not  insolvent,  it  was  proposed  to  establish  a  system  of  State  Agricul- 
tural Banks,  in  order  to  enable  embarrassed  proprietors  to  effect  a 
compromise  with  their  creditors.  The  scheme  is  at  present  in 
abeyance,  owing  to  doubts  on  the  part  of  Government  as  to  the  wisdom 
of  enforcing  the  recovery  of  loans  made  by  the  bank  by  the  same 
procedure  as  arrears  of  land  revenue. 

Of  the  total  District  area  of  5348  square  miles,  3560  square  miles 
were  in  1881  assessed  for  Government  revenue,  of  which  3261  square 
miles  were  under  cultivation  and  299  square  miles  were  cultivable. 
Total  amount  of  Government  assessment,  including  local  rates  and 
cesses  on  land,  ^125,954,  or  an  average  of  is.  ifd.  per  cultivated  acre. 
The  holdings  as  a  rule  are  small,  though  large  holdings  are  found  in 
many  villages.  They  are  also  divided  among  members  of  different 
families.  In  the  hilly  tract  in  the  west  of  the  District,  where  the  chief 
grains  are  rice,  ragi,  and  other  coarse  grains,  which  require  great  atten- 
tion and  labour,  the  holdings  are  generally  smaller  than  in  the  east.  In 
1882-83,  including  alienated  lands,  the  total  number  of  holdings  was 
227,871,  with  an  average  area  of  about  9  acres. 

In  Poona  all  arable  land  comes  under  one  or  other  of  three  great  heads 

POONA.  207 

— dry-crop  land,  watered  land,  rice  land.  The  kha7if  or  early  crops 
are  brought  to  maturity  by  the  rains  of  the  south-west  monsoon  ;  the 
rabi  or  spring  crops  depend  on  dews,  on  irrigation,  and  on  the  partial 
fair-weather  showers  which  occasionally  fall  between  November  and 
March.  The  chief  Z'//^;-//" crops  are  spiked  millet  mixed  with  the  hardy 
tur  (Cajanus  indicus),  and  jodr.  These  are  sown  late  in  May  or  in 
June,  and  are  reaped  in  September  and  October  or  November.  In  the 
wet  and  hilly  west  the  chief  harvest  is  the  kharif.  The  rabi  crops  are 
sown  in  October  and  November,  and  ripen  in  February  and  March, 
They  are  chiefly  the  cold-weather  Indian  millets,  together  with  gram, 
lentils,  and  pulses. 

As  in  other  parts  of  the  Deccan,  the  chief  kinds  of  soil  are  black, 
red,  and  barad  or  stony.  The  black  soil,  found  generally  near  rivers, 
is  by  far  the  richest  of  these.  The  red  soil  is  almost  always  shallow 
and  coarser  than  the  black.  The  stony  soil  is  found  on  the  slopes  of 
hills.  It  is  merely  trap  rock  in  the  first  stage  of  disintegration;  but 
if  favoured  by  plentiful  and  frequent  rains,  it  repays  the  scanty  labour 
which  its  tillage  requires.  With  four  oxen,  a  Kunbi  will  till  some 
sixty  acres  of  light  soil.  Sixty  acres  of  shallowish  black  soil  require 
six  or  eight  oxen.  Eight  oxen  can  till  fifty  acres  of  deep  black  soil. 
Many  husbandmen  possess  less  than  the  proper  number  of  cattle,  and 
have  to  join  with  their  neighbours  for  ploughing. 

Of  1,924,630  acres,  the  total  area  of  Government  cultivable  land, 
1,775,583  acres  were  taken  up  for  cultivation  in  1882-83.  Of  these, 
181,395  acres  were  fiillow  land  or  occupied  waste.  Of  the  remain- 
ing 1,594,188  acres  under  actual  cultivation  (28,035  acres  of  which 
were  twice  cropped),  grain  crops  (wheat,  barley,  and  rice,  but  mostly 
millets)  occupied  1,383,092  acres,  or  85  per  cent. ;  pulses  (gram,  peas, 
and  others),  103,030,  or  6  per  cent.  ;  oil-seeds,  91,428  ;  fibres,  24,467  ; 
tobacco,  1402;  spices,  7356;  garden  produce,  7194;  and  sugar-cane, 
4234.     The  area  under  cotton  in  1882-83  produced  6874  cwts. 

The  farm  stock  decreased  considerably  in  the  famine  of  1876-77,  and 
has  not  yet  reached  its  former  level.  In  1875-76,  the  year  before  the 
famine,  the  stock  included — carts,  21,857;  ploughs,  63,629;  bullocks, 
233»759;  cows,  160,097;  buffaloes,  57,872;  horses,  12,790  (including 
mares  and  foals) ;  asses,  4932  ;  and  sheep  and  goats,  342,081.  According 
to  the  1882-83  returns,  the  farm  stock  was — carts,  21,044;  ploughs, 
52,630;  bullocks,  227,619;  cows,  144,949;  buffaloes,  52,730;  horses 
(including  mares  and  foals),  11,163  ;  asses,  6745  ;  and  sheep  and  goats, 

Among  special  crops,  the  grape-vine  (Vitis  vinifera)  is  occasionally 
grown  in  the  best  garden  land  on  the  border  of  the  western  belt 
and  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Poona  city.  The  vine  is  grown  from 
cuttings  which  are  ready  for   planting   in   six  or  eight  months.      It 

2o8  POONA. 

begins  to  bear  in  the  third  year,  and  is  in  full  fruit  in  the  sixth  or 
seventh.  With  care,  a  vine  goes  on  bearing  for  60,  or  even,  it  is  said, 
for  100  years.  The  vine  is  trained  on  a  stout  upright,  often  a  growing 
stump  which  is  pruned  to  a  pollard-like  shape  about  five  feet  high ; 
this  mode  is  said  to  be  most  remunerative.  Or  a  strong  open  trellis 
roof  is  thrown  over  the  vineyard  about  six  feet  from  the  ground,  and  the 
vines  are  trained  horizontally  on  it ;  this  mode  is  preferred  by  the  rich 
for  its  appearance  and  shade,  and  is  said  to  encourage  growth  to  a 
greater  age.  The  vine  yields  sweet  grapes  in  January  to  March,  and 
sour  grapes  in  August.  The  sour  grapes  are  very  abundant,  but  are  not 
encouraged  ;  the  sweet  grape  is  tended  in  every  possible  way,  but 
is  apt  to  suffer  from  disease.  After  each  crop  the  vine  is  pruned,  and 
salt,  sheep's  droppings,  and  dried  fish  are  applied  as  manure  to  each 
vine  after  the  sour  crop  is  over.  Vines  are  flooded  once  a  year  for  five 
or  six  days,  the  earth  being  previously  loosened  round  the  roots.  Blight 
attacks  them  when  the  buds  first  appear,  and  is  removed  by  shaking  the 
branches  over  a  cloth,  into  which  the  blight  falls,  and  is  then  carried 
to  a  distance  and  destroyed.  This  operation  is  performed  three  times 
a  day  until  the  buds  are  an  inch  long. 

Rates  of  interest  vary  from  9  to  36  per  cent.  Labourers  earn  4jd. 
a  day;  bricklayers  and  carpenters,  is.  The  current  prices  of  the  chief 
articles  of  food  during  1882-83  were  as  follows  per  80  lbs. : — Wheat, 
6s.  2jd. ;  barley,  6s.  sfd.  ;  rice,  from  6s.  8jd.  to  7s.  6d. ;  jodr,  3s.  3d. ; 
gram,  5s.  of  d.  ;  salt,  6s.  3d. ;  flour,  8s.  3  Jd.  ;  ghi,  £t,,  4s.  ;  firewood, 
IS.  2d.  Timber  (mostly  teak)  cost  5s.  lid.  per  cubic  foot ;  jungle- 
wood,  3s.  i|d.  per  cubic  foot.  Carts  can  be  hired  at  is.  9d.  per  day, 
and  camels  at  is. 

Natural  Calamities. — With  much  of  its  rainfall  cut  off  by  the  western 
hills,  large  tracts  in  the  east  of  the  District  have  a  very  uncertain  water- 
supply.  In  the  year  1792-93,  no  rain  fell  till  October,  and  the  price  of 
grain  rose  to  4  lbs.  for  the  rupee  (2s.).  In  1802,  owing  to  the  devastation 
of  the  country  by  the  Maratha  troops,  the  price  of  grain  is  said  to  have 
risen  to  i  lb.  for  the  rupee.  In  1824-25  and  1845-46,  the  failure 
of  rain  caused  great  scarcity.  In  1866-67,  more  than  ^^8000  of  land 
revenue  was  remitted,  and  ^2000  spent  in  relief  to  the  destitute.  Poona 
was  one  of  the  Districts  specially  affected  by  the  famine  of  1876-77. 

Comitnmications. — Besides  about  500  miles  of  partly  bridged  and 
partly  metalled  roads,  106  miles  of  the  Great  Indian  Peninsula  Railway 
cross  the  District  from  west  to  east.  The  route  from  Poona  to  Mahab- 
leshwar  passes  by  Kartrije  tunnel,  Kaparoli,  Khandala,  Sherol,  Wai, 
and  Panchganj,  the  journey  occupying  from  10  to  12  hours.  A  rail- 
way is  now  (1885)  in  course  of  construction  which  will  place  Poona  in 
connection  with  the  South  Maratha  region. 

Trade  and  Commerce. — The  general  trade  of  the  District  is  small. 

POONA.  209 

The  chief  manufactures  are  silk  robes,  coarse  cotton  cloth,  and  blankets. 
The  brass  and  silver  work  of  Poona  is  much  admired  ;  among  the  other 
specialities  may  be  mentioned  toys,  small  clay  figures  carefully  dressed, 
and  ornaments,  baskets,  fans,  etc.,  of  khas-khas  grass,  decked  with 
beetles'  wings.  The  manufacture  of  paper,  formerly  of  some  importance, 
has  of  late  years  nearly  ceased. 

Ad  ministration.  ~Y  ox  purposes  of  administration,  the  District  is 
apportioned  into  8  Sub-divisions,  as  follows :— Kirki,  in  which  is 
included  Poona  city  and  Haveli ;  Junnar,  Khed,  Sirur,  Purandhar, 
Mawal,  Indapur,  and  Bhimthadi.  The  revenue  in  1882-83,  under  all 
heads— imperial,  local,  and  municipal— amounted  to  a  total  of  ^180,735, 
showing,  on  a  population  of  900,621,  an  incidence  per  head  of  4s. 
The  land-tax  forms  the  principal  source  of  revenue,  yielding  ^115,503, 
or  63-9  per  cent.  The  other  principal  items  are  stamps  (^18,263) 
and  excise  (^32,352).  The  local  funds  created  since  1863  ^or  ^vcrks 
of  public  utility  and  rural  education  yielded  a  total  sum  of  ;^io,i5c, 
The  administration  of  the  District  in  revenue  matters  is  entrust^ed 
to  a  Collector  and  5  Assistants,  of  whom  3  are  covenanted  civilians. 
For  the  settlement  of  civil  disputes  there  are  in  all  11  courts. 
Twenty -eight  officers  share  the  administration  of  criminal  justice. 
The  average  distance  of  a  village  from  the  nearest  court  is  53 
miles.  The  total  strength  of  the  regular  police  in  1876-77  was 
1094  officers  and  men,  giving  i  man  to  every  829  of  the  population. 
The  total  cost  of  this  force  was  ^16,670,  equal  to  ^3,  5s.  3d. 
per  square  mile  of  area  and  ^\^.  per  head  of  the  population.  The 
number  of  persons  convicted  of  any  offence,  great  or  small,  was 
2746,  being  I  to  every  330  of  the  population.  "  The  corresponding 
statistics  for  1882-83  are  as  follows  :— Total  strength  of  police,  1146 
men,  giving  i  to  every  785  of  population;  total  cost,  ^18,962,  or  ^3, 
los.  lod.  per  square  mile  of  area  and  5d.  per  head  of  population; 
number  of  persons  convicted,  2650,  or  i  to  every  347  of  population! 
There  is  one  jail  in  the  District ;  average  daily  number  of  prisoners,  353. 

Education  has  widely  spread  of  late  years.  In  1855-56  there  were 
only  94  schools,  wuh  a  total  of  4206  pupils.  In  1876-77  there  were 
251  schools,  with  12,926  pupils,  or,  on  an  average,  i  school  to  every 
4  villages.  In  1882-83  there  were  330  schools,  with  an  average 
attendance  of  18,235  pupils.  Of  these,  266  are  Government  schools; 
namely,  2  high  schools,  6  Anglo-vernacular  schools,  256  vernacular 
schools,  and  2  training  schools  in  medicine,  forestry,  and  agricul- 
ture. There  are  also  2  colleges  in  the  District— the  Deccnn  College 
and  the  College  of  Science.  The  Census  of  1881  returned  17,863 
males  and  1095  females  as  under  instruction,  besides  37,362  males 'and 
179S  females  able  to  read  and  write,  but  not  under  instruction.  There 
are  3  libraries,  and  8  vernacular  newspapers  were  published  in  188^ 

VOL.  XI. 


Medical  Aspects. — The  climate  is  dry  and  invigorating,  and  suits 
European  constitutions  better  than  that  of  most  other  parts  of  the 
Bombay  Presidency.  The  average  annual  rainfall  during  the  twenty-six 
years  ending  1881  was  29*4  inches.  In  1881  the  rainfall  was  only  17 
inches.  The  average  annual  mean  temperature  of  Poona  for  the  seven 
years  ending  1881  was  77*6°  F.,  the  average  monthly  mean  being — 
January,  72°;  February,  76°;  March,  82*9°;  April,  85-7°;  I^Iay,  84-6°; 
June,  79'2°;  July,  75-5°;  August,  74-9°;  September,  75-3°;  October, 
77'8°;  November,  75*5°;  and  December,  72*1°  F.  The  prevailing 
diseases  are  fever  and  affections  of  the  eyes,  skin,  and  bowels.  Twelve 
dispensaries  afforded  medical  relief  to  2415  in-door  and  53,118  out- 
door patients  in  1876-77,  and  21,151  persons  were  vaccinated.  In 
1881  the  number  of  dispensaries  was  the  same  (12) ;  in-door  patients, 
2x55;  out-door,  76,759;  persons  vaccinated,  24,942.  Vital  statistics 
showed  for  1882-83  a  death-rate  of  17*84  per  thousand,  and  a  birth-rate 
of  27*4  per  thousand.  [For  further  information  regarding  Poona  Dis- 
trict, see  Gazetteer  of  the  Bombay  Presidency^  compiled  under  the  orders 
of  the  Government  of  Bombay,  by  Mr.  J.  M.  Campbell,  C.S.,  vol.  xviii. 
in  three  parts  (Government  Central  Press,  Bombay,  1885).  Also  see 
Historical  Accoimt  oj  the  Pooria,  Sdtdra,  and  S/ioldpur  Districts,  by  Mr. 
W.  W.  Loch,  C.S.  (Bombay  Government  Central  Press,  1877)  ;  the 
Bombay  Census  Report  for  1881  ;  and  the  several  Administration  and 
Departmental  Reports  of  the  Presidency  from  1880  to  1884.] 

Poona  {Puna). — Town  and  cantonment  in  Poona  District,  Bombay 
Presidency.  The  military  capital  of  the  Deccan,  and  from  July  to 
November  the  seat  of  the  Government  of  Bombay.  A  station  on  the 
Great  Indian  Peninsula  Railway,  119  miles  south-east  of  Bombay. 
It  is  situated  in  lat.  18°  30'  41"  n.,  and  long.  73°  55'  21"  e.,  1850  feet 
above  the  level  of  the  sea,  and,  in  a  straight  line,  about  63  miles 
distant  from  the  coast.  Area,  including  suburbs,  about  4  square  miles. 
Population  (1872)  90,436;  (1881)  of  city,  99,622;  of  cantonment, 
30,129;  total,  129,751,  namely,  males  66,923,  and  females  62,828. 
Hindus  number  103,348;  Muhammadans,  16,374;  Christians,  6384; 
Jains,  1745;  Parsis,  1329;  and  'others,'  571.  Municipal  income 
(1882-83),  ^29,126;  incidence  of  taxation,  3s.  7d.  per  head. 

The  city  stands  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Miita  river.  Much  of  the 
country  round  is  barren  and  rocky,  and  to  the  east  stretches  an  open  plain. 
Not  much  high  ground  is  seen  to  the  north  and  west,  but  to  the  south 
extends  a  line  of  hills  ending  in  the  bold  square  rock  of  Singhgarh. 
Close  at  hand,  on  the  north,  the  confluence  of  the  streams  of  the  Muta 
and  Miila;  through  the  heart  of  the  town,  the  line  of  the  Kharakwasla 
Canal ;  and  on  the  south,  the  lake  and  temple-crowned  peak  of  Parvati, 
are  objects  of  interest.  The  aqueduct  was  built  by  an  ancient  Maratha 
family.     The  waterworks  owe  their  existence  to  the  liberality  of  Sir 

POONA  TOWN.  211 

Jamsetji  Jijibhai  of  Bombay,  who  contributed  ;£"i 7,500  to  the  entire 
cost  (;£"2o,ooo).  Gardens  on  every  side,  and  groves  of  acacia  along 
the  banks  of  the  rivers,  give  much  of  the  neighbourhood  a  green,  well- 
clothed  appearance.  The  city  proper  extends  along  the  Miita  for 
about  I  \  mile  inland,  varying  in  height  from  30  to  70  feet  above  the 
river.  Its  length  is  about  2  miles  from  east  to  west,  and  its  breadth 
about  1 1  mile,  the  total  area  being  about  2^-  square  miles.  For  police 
and  other  purposes,  the  area  of  the  town  is  divided  among  18  wards  or 
pets.  Under  the  Peshwas,  it  was  divided  into  7  quarters,  named 
after  the  days  of  the  week.  The  ruined  palace  of  the  Peshwas  stands 
in  the  Shanwar  quarter  or  Saturday  ward.  The  palace  was  burned 
down  in  1827,  and  all  that  now  remains  is  the  fortified  wall.  The 
chief  streets  run  north  and  south.  Though  broad  in  parts,  they  are 
all  more  or  less  crooked,  none  of  them  offering  an  easy  carriage-way 
from  one  end  to  the  other.  From  east  to  west,  the  only  thorough- 
fare is  by  lanes,  narrow,  short,  and  interrupted.  One  of  these  was  set 
apart  for  the  execution  of  criminals,  who,  in  the  time  of  the  Peshwas, 
were  here  trampled  to  death  by  elephants.  Of  12,271  houses  in 
188 r,  there  were  716,  or  5-8  per  cent,  of  the  better  sort.  Most  of  the 
houses  are  of  more  than  one  storey,  their  walls  built  of  a  framework 
of  wood  filled  in  with  brick  or  mud,  and  with  roofs  of  tile.  A  few 
residences  of  the  old  gentry  are  still  maintained  in  good  order,  but 
the  greater  number  are  in  disrepair.  Within  many  of  the  blocks 
of  buildings  that  line  the  streets  are  large  courtyards,  entered  by 
a  doorway,  and  crowded  all  round  with  the  hovels  of  the  poorer 

North  of  the  town  is  the  military  cantonment,  with  a  population 
of  30,129.  Within  cantonment  limits,  northwards  to  the  Miita-Miila 
river,  and  for  2  miles  along  the  road  leading  west  to  the  canton- 
ment of  Kirki  (Khadki),  are  the  houses  of  the  greater  part  of 
the  European  population.  Here  also  is  the  large  bungalow  of  the 
Western  India  Club.  The  first  Residency  was  built  where  the  present 
Judge's  house  now  stands,  at  the  Sangam  or  junction  of  the  Miila 
and  Miita  rivers.  The  compound  included  the  site  of  the  present 
Science  College  and  the  English  burial-ground  close  to  the  present 
Sangam  Lodge.  The  Resident's  quarters  contained  five  houses, 
besides  out- offices  for  guard  and  escort  parties.  The  entire  block 
was  destroyed  on  5th  November  181 7,  immediately  upon  the  departure 
of  Mr.  Mountstuart  Elphinstone  to  join  the  British  forces  drawn 
up  for  battle  at  Kirki.  There  have  been  3  European  cemeteries 
opened  since  the  Maratha  possession  of  Poona — one  near  the  old 
Residency,  the  second  near  the  present  Church  of  St.  Paul,  and 
the  third  the  present  East  Street  Cemetery.  A  new  Residency  was 
built  near  the  present  site  of  St.   Paul's  Church   in   1S19,   and  was 

212  POONA  TOWN. 

accidentally  burnt  down  in  1863.  The  Sangam  Bridge  was  first  built 
on  piles  in  1829,  at  a  cost  of  £,^^00.  Sir  John  Malcolm  opened  it  in 
1830,  with  the  name  of  the  Wellesley  Bridge,  after  the  Duke  of 
Wellington.  It  was  rebuilt  with  stone  in  1875,  at  a  cost  of  ;^9ooo. 
Holkar's  Bridge  was  built  by  Madhu  Rao  Peshwa,  and  so  named  because 
in  its  vicinity  Holkar  was  accustomed  to  pitch  his  tents. 

The  first  mention  of  Poona  in  history  seems  to  be  in  1604, 
when  it  was  granted  by  the  Sultan  of  Ahmadnagar  to  Maloji, 
the  grandfather  of  Sivaji  the  Great.  In  1637  the  grant  was  con- 
firmed by  the  Sultan  to  Shahji,  father  of  Sivaji.  In  1663,  during 
the  operations  conducted  against  Sivaji  by  order  of  Aurangzeb,  the 
imperial  viceroy,  Shaista  Khan,  took  possession  of  the  open  town,  from 
which,  when  surprised  a  few  days  afterwards  by  Sivaji,  he  had  great 
difficulty  in  making  his  escape.  His  son  and  most  of  his  guard  were 
cut  to  pieces,  and  he  himself  wounded.  A  powerful  force,  however, 
immediately  reinstated  the  discomfited  commander.  In  1667,  Aurang- 
zeb restored  Poona  to  Sivaji ;  but  under  the  sway  of  his  successor, 
Sambaji,  it  was  occupied  by  Khan  Jahan,  an  officer  of  the  Emperor. 
On  the  Peshwa  obtaining  supremacy  in  the  Maratha  confederacy,  the 
chief  seat  of  Government  was  removed  from  Satara  to  Poona.  In  1763, 
Nizam  All  of  Haidarabad  sacked  the  town,  and  burned  such  parts  of 
it  as  were  not  ransomed. 

In  the  struggle  between  the  successive  Peshwas  and  their  nominal 
subordinates,  Sindhia  and  Holkar,  Poona  suffered  many  vicissitudes, 
until  in  1802,  by  the  provisions  of  the  Treaty  of  Bassein,  the  Peshwa 
admitted  a  British  subsidiary  force  to  be  stationed  here. 

The  final  defeat  of  the  Peshwa  Baji  Rao,  and  the  capture  of 
Poona  in  1818,  were  the  results  of  three  engagements.  In  the  battle 
of  Kirki  (5th  November  181 7),  the  English  forces  were  commanded 
by  Colonel  Burr,  800  being  Europeans.  Their  loss  was  80  killed 
and  wounded,  of  w^hom  50  w^ere  sepoys.  No  European  officer 
was  killed.  The  Peshwa's  forces  were  under  Bapii  Gokla,  and  con- 
sisted of  18,000  horse  and  8000  foot;  killed  and  wounded,  500.  The 
battle  of  Yeroada  (i6th  and  17th  November  181 7)  occurred  near 
where  the  present  Fitzgerald  Bridge  now  stands,  the  British  guns 
on  'Picket  Hill'  commanding  the  position.  The  English  troops  were 
commanded  by  Brigadier  -  General  Lionel  Smith.  The  result  was 
the  flight  of  the  Peshwa's  army,  and  the  immediate  occupation  of 
the  city  by  the  British.  The  third  battle,  that  o'f  Korigaum  (ist 
January  181 8),  was  the  most  general  of  the  three  engagements,  and 
w^as  fought  2  miles  distant  from  Loni,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Bhima, 
and  16  miles  from  Poona.  The  British  force  was  commanded  by 
Captain  Stanton,  not  more  than  500  strong,  with  6  guns  and  300  horse, 
marching  to  the  support  of  Colonel  Burr.     When  the  British  reached 

POONA  TOWN.  213 

Korigaum  at  10  a.m.,  they  found  themselves  in  face  of  the  main  body 
of  the  Maratha  army,  20,000  strong.  The  village  was  at  once  occupied 
and  until  9  p.m.  was  held  against  the  Marathds,  the  British  troops 
meantime  suffering  from  want  of  water.  When  day  broke,  the 
^laratha  army  was  observed  moving  off  along  the  Poona  road.  After 
the  deposition  of  the  Peshwa  Baji  Rao  (181 8),  the  city  became  the 
head-quarters  of  a  British  District,  as  well  as  the  principal  cantonment 
in  the  Deccan. 

With  the  heat  of  April  and  May  tempered  by  a  sea-breeze,  a 
moderate  rainfall,  and  strong  cool  winds,  the  climate  is  agreeable  and 
healthy.  In  1881  the  rainfall  at  Poona  v/as  17 '23  inches,  but  the 
average  for  twenty-six  years  ending  1881  has  been  2  9"4i  inches.  The 
mean  temperature  in  1881  was  77*4°;  maximum,  107°  (in  May);  mini- 
mum, 45^  (in  December).  During  the  last  thirty  years,  Poona  has 
been  steadily  growing  in  size.  In  185 1  its  population  was  returned 
at  73,209;  by  1863  it  was  supposed  to  have  risen  to  about  80,000; 
in  1872  it  was  found  to  have  reached  90,436;  and  in  1881  it  was 
returned  at  99,622,  exclusive  of  30,129  in  the  cantonment;  total, 

Though  Poona  is  no  longer  so  great  a  centre  of  trade  and  industry 
as  under  the  Peshwas,  there  are  still  about  250  handlooms  for  the 
weaving  of  fabrics  of  silk  and  cotton  ;  and  articles  of  brass,  copper, 
iron,  and  clay  are  made  in  the  city.  Throughout  Western  India, 
Poona  workers  have  earned  a  reputation  for  the  manufacture  of  silver 
and  gold  jewellery,  combs,  dice,  and  other  small  articles  of  ivory; 
of  fans,  baskets,  and  trays  of  khas-khas  grass  ornamented  with  peacocks' 
feathers  and  beetles'  wings  ;  and  of  small  carefully  dressed  clay  figures 
representing  the  natives  of  India. 

As  a  civil    station,   Poona  is    the  residence   of  the   usual   District 
officers,   and   also    the    head  -  quarters    of  the    Survey,  Revenue,  and 
Police    Commissioners   of  the    Presidency.     As  a   military  station,  it 
is  the  head-quarters  of  a  General  of  Division,   of  the  Quartermaster- 
General  and  Adjutant-General  of  the  Bombay  Army.     The  garrison 
generally   consists    of    European   and    Native    infantry,    artillery,    and 
cavalry.     There  is  a  branch    of  the    Bank   of  Bombay.       Besides   a 
female  normal   school,   a   training   college    for  preparing  teachers  for         -1 
vernacular   and  Ansjlo  -  vernacular   schools,    and    several    Government         4 
and  private  vernacular,  Anglo-vernacular,  and  English  schools,  Poona        | 
has  a  Government  first-grade    High  School,   and    two   colleges  —  the 
Deccan    College,    teaching    classics,    mathematics,    and    philosophy ; 
and  the  College  of  Science,  with  special  training  for  civil  engineers. 
The   daily   average    number  of  pupils  in    the   female    normal   school   '• 
during   1881-82   was  31;  in  the    training  college    for   teachers,    145; 
and  in  the  first-grade  High  School,  360.     The  average  daily  attend- 


ance  at  the  Deccan  College  was  83  in  1879-80,  and  120  in  1881-82. 
The  receipts  from  fees  in  the  latter  year  were  ^720.  The  College 
of  Science  (with  engineering,  forest,  agricultural,  and  mechanical 
classes)  had  a  daily  average  attendance  of  188  in  1880  and  173 
in  1881  ;  fee  receipts  (1881),  ^501.  Other  principal  public  build- 
ings in  Poona  are  the  Legislative  Council  Hall,  the  Sassoon  Hospital 
(with  beds  for  150  patients),  Jewish  vSynagogue,  military  pay  offices, 
barracks,  etc.  The  total  number  of  in-door  patients  treated  at  the 
Sassoon  Hospital  in  1883  was  2290;  and  of  out-door  patients, 

Poonamallee. — Town  in  Chengalpat  (Chingleput)  District,  Madras 
Presidency. — See  Punamallu. 

Poon-na-riep. — Village  in  Tharawadi  District,  Lower  Burma. — See 


Pooree. — District,  Sub-division,  and  town  in  Orissa,  Bengal. — See 

Poo-ZWOn-doung. — River  of  Lower  Burma. — See  Pu-zun-daung. 

Porakad  {Porca). — Town  in  Alleppi  Sub-division,  Travancore  State, 
Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  9°  21'  30"  n.,  long.  76°  25'  40"  e.  Popula- 
tion (1871)  2922,  dwelling  in  743  houses;  not  separately  returned  in 
the  Census  Report  of  1881.  Porakad  was  formerly  a  separate  princi- 
pality, known  as  Chambagacheri,  and  the  principal  port  of  the  country ; 
it  passed  to  Cochin  in  1678,  and  to  Travancore  in  1746.  Both  the 
Dutch  and  Portuguese  had  a  settlement  here,  and  the  remains  of  the 
Portuguese  fort  still  stand.  The  seaport  has  been  ruined  by  the 
prosperity  of  Alleppi. 

Porayar. — Suburb  of  Tranquebar  port  and  town,  Tanjore  District, 
Madras  Presidency. — See  Tranquebar. 

Porbandar.  —  Native  State  in  the  Sorath  division  of  Kathiawar, 
Bombay  Presidency.  Situated  in  the  west  of  the  peninsula  of  Kathia- 
w^ar,  consisting  of  a  strip  along  the  shore  of  the  Arabian  Sea,  no- 
where more  than  24  miles  broad,  and  lying  between  21°  14'  and  21° 
58'  N.  lat,  and  69°  28'  and  70°  i'  e.  long.  Area,  636  square  miles,  with 
I  town  and  84  villages.  Population  (1872)  72,077;  (1881)  71,072. 
The  Census  authorities  estimated  the  area  at  567  square  miles  in  1881, 
but  the  area  given  above  is  a  more  recent  return.  Males  numbered 
36,566  in  1881,  and  females  34,506,  dwelling  in  14,936  occupied 
houses.  Hindus  numbered  63,406;  Muhammadans,  6741;  and 
*  others,'  925.  The  style  of  house-building  is  said  to  be  peculiar.  No 
mortar  is  used,  but  the  limestone,  of  which  the  better  class  of  houses 
is  built,  is  accurately  squared  and  fitted ;  and  it  is  asserted  that  the 
quality  of  the  limestone  is  such  that  when  once  the  rain  has  fallen  on 
a  wall  thus  built,  the  joints  coalesce  and  become  as  though  all  were 
one  solid  block.     The  Porbandar  State  may  be  described  roughly  as  a 


plain  sloping  from  the  Barda  hills  to  the  sea,  drained  by  many  rivers, 
of  which  the  largest — the  Bhadar,  Sorti,  Wartu,  Minsar,  and  Ojat — 
contain  water  generally  throughout  the  year.  Near  the  sea  the  rain 
accumulates  in  large  marshes  called  gher  land.  When  salt  -  water 
has  access  to  these  marshes,  nothing  can  be  grown  except  grass  and 
reeds;  but  in  the  sweet -water  marshes,  rice,  gram,  ddl^  and  other 
crops  are  grown.  The  largest  gher  is  the  Modhoara,  about  six  miles 
long  by  four  miles  broad,  connected  with  the  sea  by  the  Kindari  creek. 
This  marsh  receives  all  the  drainage  of  the  Bardas,  though  no  large 
stream  flows  into  it ;  when  it  becomes  filled  with  water  during  the  rainy 
season,  the  villagers  dig  away  the  sand  with  which  the  sea  annually 
closes  the  mouth  of  the  creek,  the  water  flows  into  the  sea,  and  the  sea- 
water  enters  the  marsh  during  very  high  tides.  The  Gangajal  is  a 
large  fresh-water  marsh  situated  not  far  from  the  Kindari  creek,  about 
two  miles  in  circumference,  but  unless  the  rains  are  heavy  does  not 
hold  water  for  more  than  eight  months  in  the  year.  The  climate  is 
healthy.  Minimum  temperature  (January),  54°  F. ;  maximum  (May), 
99°  F.  :  average  rainfall,  20  inches.  The  country  is  nowhere  far 
distant  from  the  sea.  The  limestone  known  as  Porbandar  stone, 
found  over  almost  the  whole  of  the  State,  is  chiefly  quarried  in  the 
Barda  hills.  The  best  quarry  is  at  Adatiana.  The  stone  is  largely 
exported  to  Bombay.  Iron  is  also  found,  but  is  not  smelted.  The 
Malik  hill  is  the  only  portion  of  the  elevated  country  that  is  fairly 
wooded.  Turtles  of  large  size  abound  along  the  coast,  but  are  not 
captured.  Oysters  are  found,  but  do  not  produce  pearls  like  those  of 
the  Gulf  of  Cutch.  Silk  of  good  quality  and  cotton  cloth  are  manu- 

Of  recent  years  much  of  the  trade  has  been  absorbed  by  Bombay, 
but  large  quantities  of  timber  are  still  imported  from  the  Malabar  ports. 
Cotton  seed  and  tobacco  are  imported  from  Broach,  embroideries  from 
Surat,  and  raw  sugar  from  Gandevi  and  Naosari  in  Surat.  Grain  is 
imported  from  Karachi.  All  the  exports  go  to  Bombay.  Heavy  port 
dues,  the  competition  of  Verawal  and  Bhaunagar,  and  insufficient 
communications,  account  for  the  decline  of  the  State  as  a  trading 
centre.  Something  is  being  done  to  remedy  this  decadence,  and  in 
1 88 1  a  British  superintendent  of  customs  was  appointed  under  local 
administration.  The  value  of  the  trade  in  1880  was  ^55,316;  and  in 
1882-83,  under  British  administration,  ^165,943.  Port  dues  (under 
native  administration),  ^1670;  under  British  administration,  ;£6 168. 
The  chief  harbours  are  Porbandar,  Madhavpur,  and  Miani. 

The  ruler  executed  the  usual  engagements  in  1807.  The  present 
(1881-82)  chief,  Rana  Sri  Vikmatji,  is  a  Hindu  of  the  Jethwa  clan  of 
Rajputs,  and  belongs  to  one  of  the  oldest  races  in  Western  India.  He 
is  entitled  to  a  salute  of  11   guns,  and  has  power  to  try  for  capital 


offences,  without  permission  from  the  PoHtical  Agent,  any  person 
except  British  subjects.  He  administers  the  affairs  of  his  State  in 
person.  He  enjoys  an  estimated  gross  revenue  of  ^'40,000 ;  and  pays 
a  tribute  of  ^4850,  8s.  jointly  to  the  British  Government,  the  Gaekwar 
of  Baroda,  and  the  Nawab  of  Junagarh.  He  maintained  a  military 
force  of  595  men  in  1882-83.  He  has  a  mint,  and  coins  silver  pieces 
called  koris,  and  copper  coins  called  doknis,  of  which  32  usually  go  to 
the  kori ;  three  of  these  koris^  on  an  average,  make  a  rupee  (2s.).  The 
family  of  the  chief  follow  the  rule  of  primogeniture  in  point  of  succes- 
sion, and  hold  no  sanad  authorizing  adoption.  There  are  10  schools 
in  the  State,  with  a  total  of  726  pupils  in  1882-83.  Porbandar  ranked 
as  a  State  of  the  first  class  in  Kathiawar  until  1869;  and  since  as  a 
State  of  the  third  class.  Transit  dues  are  not  levied  in  the  State.  A 
total  sum  of  £2^1^  was  spent  in  works  of  public  utility  during  1882. 
The  land  revenue  is  about  ^18,000. 

Porbandar. — Chief  town  and  port  of  Porbandar  State  ;  situated  on 
the  western  coast  of  Kathiawar,  Bombay  Presidency,  in  lat.  21°  37'  10" 
N.,  and  long.  69°  48'  30"  e.,  on  the  shore  of  the  Arabian  Sea.  Popu- 
lation (1881)  14,569,  namely,  7120  males  and  7449  females.  Hindus 
number  10,568;  Muhammadans,  3079;  J^i^s,  887;  Parsis,  34;  and 
Christian,  i.  Though  a  bar  prevents  the  entrance  of  ships  of  any 
great  size  into  the  port,  it  is  much  frequented  by  craft  of  from  12  to  80 
tons  burthen.  In  spite  of  the  levy  of  heavy  customs  dues,  and  the 
competition  of  other  ports,  the  trade  is  considerable,  including,  besides 
a  local  traffic  with  the  Konkan  and  Malabar  coast,  a  brisk  trade  with 
the  ports  of  Sind,  Baluchistan,  the  Persian  Gulf,  Arabia,  and  the  west 
coast  of  Africa.  In  1881  the  imports  were  valued  at  ^48,572,  and 
the  exports  at  ;£"33,586.  Total  value  in  1882-83,  ;£i65,943.  At  a 
little  cost,  the  port  might  be  made  one  of  the  most  secure  on  the 
Kathiawar  seaboard.  The  town  is  entirely  built  of  stone  and  sur- 
rounded by  a  fort.  It  is  said  to  have  been  called  in  ancient  times 
Sudamapuri;  and  it  has  been  the  Jethwa  capital  for  about  150  years. 

Port  Blair.— Principal  harbour  of  the  Andaman  Islands.— .SV^ 
Andaman  Islands. 

Port  Canning  (or  Matid). — Decayed  town  and  port  in  the  District 
of  the  Twenty-four  Parganas,  Bengal ;  situated  in  lat.  22°  19'  15"  n.,  and 
long.  88°  43'  20"  E.  It  occupies  a  tongue  of  land  round  which  sweep 
the  collected  waters  of  the  Bidyadhari,  Karatoya,  and  Atharabanka 
rivers,  forming  the  Matla  estuary,  which  then  takes  a  fairly  straight 
course  southward  to  the  sea.  Port  Canning  is  now  (1885),  and  has 
been  for  several  years,  abandoned  as  an  attempted  seat  of  maritime 
trade ;  but  before  entering  into  its  history,  it  may  be  well  to  mention 
its  capabilities  when  the  present  author  visited  it  in  1869-70,  in  case  it 


should  ever  be  resuscitated.  The  junction  of  the  rivers  formed  a  fine 
sheet  of  water,  with  21  feet  at  dead  low  tide  under  the  jetties  which 
the  Port  Canning  Company  had  constructed.  Ships  drawing  23  feet 
could  discharge  their  cargo  without  grounding,  as  they  would  lie  6  feet 
from  the  jetty-side.  Seven  moorings  were  laid  down,  one  off  each  jetty, 
the  maximum  length  of  the  moorings  being  from  320  to  420  feet.  Five 
jetties  were  formed  on  the  Matla  river  opposite  Canning  Strand,  and  two 
on  the  Bidyadhari  off  the  rice-mills.  These  mills  were,  and  still  are,  the 
most  conspicuous  feature  in  the  landscape.  There  was  also  a  desolate- 
looking  hotel  with  a  small  railway  station.  This  was  all  the  town, 
with  the  exception  of  a  few  native  huts  and  thatched  bungalows.  The 
rest  was  marsh  land.  The  railway  line  did  not  reach  to  any  of  the  moor- 
ings ;  but  goods  had  to  be  landed  at  the  ends  of  the  jetties,  then  carried 
by  coolies  to  railway  waggons  at  the  shore  end  of  the  jetties,  and  hand- 
shunted  along  a  tramway  to  the  railway  station,  where  an  engine  was 
finally  attached  to  them  and  took  them  off  to  Calcutta,  28  miles  distant. 
The  pilotage  and  port-dues  on  the  Matla  were  reported  as  practically 
one-half  of  those  on  the  Hugli ;  the  hire  of  Government  moorings  and 
boats,  and  harbour -master's  charges,  being  about  the  same  at  both 

The  following  narrative  of  the  attempt  to  form  a  seat  of  maritime 
trade  at  Port  Canning  is  condensed  from  official  papers  furnished  by 
the  Bengal  Government. 

The  first  step  towards  creating  a  town  and  municipality  on  the 
Matla  appears  to  have  been  made  in  1853,  when,  in  consequence  of  the 
deterioration  of  the  navigation  of  the  Hugli,  which  it  was  feared  at  that 
time  was  rapidly  closing,  the  Calcutta  Chamber  of  Commerce  ad- 
dressed Government  on  the  necessity  of  providing  an  auxiliary  port  on 
the  Matla,  and  opening  communication  with  Calcutta  by  means  of  a 
railway  or  canal.  Lord  Dalhousie's  Government,  although  not  partici- 
]  ating  in  these  fears,  took  the  precaution  of  acquiring  the  land  on  the 
I)roposed  site  of  the  new  port,  afterwards  named  Port  Canning ;  and  in 
July  1853,  lot  No.  54  of  the  Sundarban  Grants  was  purchased  for  the 
sum  of  ;£"iioo  from  the  grantee,  the  whole  comprising  upwards  of 
8000  acres,  or  25,000  bighds  of  land,  of  which  one-seventh  was  culti- 
vated, the  remainder  being  jungle.  About  the  same  time,  the  adjoin- 
ing lot  having  lapsed  to  Government,  a  portion,  consisting  of  650  acres, 
was  reserved  for  building.  A  committee  was  appointed  to  survey  and 
report  upon  the  site.  Plans  for  laying  out  a  town  were  submitted,  and 
a  position  was  fixed  upon  for  the  terminus  of  a  railway  to  connect  the 
new  port  with  Calcutta, 

In  June  1862,  the  provisions  of  the  Municipal  Act  were  extended  to 
the  town;  and  in  1863,  the  whole  of  the  Government  proprietary  right 
in  the  land  was  made  over  to  the  Municipality,  in  trust  for  the  town 


of  Canning,  subject  to  the  control  of  Government.  Rules  were  also 
passed  empowering  the  Commissioners  to  grant  leases  and  to  borrow 
money  on  the  security  of  the  land,  but  the  Government  itself  declined 
to  advance  any  loan. 

The  expenditure  necessary  for  the  various  works  was  estimated  at 
upwards  of  ^200,000;  and  the  Municipality,  in  November  1863,  with 
the  sanction  of  Government,  opened  a  loan  of  ;^i  00,000  upon 
debentures,  at  5  J  per  cent,  interest,  redeemable  in  five  years.  The 
privilege  of  commuting  debentures  for  lands  in  freehold  or  leasehold  at 
certain  rates  was  also  allowed.  Not  more  than  ^26,500,  however,  was 
subscribed;  and  early  in  1864  the  Municipal  Commissioners  again 
applied  to  Government  for  a  loan  of  ;£"45,ooo,  which  was  refused, 
except  on  the  condition  that  the  mercantile  community  should  con- 
tribute the  remainder  of  the  /^2oo,ooo  required. 

The  scheme  of  forming  the  Port  Canning  Company  dates  from  a 
proposal  made  in  1864  by  Mr.  Ferdinand  Schiller,  one  of  the  Municipal 
Commissioners,  to  raise  the  means  of  undertaking  the  works  essential 
to  the  development  of  the  port,  consequent  on  the  refusal  of  Govern- 
ment to  advance  the  funds  except  on  terras  which  the  Municipality 
found  impossible  of  fulfilment.  Mr.  Schiller's  proposals  were  to 
advance  the  sum  of  ;^25,ooo  to  the  Municipality,  on  condition  of 
receiving  from  them  certain  concessions,  namely — (i)  the  gift  in  free- 
hold of  100  acres  of  land  in  the  centre  of  the  town;  and  (2)  the 
exclusive  right  of  constructing  tramways,  wharves,  jetties,  and  landing 
accommodation,  and  of  levying  rates  upon  the  same  for  fifty  years, 
subject  to  the  control  and  regulation  of  the  Commissioners.  Mr. 
Schiller  also  undertook  on  the  part  of  himself  and  his  assignees — (i)  to 
excavate  within  two  years  a  dock,  2500  feet  in  length  by  200  feet 
in  width  and  10  feet  in  depth,  on  the  assigned  land ;  (2)  to  provide  for 
the  conservation  and  protection  of  the  river  bank  along  the  entire 
length  of  the  Commissioners'  property  facing  the  Matla;  (3)  to  pay  the 
Commissioners  one-third  of  all  profits  from  these  works  exceeding  ic 
per  cent.  The  right  of  purchasing  the  completed  works  at  original  cost 
at  the  expiration  of  fifty  years  was  reserved  to  the  Municipality  ;  and  in 
the  event  of  non-purchase,  an  extension  of  the  term  for  another  twenty- 
five  years  was  stipulated.  These  terms  were  agreed  to  by  Government, 
and  the  payment  of  the  loan  of  ^25,000  to  the  Municipality  was  made 
in  March  1865. 

In  March  1866,  the  Government  of  India  consented  to  a  loan  of 
;£"45,ooo  on  security  of  the  property  of  the  Municipality,  without 
interest,  repayable  in  five  years,  for  which  debentures  were  issued 
bearing  dates  from  April  1866  to  August  1868.  Under  the  conditions 
of  commutation  mentioned  above,  debentures  to  the  extent  of  ^{^33,780 
were  converted  for  lands. 


In  the  meantime,  the  prospectus  of  the  Port  Canning  Company 
had  been  issued,  in  January  1865,  accompanied  by  an  announcement 
that  the  share  Hst  was  closed.  The  shares  rose  in  value  at  an 
unprecedented  rate,  till  they  attained  a  premium  of  ;£i2oo  in 
Bombay  and  ^1000  in  Calcutta.  It  was  soon  found,  however,  that  the 
sanguine  expectations  of  speculators  were  not  likely  to  be  realized, 
and  the  shares  fell  as  rapidly  as  they  had  risen.  Subsequently, 
dissensions  arose  between  the  directors  and  the  shareholders,  result- 
ing in  the  management  of  the  Company  being  transferred  to  other 

A  dispute  also  took  place  between  the  Company  and  the  Muni- 
cipality. The  former  made  an  application  to  commute  the  ;2^25,ooo  of 
municipal  debentures  which  it  held,  into  land.  But  the  deeds  were 
not  executed,  although  the  lots  were  assigned ;  and  commutation  was 
deferred  till  maturity  of  the  debentures,  and  payment  of  a  quit-rent, 
equivalent  to  the  interest,  was  agreed  on.  In  1868,  when  affairs 
definitely  assumed  an  unfavourable  aspect,  the  Company  endeavoured 
to  repudiate  the  transaction,  and  brought  an  action  against  the  Munici- 
pality for  payment  of  ;2{^2  7oo  interest  on  the  debentures.  The  latter 
resisted  the  claim,  on  the  ground  that  the  Company  had  agreed  to 
commute  the  debentures  for  certain  lands  in  the  town  of  Canning. 
The  Company  gained  the  suit  in  the  first  instance  ;  but  on  appeal,  the 
order  was  reversed,  and  the  commutation  was  declared  to  be  valid. 
The  Company,  however,  have  not  entered  into  possession  of  their 
lands,  and  an  appeal  is  said  to  have  been  preferred  to  the  Privy 
Council  in  England.  In  1870,  the  Secretary  of  the  Company  addressed 
Government,  urging  upon  it  the  duty  of  redeeming  the  debentures 
which  the  Municipality  had  failed  to  meet.  The  Government,  in 
reply,  declined  to  admit  any  obligation,  and  refused  to  provide  the 
Municipal  Commissioners  with  funds  to  pay  their  debts.  The  first  of 
the  Government  debenture  bonds  for  ^10,000  having  arrived  at 
maturity  in  April  187 1,  steps  were  taken  to  obtain  a  decree,  and  the 
whole  of  the  municipal  property,  moveable  and  immoveable,  was  placed 
under  attachment.  Government  having  thus  obtained  priority,  notice 
was  sent  to  the  private  debenture-holders,  inviting  them  to  co-operate  in 
obtaining  a  fair  division  of  the  assets.  Subsequent  decrees  were  also 
obtained  to  the  extent  of  ;£"35,ooo  ;  and  the  whole  of  the  Canning 
Municipal  Estate  was  attached  and  made  over  to  the  Collector  of  the 
Twenty-four  Parganas,  who  was  appointed  manager. 

As  regards  the  operations  of  the  Company,  it  may  be  stated  that, 
according  to  the  prospectus,  they  possessed  134,590  acres  of  land 
yielding  an  estimated  annual  rent  of  ;^'i 3,000.  These  lands  con- 
sisted of  the  town  belonging  to  the  Municipality,  and  of  Sundarban  lots 
leased  from   Government  or  purchased   from   individuals,  the  greater 


portion  being  redeemable  in  freehold.  In  1866,  the  Company  added 
to  their  business  the  lease  of  the  forest  rights  in  all  the  unappropriated 
lands  of  the  Sundarbans,  as  well  as  the  rights  of  fishery  in  all  the  rivers, 
which  were  put  up  to  auction  by  Government  for  a  term  of  five  years, 
but  liable  at  any  time  to  resumption  on  six  months'  notice.  The 
fishing  rights  were  withdrawn  in  October  1868,  in  consequence  of  the 
claims  of  the  Company  being  contested  by  fishermen  and  others 
holding  prescriptive  rights  ;  and  the  question  was  finally  decided,  under 
legal  advice,  that  the  Government  had  not  the  right  to  farm  out  the 
fisheries  in  tidal  waters  to  private  persons.  The  lease  of  the  forest 
rights  was  resumed  after  due  notice,  on  the  grounds  that  the  monopoly 
was  contrary  to  the  interests  of  the  general  public,  and  that  oppression 
was  exercised  by  the  Company's  agents  in  the  collection  of  the  fees. 
An  appeal  was  presented  to  the  Government  of  India  and  the  Secretary 
of  State  against  the  withdrawal  of  these  leases,  but  the  action  of  the 
Bengal  Government  was  upheld. 

The  following  are  the  principal  w^orks  undertaken  and  executed, 
either  partially  or  completely,  by  the  Company,  namely — (i)  A  wet 
dock,  3500  by  400  feet,  for  the  accommodation  of  country  boats,  in 
accordance  with  the  conditions  in  the  deed  of  concession;  (2)  the 
protection  from  erosion  of  the  Matla  foreshore  ;  (3)  seven  landing 
wharves  and  iron  jetties,  each  capable  of  accommodating  two  ships  at  a 
time ;  (4)  goods  sheds  and  tramways  in  connection  with  the  jetties ;  (5) 
a  '  gridiron '  and  graving  dock  for  repairing  vessels ;  (6)  lastly,  the  rice- 
mills,  constructed  on  an  extensive  scale,  capable  of  husking  and  turning 
out  about  90,000  tons  of  rice  a  year,  from  which  very  profitable 
results  were  expected.  Many  of  these  works  have  fallen  into  disrepair, 
and  are  now  to  a  large  extent  unserviceable.  The  number  of  ships  that 
visited  the  port  since  its  opening  in  1861-62  down  to  the  close  of 
1870-71,  was  as  follows  : — 1861-62,  none;  1862-63,  ^  \  1863-64,  11 ; 
1864-65,  14;  1865-66,  26;  1866-67,  20;  1867-68,  9;  1868-69,  i; 
1869-70,  2  ;  1870-71,  none.  In  March  1869,  the  Company  applied  to 
Government,  urging  the  suspension  for  a  time  of  the  port-dues  and 
charges.  The  request  was  complied  with  ;  and  a  Government  notifica- 
tion was  issued  declaring  Canning  to  be  a  free  port,  and  providing  that 
six  months'  notice  should  be  given  before  the  charges  were  reimposed. 
This  notification,  however,  had  no  effect.  The  two  vessels  which 
arrived  in  1869-70  were  chartered  by  the  Company  for  the  purpose  of 
bringing  trade  to  the  rice-mills,  as  well  as  to  give  effect  to  the  notifica- 
tion. Since  February  1870,  no  ocean-going  ships  have  arrived  at  the 
port ;  and  the  arrivals  of  1867-68  may  be  looked  upon  as  the  last 
response  of  the  mercantile  community  to  the  endeavours  made  by  the 
Company,  and  aided  by  the  Government,  to  raise  Canning  to  the 
position  of  a  port  auxiliary  to  Calcutta. 

PORTO  NOVO.  221 

The  last  effort  of  the  Company  to  develop  the  rice-mills  having 
proved  financially  unsuccessful,  and  the  only  remaining  source  of 
revenue  being  derivable  from  their  landed  estates,  it  was  resolved,  at  a 
meeting  of  shareholders  in  May  1870,  to  appoint  a  committee  for  the 
purpose  of  preparing  a  scheme  of  voluntary  liquidation  and  reconstruc- 
tion of  the  Company.  The  head  office  was  removed  to  Bombay,  and 
the  local  expenditure  reduced  ;  the  working  of  the  mills  was  stopped 
until  sucli  time  as  they  could  be  leased  out  or  worked  profitably,  and 
the  operations  of  the  Company  confined  to  the  improvement  of  the 
revenue  from  their  landed  estate.  At  a  subsequent  meeting  of  share- 
holders, held  in  August  1870,  it  was  resolved  to  make  further  calls  to 
pay  off  existing  debts,  and  to  transfer  and  sell,  under  certain  con- 
ditions, the  whole  of  the  property  and  rights  of  the  'Port  Canning 
Land  Investment,  Reclamation,  and  Dock  Company,'  to  the  new  'Port 
Canning  Land  Company,  Limited.'  These  resolutions  have  since 
been  carried  out,  the  interest  in  the  new  Company  being  principally 
vested  in  the  Bombay  shareholders,  who  exercise  the  chief  direction  of 

The  Port  Establishment  has  been  a  heavy  and  unprofitable 
charge  to  Government.  In  1869-70,  the  cost  of  the  port  amounted 
to  ;^i5,709,  while  the  receipts  were  only  ^1134,  14s.  This  was 
exclusive  of  the  charges  for  special  survey  and  arsenal  stores.  Con- 
sidering the  position  and  prospects  of  the  Company,  and  the  hopeless- 
ness of  the  establishment  of  any  trade  which  would  justify  the  retention 
of  a  port  on  the  Matla,  the  Lieutenant-Governor,  in  June  187 1,  recom- 
mended that  the  earliest  opportunity  should  be  taken  of  officially 
closing  the  port,  and  withdrawing  the  establishments,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  the  light  vessel  outside,  which  would  be  of  use  to  ships  from 
the  eastward,  and  might  occasionally  guide  a  vessel  to  an  anchorage  in 
rough  weather.  These  recommendations  were  adopted,  and  shortly 
afterwards  the  Government  moorings,  etc.,  were  taken  up,  and  the  port 
officially  declared  closed.  In  1870,  the  town  contained  386  houses 
or  huts,  with  a  total  population  of  714  souls.  At  present  it  is  nearly 
deserted.  The  Commissioner  of  the  Sundarbans,  in  a  report  dated 
the  loth  April  1873,  states  that,  'with  the  exception  of  the  Agent 
and  others  employed  by  the  new  Port  Canning  Land  Company,  and  a 
dak  itninshi  or  deputy  postmaster,  no  one  lives  at  Canning.' 

The  line  of  railway  connecting  Port  Canning  with  Calcutta,  28  miles 
distant,  proved  a  failure  from  the  first.  Upon  the  collapse  of  the  Com- 
pany, it  was  taken  over  by  Government  as  a  State  line.  It  is  still 
worked,  but  on  a  very  economical  scale  ;  its  traffic  consists  almost  solely 
of  firewood,  bamboos,  and  fish  from  the  Sundarbans. 

Porto  Novo  {Feringhipet  or  Paraiigipetai  ;  Mahmud  Bandar). — Sea- 
port town  and  railway  station  in  South  Arcot  District,  Madras  Presi- 


dency  ;  situated  in  lat.  ii°  29'  25"  n.,  and  long.  79°  48'  13"  e.,  145  miles 
south  of  Madras,  and  32  miles  south  of  Pondicherri,  at  the  mouth 
of  the  river  Vellar.  Population  (1881)  7823.  Hindus  number  4401; 
Muhammadans,  3350;  and  Christians,  72.  Considerable  trade  with 
Ceylon  and  Achin.  The  port  is  frequented  exclusively  by  native  craft, 
of  which,  in  1875,  248  (tonnage  16,700)  called.  Value  of  exports  in 
the  same  year,  ^56,000  ;  of  imports,  ;^95oo.  In  1881-82,  the  number 
of  native  craft  arriving  was  97  (tonnage  8812);  the  number  leaving  was 
105  (tonnage  9022).  Value  of  exports  in  1881-82,  ;£i4,75o;  of 
imports,  ^5010.  In  the  previous  year,  1880-81,  the  value  of  the  imports 
was  ^4244  ;  and  value  of  exports,  ^23,198. 

When  the  English  commenced  trading  here  in  1682,  they  found  the 
Danes  and  Portuguese  already  established.  In  1749,  the  Madras  army, 
marching  against  Tanjore,  halted  at  Porto  Novo  for  a  while;  in  1780, 
Haidar  All  plundered  the  town.  In  1 781,  Sir  Eyre  Coote  marched  out 
of  Porto  Novo  with  8000  men  to  meet  the  whole  army  of  Mysore, 
some  60,000  strong,  under  Haidar ;  and  in  the  battle  which  ensued, 
won  the  most  signal  victory  of  the  war,  and  practically  saved  the 

Porto  Novo  is  interesting  also  as  the  scene  of  English  joint-stock 
enterprise.  From  1824,  and  for  many  years  afterwards,  efforts  had 
been  made  to  establish  ironworks  here.  A  company  called  the  Porto 
Novo  Iron  Company  established  a  large  factory  ;  but,  after  many  years 
of  patient  endeavour,  the  enterprise  had  to  be  abandoned.  To 
facilitate  the  carriage  of  the  iron-ores,  which  were  brought  by  water 
from  Salem,  the  old  Khan  Sahib's  canal  was  made  navigable  in  1854 
by  the  construction  of  3  locks, — one  where  the  canal  debouches  into 
the  Vellar,  nearly  opposite  the  town  of  Porto  Novo ;  the  second  where 
it  leaves  the  Viranam  tank ;  and  the  third  a  little  lower  down.  The 
Iron  Company  cut  a  short  canal  of  their  own  from  the  Vellar  into  the 
backwater  adjoining  the  embouchure  of  the  Coleroon,  down  which  they 
used  to  float  their  ore  in  basket  boats  to  Porto  Novo  before  the  Khan 
Sahib's  canal  was  rendered  navigable.  The  Company's  canal,  which  is 
only  about  2  miles  long,  is  now  much  silted  up.  The  excavation  of  the 
East  Coast  Canal  at  Porto  Novo  was  commenced  in  1853,  and  con- 
siderable progress  was  made  up  to  1857,  when  the  Mutiny  seems  to  have 
put  a  stop  to  it,  as  it  did  to  many  other  public  works.  A  small  expen- 
diture would  probably  render  the  canal  navigable  for  boats  from  the 
Vellar  to  the  Paravanar,  and  so  to  Cuddalore  ;  but  the  construction  of 
the  railway  has  rendered  such  expenditure  hardly  necessary.  The 
only  special  manufacture  of  Porto  Novo  is  a  species  of  mat,  made  from 
the  leaves  of  the  wild  pine-apple,  in  imitation  of  similar  mats  of  an 
exceedingly  soft  and  elegant  make  imported  from  Achin. 

Portuguese  Possessions. — The  Portuguese   Possessions  in  India 


consist  of  GoA,  Daman,  and  Diu,  each  of  which  see  separately.  Total 
area,  2365  square  miles;  total  population  (1881),  475,172. 

Potaniir. — Railway  station  in  Coimbatore  District  on  the  south-west 
branch  of  the  Madras  Presidency  ;  302  miles  from  Madras. 

Potegaon.  —  Zamlnddri  or  petty  chiefship  in  Chanda  District, 
Central  Provinces;  16  miles  east-north-east  of  Chamursi.  Area,  34 
square  miles;  comprising  15  villages,  in  a  hilly  country,  which  yields 
much  sdj^  bijesdl,  and  ebony.  Population  (1881)  793.  Potegaon 
village  is  situated  in  lat.  20°  n.,  long.  80°  ti'e.  ;  population  (1881) 

Potikall. — Zaminddri  or  chiefship  in  Bastar  State,  Central  Pro- 
vinces; comprising  22  villages.  Area,  350  square  miles.  Population 
(1881)  2013,  almost  entirely  Kols,  although  the  zaminddr  is  a  Telinga; 
number  of  houses,  450.  Potikall,  the  chief  village,  containing  about 
100  houses,  is  situated  on  the  river  Tal,  in  lat.  18°  t,^,'  n.,  and  long. 
80°  56'  E. 

Poung-day. — Township  in  Prome  District,  Pegu  Division,  Lower 
Burma. — See  Paung-deh. 

Poung-loung.  —  Range  of  hills  in  Tenasserim  Division,  Lower 
Burma. — See  Paung-laung. 

Pownar. — Village  in  Wardha  District,  Central  Provinces. — See 

Prakasha.  —  Town  in  Kbandesh  District,  Bombay  Presidency; 
situated  in  lat.  21°  36'  n.,  and  long.  74^  28'  e.,  45  miles  north-west  of 
Dhulia,  and  7  miles  south-west  of  Shahada ;  at  the  junction  of  the  Tapti 
river  with  two  of  its  tributaries.  Population  (1881)  5651,  namely, 
Hindus,  3645;  Muhammadans,  479;  Christians,  18;  and  'others,' 
1509.  Municipal  revenue  (1883-84),  £1$^',  incidence  of  tax,  8^d. 
per  head.  East  of  the  town  stands  an  old  temple  of  Gautameswar 
Mahadeo,  in  whose  honour  a  great  Hindu  fair  is  held  every  twelve 
years,  when  the  planet  Guru  or  Jupiter  enters  the  constellation  of  the 
Lion,  or  Sing/iast  There  are  several  other  interesting  temples  in  the 
neighbourhood.  Post-office;  school  with  138  pupils  in  1883-84;  dis- 

Pranhita. — The  name  of  the  united  streams  of  the  Wardha  and 
Wainganga  rivers  down  to  their  junction  with  the  Godavari  at  Sironcha, 
in  Chanda  District,  Central  Provinces ;  length  about  70  miles. 
Forty  miles  above  Sironcha,  occurs  the  'third  barrier,'  a  formidable 
obstruction  to  navigation.  The  Pranhita  has  a  broad  bed,  which  in  the 
rainy  season  is  filled  with  a  rushing  flood,  but  in  the  dry  weather  con- 
sists of  a  broad  expanse  of  sand,  wnth  a  thin  and  shallow  stream. 

Pratapgarh. — District,  tahsil,  fargand,  and  town  in  Oudh. — See 

Pratapgarh. — State  in  Rajputana. — See  Partabgarh. 


Pratapgarh. — Zaminddri  estate  in  the  north-west  of  Chhindwara 
District,  Central  Provinces,  near  Motiir ;  comprising  an  area  of  289 
square  miles,  with  140  villages,  and  3203  houses.  Population  (1881) 
17,078,  namely,  males  8727,  and  females  8351.  Together  with  Sonpur, 
Pratapgarh  once  formed  part  of  the  Harai  chiefship;  but  at  the  begin- 
ning of  this  century  it  was  separated,  and  came  under  the  management 
of  the  Harai  chief's  brother.  The  present  (1884)  chief  is  a  minor,  and 
the  estate  (which  contains  a  fine  sal  forest)  is  under  Government 
management.  Principal  village  and  residence  of  the  chief,  Pagara, 
population  (1881)  342. 

Pratapgiri  (or  Chinna  Kimedi). — Zaminddri  in  Ganjam  District, 
Madras  Presidency. — See  Kimedi. 

Pratapnagar.  —  Chief  village  of  Jamira  Fiscal  Division  in  the 
District  of  the  Twenty-four  Parganas,  Bengal;  situated  in  lat.  22°  23' 
5"  N.,  and  long.  89°  15'  15"  e.,  on  the  bank  of  the  Kholpetiia  river. 
Contains  a  large  rice  mart;  in  1857  the  seat  of  the  principal  revenue 
court  of  the  local  landholder. 

Prattipadu.  —  Village  in  Guntilr  tdliik^  Kistna  District,  Madras 
Presidency.  Lat.  16°  12'  n.,  long.  80°  24' e.  Population  (1871)  7315, 
inhabiting  2051  houses;  and  (1881)  3181,  inhabiting  582  houses. 
Hindus  number  2722  ;  Muhammadans,  273  ;  and  Christians,  186.  The 
village  is  10  miles  distant  from  Guntiir.     Temples.     Post-office. 

Premtoli. — Village  in  Rajshahi  District,  Bengal.  Lat.  24°  24'  30" 
N.,  long.  88^  25'  15"  E.  An  annual  religious  trading  fair  is  held  here  on 
the  20th  day  of  the  moon  of  Aswin,  to  celebrate  the  anniversary  of  the 
visit  of  the  reformer-saint  Chaitanya  to  Gaur,  the  former  capital  of 
Lower  Bengal. 

Proddatlir. — Tdhik  or  Sub-division  of  Cuddapah  (Kadapa)  District, 
Madras  Presidency.  Area,  487  square  miles.  Population  (1881) 
90,653,  namely,  45,732  males  and  44,921  females,  dweUing  in  i  town 
and  91  villages,  containing  19,166  houses.  Hindus  number  78,554; 
Muhammadans,  10,184;  Christians,  191 2  ;  and  'others,'  3.  The  prin- 
cipal soil  is  the  black  cotton  soil,  and  cotton  is  the  chief  product.  In 
the  valleys  of  the  Penner  and  the  Kunder,  '  dry '  grains  and  rice  are 
raised  by  means  of  irrigation.  Indigo  is  also  grown.  The  Kurniil- 
Cuddapah  irrigation  and  navigation  canal  traverses  the  tdhik.  The 
timber  on  the  high  slopes  of  the  hills  is  valuable;  in  1883-84,  28| 
square  miles  were  'reserved.'  In  1883  the  tdluk  contained  i  civil  and 
2  criminal  courts ;  police  circles,  6 ;  village  watch  [chaukiddrs),  64 
men.     Land  revenue,  ^21,112,. 

Proddatlir  {Poddaturu). — Town  in  Cuddapah  (Kadapa)  District, 
Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  14°  45'  n.,  long.  78°  35'  20"  e.  Population 
(1871)  6709,  inhabiting  1334  houses;  and  (1881)  6510,  inhabiting 
1440  houses.       Hindus    number    4828;    Muhammadans,    1667;    and 

FRO  ME.  225 

Christians,  15.  The  head-quarters  of  Proddatur  taluk.  Some  trade 
is  carried  on,  the  chief  staple  being  indigo.  Dispensary ;  munsif's 
court ;  post-office. 

Prome  (Burmese  Fyc). — District  in  Pegu  Division,  Lower  Burma. 
Stretches  across  the  valley  of  the  Irawadi  (Irravvaddy)  between  lat.  18'' 
22'  and  19°  50'  N.,  and  between  long.  94°  44'  and  95°  58'  e.  ;  bounded 
on  the  north  by  Thayet-myo ;  on  the  east  by  the  Pegu  Yoma  range ; 
on  the  south  by  Henzada  and  Tharawadi ;  and  on  the  west  by 
the  Arakan  Hills.  Area,  2887  square  miles.  Population  (1881) 
322,342.  The  District  of  Prome  originally  extended  northwards  as 
far  as  the  frontier  of  Upper  Burma;  but  in  April  1870,  Thayet-myo 
was  erected  into  a  separate  jurisdiction.  The  head-quarters  of  the 
District  are  at  Prome  Town. 

Physical  Aspects.  —  The  Irawadi  flows  through  the  District  from 
north  to  south,  dividing  it  into  two  portions,  which  differ  considerably 
in  area,  appearance,  and  fertility.  On  the  west,  the  country  is  broken 
by  thickly  wooded  spurs  from  the  Arakan  mountains  into  small  valleys 
drained  by  short  and  unimportant  tributaries  of  the  Irawadi,  and  but 
little  under  cultivation.  North  and  north-east  of  Prome  town,  the  forest- 
covered  spurs  of  the  Pegu  Yomas  also  form  numerous  valleys  and  ravines, 
stretching  as  far  as  the  Irawadi,  and  watered  by  torrents  which,  as  they 
proceed  south-west  towards  more  level  country,  eventually  unite  into 
one  large  stream  called  the  Na-win.  The  south  and  south-western 
portions  of  the  District  consist  of  a  large  and  well-cultivated  plain, 
intersected  by  low  ranges  with  a  general  north  and  south  direction,  the 
chief  of  which  is  called  the  Prome  Hills.  Towards  the  east  and  south- 
east, this  fertile  tract  is  drained  by  streams,  which,  walled  back  from 
the  Irawadi  by  the  Prome  Hills,  send  their  waters  to  the  Myit-ma-ka, 
the  head  of  the  Hlaing  river,  and  thus  seawards  in  a  line  parallel  to 
that  of  the  great  river. 

There  are  several  roads  running  across  the  Pegu  Yoma  range,  but 
none  are  practicable  for  wheeled  traffic.  Footpaths  lead  from  the 
sources  of  the  North  and  South  Na-win  to  the  Myauk-mwe  and  Pa- 
laung  streams  respectively  ;  and  farther  south,  there  is  a  track  from  near 
the  source  of  the  Shwe-leh  river  to  the  Karen  hamlets  on  the 
Za-ma-yi,  the  head-waters  of  the  Pegu  river.  A  road  over  the  Arakan 
mountains  connects  Pa-daung  via  Nyaung-kye-dauk  with  Taung-giip 
in  Sandoway.  It  was  by  this  route  that  the  main  body  of  the  Burmese 
army  advanced  in  1784  from  Prome  to  the  final  conquest  of  the  kingdom 
of  Arakan.  In  1826,  however,  it  was  reported  as  altogether  impassable 
for  troops  or  laden  cattle.  The  chief  rivers  of  Prome  District  are — the 
Tha-ni,  which  rises  in  the  extreme  north-west  angle  and  flows  east- 
south-east  for  25  miles,  joining  the  Irawadi  at  Pe-gyi ;  the  Bii-ro,  rising 
in  the  Arakan  mountains,  and  after  a  south-easterly  course  of  35  miles, 

VOL.  XI.  p 

226  PROME. 

falling  into  the  Tha-ni  near  Nyaiing-bin-tha  ;  the  Kyauk-bu,  another 
tributary  of  the  Tha-ni ;  the  Tha-le-dan  streams,  which  rise  in  the 
Arakan  range  and  unite  near  Ma-taung,  17  miles  from  the  village  of 
Tha-le-dan,  where  their  combined  waters  reach  the  Irawadi. 

The  hill  country  east  of  the  Irawadi  and  north-east  of  Prome  town 
is  drained  by  the  Na-win  system  of  rivers,  of  which  the  most  important 
are  the  South  Na-win,  falling  into  the  Irawadi  at  Prome,  and  its 
affluents  the  North  Na-win,  the  Chaung-sauk  (Khyoung-tsouk),  and  the 
Tin-gyi,  all  of  which  take  their  rise  in  the  Pegu  Yomas,  and  eventually 
join  the  Irawadi.  Though  all  these  rivers  are  to  a  certain  extent  navig- 
able by  boats,  yet  they  are  at  present  mainly  important  as  the  routes  by 
which  the  valuable  timber  of  the  hill  country  is  floated  down  the  Irawadi 
to  be  lashed  into  rafts  at  the  mouth  of  the  Na-win.  The  plains  in  the 
south  of  Prome  are  watered  by  a  series  of  streams  forming  the  Myit- 
ma-ka  system.  The  chief  of  these  are — the  Zeh,  which  flows  into  the 
In-ma  (Eng-ma)  swamp ;  the  Shwe-leh  ;  the  Kyat,  rising  in  Tharawadi 
District,  where  it  is  known  as  the  Taung-nyo ;  and  the  Myit-ma-ka  or  upper 
portion  of  the  Hlaing  River. 

The  District  contains  two  lakes  —  the  In-ma  and  the  Shwe-daung 
Myo-ma.  The  Di-dut  swamp,  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Irawadi,  is  a 
depression  in  the  plains  supplied  by  the  annual  overflow  of  the  Irawadi; 
in  the  rains  it  is  7  feet  deep,  but  dries  up  in  the  hot  season. 

The  forest  area  of  the  teak  localities  on  the  west  side  of  the  Irawadi 
is  estimated  at  40  square  miles,  with  about  200  first-class  trees.  Between 
the  Pegu  Yomas  and  the  Irawadi  are  vast  forests  of  in,  thit-ya  (Shorea 
robusta),  in-gyin  (Shorea  siamensis),  and  thit-tsi.  Teak  occurs  all 
over  the  hills,  and  the  average  annual  yield  since  the  three-year 
permit  system  was  introduced  in  1862  has  been  about  10,000  logs. 
The  forests  of  the  Province  are  now  worked  by  the  Pegu  Circle  officers 
of  the  Forest  Department.  The  Shwe-leh  forests,  with  an  estimated 
area  of  95  square  miles,  contain  some  of  the  most  valuable  teak  in  Pegu. 
Many  other  varieties  of  timber,  such  as  pyin-gado,  pa-dauk,  rin-daik, 
sha,  kuk-ko,  abound.  It  has  been  calculated  that  as  many  as  2000 
pa-dauk  trees,  iioo  kuk-ko,  and  130,000  sha  were  felled  annually  until 
these  trees  were  reserved.  The  Chaung-sauk  teak  plantation  occupied 
an  area  of  561  acres  in  1884.  Receipts  of  the  Forest  Department  in 
1883-84,  ;^758i  ;  expenditure,  ^4502. 

Histojy. — Fact  and  fable  are  so  interwoven  in  the  early  history  of  the 
once  flourishing  kingdom  of  Prome,  that  it  is  impossible  to  disentangle 
the  true  from  the  false.  It  is  most  probable  that  the  area  of  distribution 
of  Gautama  Buddha's  relics  after  his  death  in  543  B.C.  marks  the  limits 
of  his  forty-five  years'  wanderings,  yet  all  Burmese  historians  assert  that 
he  visited  and  preached  in  Burma.  The  Prome  chronicles  begin  by 
,  relating  the  foundation  of  Prome  in  accordance  with  a  prophecy  of 

PROME.  227 

Gautama,  who,  whilst  looking  towards  the  south-east  from  the  site  of 
Prome  over  a  'great  ocean,'  observed  a  piece  of  cow-dung  floating 
with  the  current,  and  at  the  same  time  a  bamboo  rat  appeared  and 
adored  him.  Gautama  spoke  thus  :  '  This  rat  at  my  feet  shall  be  born 
again  as  Dut-ta-baung ;  and  in  the  hundred  and  first  year  of  my  religion 
he  shall  found,  at  the  spot  where  that  piece  of  cow-dung  now  is,  the 
large  town  of  Tha-re-khettra  (Sri-kshettra) ;  and  in  his  reign  shall  my 
religion  spread  far  and  wide.'  The  date  of  the  foundation  of  this  city 
can  be  fixed  ;  for  some  of  the  histories  of  Prome — all  of  which  agree 
in  giving  the  year  10 1  of  the  Buddhist  era  as  the  date — state  that  it 
was  in  the  first  year  after  the  second  great  Buddhist  council,  and  this  is 
known  from  independent  testimony  to  have  taken  place  about  443 
n.c.  Tha-re-khettra  was  situated  5  or  6  miles  east  of  the  present  town 
of  Prome,  and  was,  according  to  the  annalists,  surrounded  by  a  wall  40 
miles  long,  with  32  large  and  23  small  gates.  About  the  beginning  of 
the  2nd  century  of  the  Christian  era,  the  town  was  abandoned,  and 
fell  into  ruins.  Embankments  and  pagodas,  standing  in  rice-fields 
and  swamps,  alone  mark  the  site  of  what  was  once  the  capital  of  a 
powerful  kingdom.  The  next  date  which  can  be  fixed  with  any 
accuracy  is  the  accession  of  a  king  in  whose  reign  was  held  the 
third  Buddhist  council.  This  was  called  together  by  Asoka  in  the 
twenty-second  year  of  his  rule,  counting  from  his  accession,  and  in  the 
eighteenth  from  his  coronation,  and  assembled  under  the  guidance  of 
the  Arahat  Mogaliputra  in  244  B.C.  In  a  monograph  upon  the 
legendary  history  of  Burma  and  Arakan,  a  recent  writer,  Captain  C.  J. 
F.  Forbes,  Deputy  Commissioner,  says  the  Prome  dynasty  dates  from 
444  B.C.  to  107  A.D.  During  the  reign  of  the  third  monarch  of  the 
line,  Captain  Forbes  relates  that  two  important  events  took  place  in  the 
contemporaneous  history  of  India.  The  first  was  the  invasion  of 
India  by  Alexander  the  Great  (b.c.  327).  The  second  was  the  assem- 
blage of  the  third  great  Buddhist  council  in  308  B.C.,  to  collect  and 
revise  the  sacred  books.  The  third  council  here  alluded  to  is 
not  different  from  the  one  mentioned  above  as  having  been  called 
by  Asoka  in  244  B.C.  :  the  apparent  difference  is  caused  by  variant 
calculations  founded  on  the  Burmese  dates. 

It  is  not  until  about  90  B.C.  ^  that  any  statements  by  historians  of 
other  countries  are  available  as  checks  on  the  Prome  chroniclers. 
About  that  year,  the  Buddhist  scriptures  were  reduced  into  writing 
in  Ceylon ;  and  this  fact,  which  is  noticed  in  the  Burmese  palm-leaf 
chronicles,  is  stated  there  to  have  taken  place  in  the  17th  year  of  a 
king  named  Te-pa.  This  sovereign,  who  was  originally  a  poor  student 
for  the  priesthood  and  was  adopted  by  his  childless  predecessor,  must 

^  Dr.  Mason  says  93  or  94  r>.c.  Sir  J.  Emerson  Tennent  in  his  work  on  Ceylon, 
third  edition,  page  376,  says  in  89  B.C. 

228  PROME. 

thus  have  ascended  the  throne  circa  107  B.C.  He  is  stated  to  have 
been  the  nth  monarch  since  the  foundation  of  the  capital;  but  this 
would  give  over  forty  years  as  the  average  length  of  the  reign  of  his 
predecessors,  except  that  of  Dut-ta-baung,  who,  it  is  asserted,  reigned 
for  seventy  years. 

The  Te-pa  dynasty  occupied  the  throne  of  Tha-re-khettra  for  202 
years,  or  until  95  a.d.,  when  the  monarchy  was  broken  up  by  civil  war 
and  an  invasion  by  the  Kan-ran  tribe  from  Arakan.  The  last  king  was 
Thu-pa-nya.  His  nephew  Tha-mun-da-rit  fled  first  to  Taung-ngu, 
south-east  of  Prome ;  he  then  crossed  the  Irawadi  to  Pa-daung,  but 
being  still  harassed  by  the  Kan-rans,  he  went  northwards  to  Min- 
dun.  He  finally  recrossed  the  river,  and  founded  the  city  of  Lower 
Pagan,  in  108  a.d.  In  estabUshing  his  new  kingdom  he  was  gready 
assisted  by  a  scion  of  the  old  Ta-gaung  race  of  kings,  named  Pyu- 
min-ti  or  Pyu-saw-ti,  who  married  his  daughter  and  afterwards  suc- 
ceeded him. 

From  about  the  middle  of  the  14th  to  the  beginning  of  the  i6th 
century,  the  greater  part  of  the  Pagan  kingdom  was  parcelled  out 
amongst  a  crowd  of  adventurers  from  the  Shan  States.  In  about  1365, 
a  descendant  of  the  old  Ta-gaung  dynasty  succeeded  in  re-establishing 
the  Burmese  monarchy,  but  it  lasted  only  a  few  years. 

In  1404,  Raza-di-rit,  king  of  the  Talaing  kingdom  on  the  south,  the 
capital  of  which  was  at  Pegu,  invaded  Burma ;  and  passing  by  Prome 
and  Mye-deh,  ravaged  the  country  near  the  chief  city,  Ava.  Towards 
the  close  of  the  15th  century,  the  power  of  the  rulers  at  Ava  may  be 
said  to  have  ceased.  Their  dominions  were  divided  amongst  a  number 
of  independent  Burmanized  Shan  Saw-bwas  or  chiefs,  one  of  whom  was 
settled  at  Taung-ngu.  In  1530,  Min-tara-shwe-ti,  or  Ta-bin-shwe-ti, 
ascended  the  throne  of  Taung-ngu  ;  and  four  years  later,  commenced 
his  aggressive  career  by  invading  Pegu.  In  two  campaigns,  the  power 
of  the  Talaing  king  was  broken,  and  he  fled  to  Prome,  and  Min- 
tara-shwe-ti  fixed  his  capital  at  Pegu.  An  alliance  was  formed  against 
him  by  the  kings  of  Ava,  Prome,  and  Arakan  ;  but  their  forces  were 
successively  routed  by  Ta-bin-shwe-ti  and  his  renowned  general,  Burin- 
naung,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Prome,  which  surrendered  in  1542.  In 
the  later  years  of  his  life,  Ta-bin-shwe-ti  is  said  to  have  associated  with  a 
dissipated  Portuguese  adventurer;  and  he  was  murdered  in  May  1550, 
after  a  glorious  reign  of  twenty  years,  in  which  time  he  had  raised 
himself  from  being  merely  Saw-bwa  of  Taung-ngu  to  the  position  of 
lord  paramount  over  Pegu,  Tenasserim,  and  Upper  Burma,  as  far  as 
Pagan,  with  the  kings  of  Burma  and  Siam  paying  him  tribute.  He  was 
succeeded  by  the  general  to  whom  much  of  his  military  success  was 
owing,  viz.  Burin-naung,  who  assumed  the  title  of  Shin-pyu-mya-shin 
(literally,  '  Lord  of  many  Elephants '),  from  the  fact  of  his  having  taken 

PRO  ME,  229 

six  wliite  elephants  from  the  King  of  Siam.  It  was  not  without  fighting, 
however,  that  Burin-naung  obtained  possession  of  the  throne.  No 
sooner  was  Ta-bin-shwe-ti  dead,  than  the  rulers  of  Prome  and  Taung- 
ngu — though  they  were  Burin-naung's  own  brothers — declared  them- 
selves independent,  and  the  old  royal  Talaing  family  again  set  up  its 
claim  to  the  throne  of  Pegu.  Burin-naung  speedily  reduced  his  refrac- 
tory brothers  to  subjection.  Commencing  with  Taung-ngu,  he  crossed 
thence  to  Mye-deh  and  Ma-lun,  and  there  obtaining  a  fleet  of  boats, 
sailed  down  by  water  to  Prome.  Having  subdued  Prome,  he  went 
northwards,  and  had  nearly  reached  Ava  when  he  was  recalled  by  the 
intelligence  that  the  Peguans  were  about  to  attack  Taung-ngu.  This 
attempt  he  easily  frustrated.  He  now  called  a  family  gathering,  and 
distributed  the  Provinces  of  the  empire  among  his  brothers,  making 
them  tributary  princes  of  Martaban,  Prome,  and  Taung-ngu.  The 
great  king,  Shin-pyu-mya-shin,  died  in  1581,  and  his  vast  empire  shortly 
afterwards  fell  to  pieces.  The  seat  of  government  was  removed  after 
his  death  to  Taung-ngu,  and  one  of  his  younger  sons,  Nyaung-ran-min- 
tara,  established  his  capital  at  Ava. 

The  second  dynasty  of  Ava  kings  which  was  thus  established  lasted 
for  about  a  century  and  a  half,  and  was  ultimately  overthrown  by  an 
invasion  from  Pegu.  The  Talaings  were  driven  into  revolt  by  the  mis- 
government  of  the  officers  sent  down  from  Ava.  They  established  their 
independence;  and  the  second  king,  Byi-nya-da-la,  invaded  the  Burman 
territory,  captured  Ava,  and  carried  off  the  king  a  prisoner  to  Pegu. 
The  whole  of  Upper  Burma  was  reduced,  with  the  exception  of  one 
village,  Mut-so-bo,  some  miles  to  the  north  of  Ava.  The  head-man 
of  this  village,  Maung  Aung-zeya,  refused  to  surrender  to  the  Talaing 
conquerors,  and  was  repeatedly  attacked,  but  always  without  success. 
The  fame  of  his  patriotism  and  ability  soon  spread,  and  a  crowd  of 
Burmese,  who  chafed  under  the  domination  of  the  Talaings,  gathered 
round  him  and  acknowledged  him  as  their  leader.  With  their  assistance 
he  drove  the  Talaings  out  of  Ava  and  the  whole  of  Upper  Burma.  He 
then  assumed  the  title  of  Alaung-min-tara-gyi,  or  Alaung-paya  (corrupted 
by  Europeans  into  Alompra),  and  became  the  founder  of  the  third  and 
last  dynasty  of  Ava  kings  (1753  a.d.).  In  1758  he  conquered  Pegu, 
and  carried  away  captive  Bya-hmaing-ti-raza,  the  last  of  the  Talamg 

From  this  period  till  the  annexation  of  Pegu  by  Lord  Dalhousie  in 
1853,  at  the  close  of  the  second  Anglo-Burmese  war,  Prome  remained  a 
Province  of  the  Burmese  kingdom. 

Population. — Until  the  year  1870,  Prome  included  Thayet-myo  Dis- 
trict, and  no  separate  details  of  population  are  available.  By  the  Census 
of  1872,  the  number  of  inhabitants  was  returned  at  274,872.  The 
Census  of  1881  returned  a  total  population  of  322,342,  and  disclosed 

230  PROME. 

the  fact  that  in  the  decade  since  1873,  an  increase  of  47,470  had 
taken  place.  In  1881,  males  were  found  to  number  161,433,  females 
160,909;  density  per  square  mile,  iii-6.  The  people  dwelt  in  3 
towns  and  1647  villages,  containing  together  62,800  occupied  and 
1675  unoccupied  houses;  towns  and  villages  per  square  mile,  '57; 
houses  per  square  mile,  22-3;  persons  per  house,  5*i.  Distributed 
as  regards  religion,  Hindus  number  only  978,  and  Muhammadans 
1795;  Christians  number  484;  Nat  or  demon  worshippers,  5819; 
Parsis,  5  ;  but  by  far  the  largest  portion  of  the  population,  number- 
ing 3135261,  or  97'2  per  cent,  are  Buddhists.  Of  the  Muham- 
madans, 902  are  Sunnis,  813  Shias,  21  Wahabis,  21  Faraizis,  and 
38  'others.'  Of  the  Christians,  290  are  Baptists,  121  members  of 
the  Church  of  England,  49  Roman  Catholics,  and  the  remainder, 
dissenters,  folloAvers  of  the  Greek  Church,  and  unspecified.  Of  the 
total  Christians  returned,  335  are  natives.  Taking  language  as  a 
test  of  race,  pure  Burmese  number  301,214;  Arakanese,  192;  Chins, 
10,662;  Karens,  3021;  Talaings,  10;  Shans,  3602;  Chinese,  371; 
Hindustanis,  1552;  Bengalis,  158;  Tamils,  410;  Manipuris,  963; 
EngHsh,  95  ;  and  a  few  of  other  foreign  or  cognate  nationalities. 

The  Census  distributes  the  male  population  into  the  following  six 
main  groups : — (i)  Professional  class,  including  State  officials  of  every 
kind  and  members  of  the  learned  professions,  3805 ;  (2)  domestic 
serv^ants,  inn  and  lodging  keepers,  508;  (3)  commercial  class,  including 
bankers,  ir.erchants,  carriers,  etc.,  4935  ;  (4)  agricultural  and  pastoral 
class,  including  gardeners,  56,744;  (5)  industrial  class,  including  all 
manufacturers  and  artisans,  17,700;  and  (6)  indefinite  and  non- 
productive class,  comprising  all  male  children,  general  labourers,  and 
persons  of  unspecified  occupation,  77,741. 

The  Kyins  or  Chins,  a  portion  of  the  mountain  race  which  extends  far 
north  into  Upper  Burma  and  westward  into  Arakan,  are  found  generally 
to  the  west  of  the  Irawadi.  When  living  near  the  Burmese,  the  men 
adopt  the  Burmese  costume  much  more  readily  than  the  women,  whose 
tattooed  faces  unmistakably  betray  their  origin.  Their  professed  religion 
is  Buddhism.  The  Shans  are  settlers  from  the  north-east  of  Ava,  a 
patient  hard-working  people.  The  Manipuris,  locally  called  Kathays, 
were  brought  to  Prome  as  Burmese  captives,  and  are  Hindus  in  religion. 
They  are  principally  engaged  in  silk-weaving.  The  natives  of  India  and 
the  Chinese  are  immigrants  engaged  in  cattle-dealing  and  trade.  It  is 
impossible  to  give  with  complete  accuracy  the  number  of  persons 
dependent  upon  agriculture,  as  many  combine  the  occupations  of 
agriculturists  and  fishermen  as  the  season  serves,  and  still  more  have, 
under  the  charge  of  members  of  their  families,  small  retail  shops  for  the 
sale  of  almost  every  kind  of  article.  The  number,  however,  returned 
in  the  Census  Report  (1881)  as  agriculturists — that  is,  as  employed  in 

PRO  ME.  231 

growing  and  collecting  the  produce  of  the  land — is  54,465  males  and 
51,532  females,  aggregating  105,995,  or  nearly  one-third  of  the  whole 

Tonm  a?id  Rural  Populatio7i.—^\\^  chief  towns  of  Prome  District 
are — Prome,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Irawadi,  and  the  terminus  of  the 
Irawadi  Valley  (State)  Railway,  population  (1881)  28,813;  Shwe- 
DAUNG,  a  large  trading  centre,  population  12,373;  Pa-daung,  popu- 
lation 2267;  Paung-deh,  population  6727.  The  principal  pagodas 
in  the  District  are  the  Shwe-san-daw  in  Prome,  and  the  Shwe- 
nat-daw,  14  miles  south  of  that  town.  The  former,  situated  on  a 
hill  about  half  a  mile  from  the  left  bank  of  the  Irawadi,  rises  from  a 
nearly  square  platform  to  a  height  of  80  feet,  and  covers  an  area  of 
11,025  square  feet.  It  is  surrounded  by  83  small  gilded  temples,  each 
containing  an  image  of  Gautama.  Many  marvels  are  told  concerning 
the  erection  of  this  pagoda ;  and  it  is  said  to  have  been  raised  on  an 
emerald  box,  resting  on  seven  ingots  of  gold,  in  which  were  deposited 
three  hairs  of  Gautama  himself.  Successive  kings  and  governors  have 
added  to  and  embellished  the  building.  The  annual  festival,  attended 
by  thousands  of  devout  Buddhists,  is  held  in  Ta-baung,  corresponding 
to  our  month  of  March.  The  Shwe-nat-daw  Pagoda  also  stands  on 
high  ground,  and  immediately  below  it  is  a  plain  where,  early  in  the 
year,  as  many  as  20,000  pilgrims  sometimes  assemble  for  the  annual 
eight  days'  festival  or  religious  fair  held  here.  The  palm-leaf  chronicles 
relate  that  the  Shwe-nat-daw  was  originally  built  by  San-da-de-wi,  wife  of 
Dut-ta-baung,  who  reigned  from  443  to  372  B.C.  This  king  granted  to 
the  pagoda,  and  set  apart  from  secular  uses  for  ever,  the  whole  space 
around  it  on  which  its  shadow  fell  between  sunrise  and  sunset,  and 
directed  that  a  grand  festival  should  be  held  there  annually  on  the  full 
moon  of  Ta-baung. 

Of  the  1650  towns  and  villages  in  Prome  District,  11S7  contain 
(1881)  less  than  two  hundred  inhabitants;  418  from  two  to  five 
hundred;  41  from  five  hundred  to  one  thousand;  i  from  two  to  three 
thousand  ;  i  from  five  to  ten  thousand  ;  i  from  ten  to  fifteen  thousand  ; 
and  I  from  twenty  to  fifty  thousand. 

Agriculture.  —Rice  forms  the  staple  product  of  the  District,  being  cul- 
tivated mainly  in  the  Paung-deh  and  Shwe-daung  townships.  The  grain 
is  soft  and  unsuited  for  a  long  sea  voyage,  and  used  to  be  consumed  in 
the  District  or  exported  northwards  to  Mandalay.  Owing,  however, 
to  the  opening  of  the  railway,  a  considerable  quantity  is  now  brought 
south,  as  it  will  bear  the  short  voyage  through  the  Suez  Canal.  Tobacco 
is  grown  on  the  banks  of  the  Irawadi  after  the  floods  have  fallen. 
Cotton  is  sown  on  the  hill-sides,  and  is  partially  cleaned  in  Prome,  and 
sent  down  to  Rangoon  for  export,  sometimes  mixed  with  a  shorter- 
stapled  kind,  imported  from  Upper  Burma.     Near  Prome,  and  on  the 

232  FROME. 

hills  opposite,  are  numerous  fruit-gardens,  the  custard  apple  predominat- 
ing, no  less  than  667  acres  being  planted  with  this  tree  ;  mixed  fruit-trees 
cover  an  area  of  15,580  acres. 

The  taungya  or  nomadic  system  of  cultivation  is  more  extensively 
adopted  than  in  any  other  District  of  Lower  Burma,  the  estimated  area 
being  12,347  acres  in  1882-83.  A  portion  of  the  forest  is  cleared, 
and  the  timber  felled  early  in  the  dry  season ;  just  before  the  rains  it 
is  fired,  and  the  logs  and  brushwood  reduced  to  ashes.  On  the  first 
fall  of  rain,  the  crop  is  sown ;  and  after  it  has  been  reaped,  the  clearing 
again  becomes  waste.  One  kind  of  injury  generally  caused  is  the 
over-luxuriant  growth  of  dense  jungle  that  immediately  springs  up; 
but  in  this  District  the  fertihzing  effect  of  the  ashes  has  the  opposite 
result,  for  an  unusual  number  of  young  teak  and  other  valuable  trees 
are  found  on  deserted  taungya  clearings. 

In  1882-83,  the  total  area  under  cultivation  in  Prome  District  was 
239,512  acres,  the  average  holding  of  each  cultivator  being  7  acres. 
In  1877-78,  the  area  under  rice  was  151,920  acres;  tobacco,  2154 
acres;  vegetables,  3747  acres;  fruit-trees,  12,155  acres:  the  area 
under  cotton  in  1876-77  was  1529  acres.  In  i88r,  the  area  under 
rice  was  196,543  acres;  tobacco,  2732  acres;  vegetables,  3024 
acres;  fruit-trees,  17,436  acres;  cotton,  2606  acres.  The  figures  for 
1882-83  are  —  rice,  198,560  acres;  tobacco,  3326  acres;  vegetables, 
2457  acres;  fruit-trees,  16,171  acres;  and  cotton,  3093  acres. 

In  Pa-daung  the  land  is  a  good  deal  encumbered  with  debt  and 
obligations,  owing  probably  to  its  having  been  more  thickly  peopled 
in  former  years,  and  to  many  of  the  inhabitants  having  crossed  the 
river  to  Shwe-daung  and  mortgaged  their  land  to  obtain  funds  for 
trading.  But,  as  a  rule,  proprietors  everywhere  live  close  to  their  landed 
property.  The  rates  of  rent  per  acre  in  1882-83  were — rice-land, 
from  8s.  to  ;£"i,  los. ;  land  for  oil-seeds,  los. ;  land  for  cotton,  los. ; 
land  for  tobacco,  j[^\  ;  taungya  land,  los. ;  garden  land  for  fruit- 
trees,  ;^3,  I  OS. ;  land  for  pulses,  6s.  Compared  with  the  average  for 
the  whole  Province,  these  rates  are  high  in  respect  of  land  for  tobacco, 
cotton,  and  particularly  fruit-trees.  The  produce  per  acre  from  each 
sort  of  land  yearly  was  as  follows  in  1882-83  • — Rice,  1485  lbs.;  tobacco, 
1606  lbs. ;  vegetables,  730  lbs. ;  cotton,  106  lbs. ;  and  oil-seeds,  584  lbs 
Prices  current  in  the  same  year  were — rice,  7  s.  6jd.  per  matmd  (80 
lbs.) ;  tobacco,  9s.  7d.  per  7naund ;  cotton,  6s.  7d.  per  maund ;  and  oil- 
seeds, IIS.  lod.  per  maund.  In  1882-83,  the  price  of  a  plough-bullock 
was  ;^5  ;  of  a  sheep  or  a  goat,  ;^i,  12s.  ;  of  an  elephant,  ;^9o;  of  a 
buffalo,  ^7  ;  and  of  a  Pegu  pony,  fy.  Fish  sold  at  3d.  per  lb.  The 
agricultural  stock  of  the  District  included  in  1882-83 — cows  and 
bullocks,  128,879;  horses  and  ponies,  464;  sheep  and  goats,  694; 
pigs,  12,770;  buffaloes,  31,390;  elephants,  8;  carts,  32,818;  ploughs, 

PROME.  233 

38,270;  and  boats,  2087.     Skilled  labourers  received  4s.  a  day,  and 
unskilled  is.  6d. 

Manufactures^  etc, — One  of  the  most  important  manufactures  of  the 
District  is  silk.  Neither  the  worm  nor  the  mulberry  are  indigenous  to 
the  Province,  but  were  most  probably  imported  from  China  down  the 
Irawadi  valley.  That  this  lucrative  manufacture  is  not  more  general 
may  be  attributed  to  the  fact  that  it  involves  taking  the  life  of  the 
chrysalis — an  act  of  impiety  regarded  with  horror  by  every  rigid 
Buddhist.  The  silk-growers  are  nearly  all  Yabaings,  a  race  of  the  same 
stock  as  the  Burmese,  by  whom,  however,  they  are  held  in  contempt ; 
and  those  who  breed  silk-worms  live  in  separate  villages,  and  hold  little 
intercourse  with  their  neighbours.  They  are  exceedingly  few,  for  only 
436  pure  Yabaings  are  returned  by  the  Census  of  1881  for  the  whole 
Province.  The  price  of  the  raw  silk,  when  brought  to  the  markets  on 
the  river  bank,  varies  from  5  rupees  8  annas  (or  iis.)  to  9  rupees  (or 
1 8s.)  per  lb.,  the  average  being  7  rupees  4  annas  (or  14s.  6d.).  The 
method  pursued  in  this  industry  is  rude  and  careless  in  the  extreme,  all 
the  processes  being  carried  on  in  the  ordinary  bamboo  dwelling-houses 
of  the  country,  which  are  smoke-begrimed  and  dirty.  The  plant  of  a 
Burmese  silk  filature  is  inexpensive,  consisting  simply  of — (i)  a  set  of 
flat  trays  with  slightly  raised  edges,  made  of  bamboo  strips  from  2  to  4 
feet  in  diameter ;  (2)  a  few  neatly  made  circles  of  palm-leaves,  3  or  4 
inches  in  diameter;  (3)  some  strips  of  coarse  cotton  cloth;  (4)  a 
common  cooking  pot;  (5)  a  bamboo  reel;  and  (6)  a  two-pronged  fork. 
Silk-weaving  is  carried  on  principally  in  the  towns  of  Prome  and  Shwe- 
daung;  but  a  loom  forms  part  of  the  household  furniture  of  every 
Burmese  family.  The  best  cloths  are  made  from  Chinese  silk,  which 
costs  ^4  per  viss  or  3*65  lbs.,  whilst  the  same  quantity  of  the  home- 
grown article  costs  only  ;^2,  i8s.  The  number  of  male  workers  in  silk 
returned  by  the  Census  of  1881  was  2140,  of  whom  928  were  spinners, 
64  weavers,  and  the  remainder  merchants  and  petty  dealers. 

The  other  manufactures  of  the  District  are — ornamental  boxes  used 
for  keeping  palm-leaf  books,  made  in  Prome  town  only  ;  coarse  sugar, 
varying  in  price  from  ^i  to^i,  los.  per  80  lbs. ;  in  1877  there  were 
500  sugar-boilers.  The  monthly  out-turn  of  one  furnace  is  estimated 
at  4562  lbs.  Cutch,  made  in  the  wooded  townships  of  Shwe-lay, 
Maha-tha-man,  and  Pa-daung  from  fibre  of  the  Acacia  Catechu,  sold 
on  the  spot  in  1876-77  for  4s.  7^d.  per  maund  of  80  lbs.,  but  fetched 
19s.  7 id.  in  the  Rangoon  market.  In  1881-82  it  sold  on  the  spot  for 
15s.  7|d.  per  mauud  q{  %o  lbs.,  but  fetched  ^i,  13s.  in  the  Rangoon 
market.  Three  men  can  produce  an  out-turn  of  from  25  to  36  lbs. 
of  cutch  daily.  In  1877-78  this  industry  gave  employment  to  2040 
persons;  the  number  of  cauldrons  was  2282.  In  1881  it  employed 
4325  persons,  of  whom  4265  belonged  to  the  rural  population.    Cheroots 

234  PROME. 

are  manufactured  to  a  small  extent.  Only  women  are  employed  at  this 
craft,  and  one  woman  can  turn  out  about  400  cheroots  daily. 

Telegraph  lines  run  from  Rangoon  via  Paung-deh  and  Shwe-daung 
to  Thayet-myo,  and  from  Prome  to  Taung-gup  in  Arakan.  All  messages 
from  Upper  Burma  and  the  whole  country  east  of  the  Irawadi,  includ- 
ing Rangoon,  to  Calcutta  and  Europe,  pass  by  this  latter  Hne.  The 
chief  road  in  the  District  is  that  from  Rangoon  via  Paung-deh,  and 
across  the  Wek-put  and  Na-win  streams,  to  Prome.  Soon  after  the 
annexation  of  Pegu,  a  military  road  was  constructed  over  the  Arakan 
range,  but  it  is  now  in  disrepair.  The  Irawadi  Valley  (State)  Railway 
traverses  the  District,  with  stations  at  Paung-deh,  Sinmyisweh,  Theh- 
gon,  Hmaw-za  (Moza),  and  Prome.  Total  length  of  railroad  within  the 
District,  t^Z\  miles.  Numerous  dry-weather  cart-tracks  connect  village 
with  village.  The  mails  are  carried  from  Rangoon  by  the  railway  daily, 
and  thence  to  Thayet-myo  by  steamer  of  the  Irawadi  Flotilla  Company, 
which  now  plies  daily  instead  of  once  a  week  as  formerly. 

Administration. — Under  native  rule  the  larger  portion  of  the  imperial 
income  was  derived  from  a  poll-tax  levied  by  the  chief  local  authority, 
but  the  assessments  on  each  house  were  left  to  the  village  thtigyi. 
Certain  royal  lands  near  Prome  were  held  by  a  class  of  tenants 
called  Lamaing,  on  payment  of  a  rent  of  half  the  produce — a  kind 
of  tenure  which  existed  nowhere  else  in  the  Province.  The  gross 
revenue  in  1869-70,  before  Thayet-myo  was  separated  from  Prome,  was 
;^8o,328,  of  which  ;^28,457  was  derived  from  land  and  ;^34,o69  from 
capitation  dues.  The  gross  revenue  in  1877-78  amounted  to  ^68,574 ; 
the  expenditure  was  ;^i5,9i3.  In  i88r,  the  gross  revenue  was 
.^^78,817;  and  in  1882-83,  ^92,676.  Of  the  latter  sum,  ^£29, 258 
was  derived  from  land.  The  remainder  accrued  from  capitation  and 
minor  taxes.  The  local  revenue  raised  in  1877-78  (excluding  that 
of  Prome  town)  amounted  to  ^6323  ;  and  in  188 1  to  £ti^T.  Under 
Burmese  rule,  the  District  was  divided  into  small  independent  tracts, 
administered  by  wun  and  7?iyo-thugyi,  under  whom  were  iaik-thiigyi, 
rwa  or  village  thugyi,  and  kyeda?igye.  The  officers  in  charge  all  com- 
municated directly  with  the  court  at  Ava.  Under  British  rule,  Prome 
has  been  split  up  into  6  townships,  each  under  a  myo-uk  or  an  extra- 
Assistant  Commissioner,  who  is  entrusted  with  limited  fiscal,  judicial, 
and  police  powers.  The  number  of  thugyi  has  been  reduced  from 
140  to  120.  The  townships  are  Ma-ha-tha-man,  Shwe-leh,  Paung-deh, 
Theh-gon,  Shwe-daung,  and  Pa-daung.  Prome  town  is  a  municipality; 
income  in  1882-83,  ^1228.  Over  the  whole  District  is  a  Deputy 
Commissioner,  with  8  Assistants.  In  1877  the  regular  police  force 
consisted  of  379  officers  and  men  paid  from  Provincial  revenues.  The 
total  cost  was  ^^9681.  In  1882-83  the  regular  police  force  consisted 
of  467  officers  and  men  ;  total  cost,  ;^i  1,984.     There  are  courts  in  the 

FROME  TOWN.  235 

chief  towns  of  the  District,  viz.  Prome,  Pa-daung,  Shwe-daung,  and  Paung- 
deh.  For  many  years,  education  in  Prome  District  ^vas  entirely  in  the 
hands  of  Buddhist  monks  and  a  few  native  laymen,  whose  teaching  was 
confined  to  reading  and  writing.  Soon  after  the  annexation  of  Pegu 
(1S53),  the  American  Baptist  missionaries  opened  village  schools  and  a 
normal  school  at  Prome;  in  1866  the  State  established  a  middle-class 
school  in  the  same  town,  and  since  then  several  others  have  been  opened. 
In  1876-77,  the  average  daily  attendance  at  the  State  school  was  loS  ; 
and  in  1881-82,  82.  In  pursuance  of  the  scheme  for  utilizing  the 
monasteries  as  fur  as  possible  in  giving  a  sounder  education  than  had 
hitherto  been  imparted,  an  officer  was  appointed  in  1873-74  to  inspect 
all  schools  the  head  monks  of  which  would  allow  their  pupils  to  be 
examined.  In  1877-78,  85  monastic  and  29  lay  schools  were  inspected. 
In  1 88 1-82,  the  number  of  monastic  and  lay  schools  inspected  was 
29T.  The  total  number  of  schools  on  31st  March  1884  was  565  public 
and  180  private  institutions.  Scholars  in  the  former,  12,470;  in  the 
latter,  1393.  In  1S66-67,  the  Prome  jail  was  reduced  to  the  grade  of 
a  lock-up,  and  the  construction  of  a  new  prison  at  Thayet-myo  was 
begun;  in  1878,  the  site  of  the  lock-up  was  bought  by  the  Railway 
Department,  and  the  prisoners  removed  to  Thayet-myo.  There  is  no 
prison  of  any  kind  now  in  Prome. 

Climate. — The  climate  of  Prome  is  much  drier  than  in  other 
Districts  of  Lower  Burma.  The  total  rainfall  in  1877  was  returned 
at  53-46  inches;  and  in  1881  at  42-9.  The  average  rainfall  at  Prome 
town  for  the  twelve  years  ending  1881  was  53*23  inches.  There  are 
3  dispensaries  in  the  District,  namely,  at  Prome  town,  Paung-deh,  and 
Shwe-daung;  in-door  patients  {1882),  966;  out-door,  10,736.  Ophthal- 
mia is  very  prevalent  in  the  District.  [For  further  information  regard- 
ing Prome  District,  see  The  British  Burma  Gazetteer,  compiled  by 
authority  (Rangoon  Government  Press,  1879,  vol.  ii.  pp.  489-522). 
Also  see  the  British  Burma  Ceiisus  Beport  oi  1881  ;  and  the  several 
Administration  and  Departmental  Reports  of  British  Burma  from  1880 
to  1884.] 

Prome. — Chief  town  and  head-quarters  of  Prome  District,  Pegu 
Division,  Lower  Burma;  situated  in  lat.  18' 43' N.,  and  long.  95°  15' e., 
on  the  left  bank  of  the  Irawadi  (Irrawaddy).  By  railway,  161  miles 
distant  from  Rangoon.  The  town  extends  northwards  from  the  foot 
of  the  Prome  Hills  to  the  bank  of  the  Na-win,  with  a  suburb  on  the 
farther  side  of  that  stream ;  and  eastwards  for  some  distance  up  the 
Na-win  valley.  It  is  divided  into  several  municipal  quarters,  viz. 
Na-win  on  the  north,  Ywa-beh  on  the  east,  Shin-su  on  the  south, 
and  Shwe-ku  and  San-daw  in  the  centre.  In  Burmese  times,  the 
east  side  was  closed  in  by  a  ditch,  which  has  been  filled  up,  for  during 
the  dry  weather  it  proved  a  fertile  source  of  fever.     Skirting  the  high 

236  PROME  TOWN, 

river  bank  are  the  police  office,  the  Government  school,  the  court- 
houses, the  church,  and  the  telegraph  station.  The  Strand  road 
traverses  the  town  from  north  to  south,  and  from  it  numerous  well-laid 
roads  run  eastwards.  North  of  Shin-su  is  the  great  Shwe-san-daw 
Pagoda,  conspicuous  among  the  dark  foliage  of  the  trees  covering  the 
slopes  of  the  hill  on  which  it  stands.  In  the  Na-win  quarter,  a  large 
trade  in  nga-pi  or  fish-paste  is  carried  on.  Here  are  the  markets,  con- 
sisting of  four  distinct  buildings.  Farther  south,  overlooking  the  river 
and  separated  from  it  by  the  Strand,  are  the  charitable  dispensary  and 
Lock  hospital — wooden  buildings,  well  raised  above  the  ground.  The 
railway  station,  at  present  the  terminus  of  the  Irawadi  Valley  (State) 
Railway,  lies  a  little  south  of  the  court-houses.  The  town  was  almost 
entirely  destroyed  by  fire  in  1862. 

Prome  is  mentioned  in  ancient  histories  as  the  capital  of  a  great 
kingdom  before  the  Christian  era,  but  the  town  spoken  of  was  Tha-re- 
khettra  (Sri-kshettra),  some  miles  inland,  of  which  traces  still  exist. 
After  the  destruction  of  Tha-re-khettra,  about  the  end  of  the  ist 
century,  Prome  belonged  sometimes  to  Ava,  sometimes  to  Pegu,  and 
sometimes  was  independent.  But  since  the  conquest  of  Pegu  by 
Alaung-paya,  it  remained  a  Burmese  town  until  Pegu  was  annexed 
by  the  British  in  1853.  In  1825,  during  the  first  Anglo-Burmese 
war,  when  Sir  Archibald  Campbell  was  advancing  on  the  capital, 
endeavours  were  made  to  induce  him  to  halt  before  reaching 
Prome,  but  he  declined  entering  into  negotiations.  Upon  the 
first  appearance  of  our  troops,  the  place  was  partly  burned  by  the 
Burmese,  and  though  strongly  fortified,  it  was  deserted.  After  the 
signing  of  the  Treaty  of  Yandabu  in  1826,  the  British  evacuated  Prome 
District  with  the  rest  of  the  Irawadi  valley.  During  the  second  Anglo- 
Burmese  war  in  1852,  the  town  was  attacked  by  the  flotilla  under 
Commander  Tarleton,  and  taken  ;  but  almost  immediately  abandoned, 
as  there  were  no  troops  to  hold  it.  Three  months  later,  in  October  of 
that  year,  the  advance  from  Rangoon  took  place.  The  flotilla  arrived 
off  Prome  on  the  morning  of  the  9th,  and  each  ship  was  cannonaded 
as  it  passed  up,  but  with  little  effect.  After  a  short  contest,  the  place 
was  again  occupied.  On  the  15th  of  October,  Maha  Bandula,  the 
Burmese  commander,  surrendered,  and  the  enemy  wxre  driven  out  of 
the  District.  Gradually  the  country  settled  down,  and  a  regular  civil 
government  was  established.  The  British  garrison  in  Prome  first 
encamped  on  the  hills  south  of  the  town,  but  were  subsequently  trans- 
ferred to  Nwa-ma-yan,  near  Shwe-daung.  In  1854  they  were  removed 
to  Thayet-myo,  which  was  nearer  the  frontier,  and  supposed  to  be 

In  1872  the  population  of  Prome  town  was  returned  at  3i,i57j 
inclusive  of  all  wayfarers  and  casual  inhabitants.     In  1877  the  popula- 


tlon  was  estimated  at  2(i,Z2(i.  In  1881  the  Census  returned  the  poijula- 
tion  at  28,813,  of  whom  14,982  were  males  and  13,831  females. 
According  to  religion,  26,735  ^^cre  Buddhists,  11 60  Muhammadans, 
650  Hindus,  263  Christians,  and  5  'others.'  The  municipal  revenue  in 
1877-78  was  ^£"9638,  and  the  expenditure  £1^^^'.  in  1881-82  the 
revenue  was  ^11,500,  and  the  expenditure  ^^10,879.  I"^  1874  the 
town  was  erected  into  a  municipality,  and  since  then  great  improve- 
ments have  been  made— tanks  have  been  dug,  swamps  filled  in,  the 
town  lighted  with  kerosene  oil  lamps,  and  public  gardens  have  been 
laid  out.  The  total  amount  spent  on  public  works  up  to  the  close  of 
1877-78  was  ;£"9282,  inclusive  of  a  loan  of  ^726;  and  up  to  the 
close  of  1881-82,  ;^24,o6i.  In  1882  the  Prome  dispensary  afforded 
relief  to  542  in-door,  and  5380  out-door  patients. 

Pubna. — District,  Sub-division,  and  town  in  Bengal. — See  Pabna. 

Plidlikattai  {Poodoocottah,  'The  Tonda-man's  Country'). — Native 
State  in  Madras  Presidency,  lying  between  10°  15'  and  10°  29'  n.  lat., 
and  between  78°  45'  and  79°  e.  long.,  entirely  surrounded  by  the 
British  Districts  of  Tanjore,  Trichinopoli,  and  Madura.  Area, 
iioi  square  miles.  Population  (1871)  316,695;  (r88i)  302,127, 
almost  entirely  agricultural.  The  Census  of  1881  affords  the  following 
details: — Number  of  males,  142,810;  females,  159,317;  dwelling  in  i 
town  and  596  villages,  containing  58,449  occupied  and  15,635  unoccu- 
pied houses.  The  density  of  the  population  was  (1871)  288,  and 
(1881)  274  persons  to  the  square  mile.  Hindus  (in  1881)  numbered 
281,809,  or  93*28  per  cent.  ;  Muhammadans,  8946,  or  2-96  per  cent.  ; 
and  Christians,  11,372,  or  3-76  per  cent.,  of  whom  nearly  all  were 
Roman  Catholics.  The  largest  class  among  the  Hindus  were  the 
Vanniansor  labourers  and  husbandmen  (82,954) ;  next  comes  the  caste 
of  Shembadavans  or  fishermen  (53,961),  forming  19  per  cent,  of  the 
population;  Vellalars,  agriculturists  (30,139);  and  Idayars  or  shep- 
herds (26,158).  Pariahs  numbered  26,568.  The  professional  class, 
including  State  officials  of  every  kind  and  members  of  the  learned 
professions,  is  returned — males  4964,  and  females  391  ;  the  domestic 
class,  including  servants,  inn  and  lodging  keepers,  at  males  1208, 
and  females  3104;  the  commercial  class  at  males  2587,  females 
361;  the  agricultural  class  at  males  75,292,  females  54,543;  the 
industrial  or  artisan  classes  at  males  11,040,  females  9075;  and  the 
indefinite  and  non-productive  classes  at  males  47,719,  females  91,843. 
There  is  only  one  town,  Pudukattai — population  (1881)  15,384. 

The  country  is  for  the  most  part  a  flat  plain,  intersj^ersed  with  small 
rocky  hills,  some  of  which  are  crowned  by  old  forts.  In  the  south-west, 
hills  and  jungles  are  found,  but  elsewhere  the  State  is  well  cultivated. 
There  are  3000  tanks,  some  of  considerable  size.  Products — rice 
and  dry  grains.     Iron-cre  is  found  in  places,  but  is  not  worked.     Silk- 


weaving  is  carried  on.  Manufactures  of  cloths,  blankets,  and  mats. 
The  gross  revenue  of  the  State  is  ^60,000,  but  the  alienations  of  land 
revenue  are  extensive.  Members  of  the  Raja's  family  hold  110,000 
acres,  95,627  acres  have  been  granted  to  temples,  and  9584  acres  to 
almshouses.  The  ind77is  or  rent-free  grants  held  by  Brahmans,  and 
the  various  service  tenures,  amount  to  too,oco  acres.  After  these 
deductions,  only  3  lakhs  (say  ;£"3o,ooo)  of  the  revenue  is  payable  to 
the  Raja.  The  following  statistics  relate  to  the  year  1882-83  : — Land 
revenue,  ;!^29,998;  State  expenditure  on  public  works,  £,SZ'^^\  ^^ 
State  jewels,  ^5400;  strength  of  police,  177  officers  and  men  ;  number 
of  convicts  in  jail,  87,  cost  of  maintenance  ;2^329;  number  of  pupils 
in  the  Raja's  College,  337;  dispensary — in-door  patients  137,  and 
out-door  10,576  ;  number  of  persons  successfully  vaccinated,  2397. 
Total  force,  including  village  police  and  personal  retinue,  3636. 

The  first  connection  of  the  British  Government  with  this  chief,  then 
usually  called  Tondaman  (a  family  name  derived  from  the  Tamil  word 
meaning  'a  ruler'),  was  formed  at  the  siege  of  Trichinopoli  in  1753, 
when  the  British  army  greatly  depended  on  his  fidelity  and  exertions 
for  supplies.  Subsequently  he  was  serviceable  in  the  wars  with 
Haidar  Ali  and  in  the  Palegar  war,  the  name  given  to  the  opera- 
tions against  the  usurpers  of  the  large  zaminddri  of  Sivaganga 
in  Madura  District  after  the  cession  of  the  Karnatik.  In  1803  he 
solicited  as  a  reward  for  his  services  the  favourable  consideration  of 
his  claim  to  the  fort  and  district  of  Kilanelli,  situated  in  the  southern 
part  of  Tanjore.  This  claim  was  founded  on  a  grant  by  Pratap  Singh, 
Raja  of  Tanjore,  and  on  engagements  afterwards  entered  into  by 
Colonel  Braithwaite,  General  Coote,  and  Lord  Macartney.  The 
Government  of  Madras  granted  the  fort  and  district  of  Kilanelli ;  and 
the  cession  was  confirmed  by  the  Court  of  Directors,  with  the  con- 
dition that  the  revenue  should  not  be  alienated,  and  that  it  should 
revert  to  the  British  Government  upon  proof  being  given  at  any  time 
that  the  inhabitants  laboured  under  oppression. 

The  present  Raja,  Ramachandra  Tondaman  Bahadur,  has  received 
a  sajiad  granting  the  right  of  adoption.  He  exercises  independent 
jurisdiction,  but  is  considered  as  an  ally  subject  to  the  advice  of  the 
British  Government.  He  maintains  a  military  force  of  126  infantry, 
21  cavalry,  and  3260  militia,  besides  armed  servants  and  watchmen. 
The  succession  follows  the  law  of  primogeniture. 

Plidukattai  [Poodoocottah).  —  Chief  town  of  Piidiikattai  State, 
Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  10°  23'  n.,  long.  78°  51'  51"  e.  Population 
(1871)  13,978:  (1881)  15,384,  of  whom  7274  are  males  and  8110 
females.  Hindus  number  14,089;  Muhammadans,  914 ;  Christians, 
381.     An  unusually  clean,  airy,  and  well-built  town. 

Pukhra. — Town  in   Bara  Banki  District,   Oudh;  situated  5  miles 


east  of  the  Giimti  river,  on  the  Rii  Bareli  and  Haidargarh  road. 
Population  (1881)  2544,  of  whom  2470  were  Hindus  and  74  Muham- 
madans.  Number  of  houses,  510.  Fine  Sivaite  temple  and  handsome 
masonry  bathing  ^i^'-^Z/jT.  Pukhra  is  the  head-quarters  of  the  estate  of 
Pukhra  Ansari,  belonging  to  the  Amethi  Rajputs. 

Pulali.  —  Petty  State  in  Jhalawar  Division,  Kathiawar,  Bombay 
Presidency. — See  Pal  all 

Pulgaon. — Railway  station  in  Wardha  District,  Central  Provinces  ; 
situated  in  lat.  20°  44'  n.,  and  long.  79°  21'  e.,  near  the  river  Wardha, 
which  has  a  picturesque  waterfall  close  by.  Population  (1881)  645. 
The  site  was  previously  unoccupied ;  but  when  the  spot  was  selected 
for  the  station,  land  was  also  set  aside  for  a  village.  Two  roads 
connect  Pulgaon  with  the  cotton  marts  of  Deoli  and  Hinganghat, 
and  with  Arvi  and  Ashti.  The  latter  is  a  good  fair-weather  road, 
all  the  streams  being  bridged  or  provided  with  causeways.  The 
Hindus  deem  Pulgaon  a  holy  place,  and  have  built  a  temple  in  the 

Puliangudi. — Town  in  Sankaranainarkoil  idliik,  Tinnevelli  District, 
Madras  Presidency ;  situated  on  the  old  Madura  road,  in  lat.  9°  10'  40" 
N.,  and  long.  77°  26'  15"  e.  Population  (187 1)  6810,  inhabiting  16 18 
houses;  and  (1881)  6401,  inhabiting  1383  houses.  Hindus  number 
5602  ;  Muhammadans,  714;  and  Christians,  85.  Police  station  ;  post- 

Pulicat  (Fa/iydvef'kddu). — Town  in  Ponneri  tdiitk,  Chengalpat 
(Chingleput)  District,  Madras  Presidency.  Lat.  13°  25'  8"  n.,  long. 
80°  21'  24"  E.  Population  (1871)  4903,  inhabiting  846  houses; 
and  (1881)  4967,  inhabiting  849  houses.  Hindus  number  3426; 
Muhammadans,  1306;  and  Christians,  235.  The  town  lies  at  the 
southern  extremity  of  an  island  which  divides  the  sea  from  the  large 
lagoon  called  the  Pulicat  Lake,  which  is  about  37  miles  in  length  by 
from  3  to  II  in  breadth,  23  miles  north  of  Madras  city.  This  salt- 
water lake  is  under  the  influence  of  the  tide,  and  must  have  been 
produced  by  an  inroad  of  the  sea  during  a  storm,  when  it  topped  the 
low  ridge  of  the  coast-line. 

Pulicat  was  the  site  of  the  earliest  settlement  of  the  Dutch  on 
the  mainland  of  India.  In  1609  they  built  a  fort  here,  and  called 
it  Geldria;  and  in  1619  they  allowed  the  English  a  share  in  the  pepper 
trade  with  Java  (Eastwick).  Later,  it  was  the  chief  Dutch  Settlement 
on  the  Coromandel  coast.  It  was  taken  by  the  British  in  1781  ;  re- 
stored in  1785  to  Holland  under  the  treaty  of  1784;  and  surrendered 
by  them  in  1795.  I^"^  1818,  Pulicat  was  handed  over  to  the  Dutch 
by  the  East  India  Company,  agreeably  to  the  Convention  of  the  Allied 
Powers  in  1814;  in  1825,  finally  ceded  to  Great  Britain  under  the 
treaty  of  March  1824.     The  backwater  is  connected  with  Madras  by 


Cochrane's  Canal.  There  used  to  be  a  considerable  trade  between 
Pulicat  and  the  Straits  Settlements,  but  of  late  years  this  has 
considerably  declined.  The  old  Dutch  cemetery,  which  was  rescued 
from  decay  by  Sir  Charles  Trevelyan,  contains  many  well-cut  tomb- 
stones, some  of  them  nearly  300  years  old.  Roman  Catholics  resort 
to  Pulicat  in  great  numbers  on  certain  feast  days. 

Plilikonda  {PuUkoJidah,  from  Pallikondai,  '  you  lie  down ').  — - 
Village  in  Vellore  tdhik,  North  Arcot  District,  Madras  Presidency; 
situated  in  lat.  12°  54'  40"  n.,  and  long.  78°  59'  e.,  on  the  road 
from  Madras  by  Vellore  to  Bangalore  ;  distant  from  the  former  place 
97  miles,  and  from  the  latter  115  miles.  Population  (1881)  2405, 
inhabiting  357  houses.  It  lies  at  the  base  of  a  high  hill  near  the  right 
or  southern  bank  of  the  Palar.  The  trade  is  chiefly  carried  on  by 
Labbays  (Lubbais).  Gunny-bags  are  manufactured.  The  sacred  name 
for  the  place  is  Adirangam.     Annual  fair  ;  post-office  ;  fine  pagoda. 

Pulivendala  (lit.  Puli-ma?idahm--='i\\t  abode  of  tigers). — Tdhik  or 
Sub-division  of  Cuddapah  (Kadapa)  District,  Madras  Presidency. 
Area,  701  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  95,617;  namely,  49,006 
males  and  46,611  females,  dweUing  in  2  towns  and  103  villages,  con- 
taining 19,787  houses.  Hindus  number  87,462  ;  Muhammadans, 
8127;  Christians,  27;  and  'others,'  i.  The  taluk  is  hilly;  and  the 
greater  portion  of  the  land  is  unirrigated.  Throughout  the  western- 
most half  spreads  the  rich  loam  known  as  cotton  soil.  Along  the 
eastern  limits  of  the  tdhck,  the  waters  of  the  Papaghni  irrigate  a 
larf^e  area  on  both  banks.  Cotton  and  choiafn  (Pennisetum 
typhoideum)  divide  the  greater  part  of  the  land  between  them. 
Other  cereals  and  pulses,  with  oil-seeds,  indigo,  are  also  grown. 
Before  the  subjugation  by  the  English  of  the  Ceded  Districts  in 
1800,  Pulivendala  taluk  was  given  up  to  the  rule  of  several  small 
pdlegdrs,  whose  memories  still  linger  round  their  now  ruined  forts 
dotted  here  and  there  over  the  country.  These  forts  are,  as  a  rule, 
a  mud  enclosure,  about  100  yards  square,  surrounded  by  ditch  and 
glacis.  At  each  corner  stands  a  round  tower,  and  midway  between 
each  two  corner  towers  a  square  bastion,  loop-holed,  as  is  the  whole 
face  of  the  wall,  for  musketry.  In  1883  the  tdluk  contained  2  criminal 
courts;  police  circles    {thdnds),    10;  regular  police,    79    men.     Land 

revenue,  £i^,ZS?>- 

Pulivendala.  —  Town  in  Cuddapah  District,  Madras,  and  head- 
quarters of  Pulivendala  tdluk.  Population  (1881)  1885,  dvvelHng  in 
397  houses.     Government  garden  ;  post-office. 

PuUampet. — Tdluk  or  Sub-division  of  Cuddapah  (Kadapa)  District, 
Madras  Presidency.  Area,  about  979  square  miles.  Population  (1881) 
134,366,  namely,  68,162  males  and  66,204  females,  dwelling  in 
I-20  villages,  containing   29,667   houses.      Hindus   number  126,593; 



Muhammadans,  7696;  and  Christians,  77.  Black  regdr  (cotton)  and 
red  soil  predominate,  the  former  of  which  is  rich  and  fertile.  To 
the  east  and  west  the  tdhik  is  intersected  by  hill  ranges.  Seventy- 
seven  square  miles  are  reserved  forest  lands.  The  principal  manu- 
factures are  indigo  and  cotton  of  very  fine  texture,  which  is  highly 
prized  for  turbans  and  ornamental  cloths.  In  1883  the  taluk  con- 
tained I  civil  and  2  criminal  courts;  police  circles  (thchids),  10; 
regular  police,  82  men.     Land  revenue,  ;£"2 1,371. 

Pullampet.  —  Town  in  Cuddapah  District.  Population  (1881) 
231 1,  dwelling  in  503  houses.  Fine  mats  of  coloured  grass  are  manu- 
factured, which  form  house  mats,  and  are  exceedingly  ornamental. 
Indigo  and  cloth  of  fine  texture  are  the  other  manufactures  of  the 
town.     Post-office. 

Pulney. — Town  and  hills  in  Madura  District,  Madras  Presidency.^ 
See  Palni. 

Pulu  {Poo-loo). — Tidal  creek  in  Bassein  District,  Irawadi  Division, 
Lower*Burma.  It  branches  from  the  Myaung-mya  river  in  about  lat. 
16°  35'  30"  N.,  and  then  runs  south  and  west  into  the  Ywe.  Navigable 
at  all  times  by  river  steamers  plying  between  Rangoon  and  Bassein. 

Plina. — District  and  town  in  Bombay  Presidency. — See  Poona. 

Punadra.  —  Petty  State  in  the  Mahi  Kantha  Agency,  Bombav 
Presidency;  situated  on  the  Watruk  river.  Villages,  11.  Estimated 
area,  12 J  square  miles;  under  cultivation,  16,650  bighds.  Population 
(1881)  3767.  The  revenue  is  returned  (1882-83)  at  ;^i57o;  and 
tribute  of  ^37,  los.  is  paid  to  the  Gaekwar  of  Baroda.  Products — 
bdjra,  rice,  and  wheat.  The  Miah  of  Punadra,  Abhi  Singh,  is  a  Muk- 
wana  Koli,  converted  to  Islam.  The  Miahs  observe  a  sort  of  mixed 
Muhammadan  and  Hindu  religion,  giving  their  daughters  in  marriage 
to  Muhammadans  of  rank,  and  marrying  the  daughters  of  Koli  chiefs. 
On  their  death  their  bodies  are  buried,  not  burnt.  There  is  i  school 
with  24  pupils.     Transit  dues  are  levied  in  the  State. 

Punakha.  —  The  winter  capital  of  Bhutan  State,  on  the  Bhagni 
river,  lat.  27'  32'  n.,  long.  89°  53'  e.  Punakha  lies  about  100  miles 
north-east  of  Darjiling.  It  has  a  scanty  and  poor  population, 
but  possesses  some  importance  as  the  residence  of  the  Bhutan 
Court  during  the  winter  months.  It  was  selected  for  this  purpose 
owing  to  its  mild  climate,  and  comparative  accessibility  from  the  Indian 

Plinamallu  {Poonamallee,  Pondamaldi). — Town  and  cantonment  in 
Saidapet  tdluk^  Chengalpat  (Chingleput)  District,  Madras  Presidency. 
Lat.  13°  2  40"  N.,  long.  80°  8'  11"  e.  Lies  13  miles  west  of  Madras 
city.  A  military  cantonment,  with  a  Magistrate  and  District  7nu?isif. 
Population  (1881)  of  town  2849,  dwelling  in  390  houses,  and  of 
cantonment  4821,   dwelling   in    722    houses.       Of  the   total,   Hindus 

VOL.  XI.  Q 


numbered  6162;  Muhammadans,  814;  and  Christians,  694.  The 
permanent  European  population  of  the  place  are  chiefly  pensioners. 
A  convalescent  depot  for  British  troops  from  the  whole  Madras 
Presidency  and  Burma  is  located  here,  the  climate  being  very  salu- 
brious. The  number  of  men  is  usually  about  150.  A  fine  hospital, 
with  90  beds,  is  built  on  the  site  of  the  old  fort,  the  walls  of  which 
have  been  levelled.  There  is  no  garrison.  The  fort  played  a  con- 
spicuous part  in  the  wars  of  the  Karnatik.  Post-office  and  Government 

Punasa. — Town  in  the  north  of  Nimar  District,  Central  Provinces ; 
situated  in  lat.  22°  14'  n.,  and  long.  76°  26'  e.,  -^t^  miles  from  Khandwa. 
Once  a  considerable  place,  held  by  Tuar  chiefs.  The  fort,  built  in 
1730  by  Ram  Kushal  Singh,  afforded  a  refuge  for  European  families 
during  the  Mutiny  in  1857.  The  country  round  is  mostly  waste, 
having  never  recovered  from  the  ravages  of  the  Pindaris ;  it  has  now 
been  converted  into  a  Government  reserved  forest.  The  large  tank 
was  repaired  by  Captain  French  in  1846.  A  market  is  held  every 

Pundri. — Town  and  municipality  in  Kaithal  tahsil^  Karnal  District, 
Punjab.  Lat.  29°  45'  30"  n.,  long.  76°  36'  15"  e.,  situated  on  the  bank 
of  an  extensive  tank,  known  as  the  Piindrak  taldo^  which  gives  its  name 
to  the  town,  and  which  nearly  half  surrounds  it  with  bathing  places 
and  flights  of  steps  leading  to  the  water.  Population  (1881)  4977, 
namely,  Hindus,  3343;  Muhammadans,  1630;  Sikhs,  3;  and  Jain,  i. 
Number  of  houses,  342.  Municipal  income  (1883-84),  ^196,  or  an 
average  of  9|d.  per  head.  The  town  is  surrounded  by  a  mud  wall 
with  four  gates,  and  nearly  all  the  streets  are  paved.  Several  large 
brick  houses,  and  a  good  brick  sardi  or  native  inn.  Little  trade. 
School  and  police  station. 

Pundur.  —  Tract  of  country  in  Keunthal  State,  Punjab,  lying 
between  30°  58'  and  31°  4'  n.  lat.,  and  between  77°  35'  and  77°  42' 
E.  long.  (Thornton).  It  consists  of  a  mountain  ridge,  running  north- 
east and  south-west,  with  an  estimated  elevation  of  from  6000  to  7000 
feet  above  sea-level.  It  formerly  belonged  to  Jubbal  State,  but  after  the 
expulsion  of  the  Gurkhas  it  devolved  upon  the  East  India  Company, 
who  transferred  it  to  Keunthal.     Estimated  population,  3000. 

Pungamir. — Zami?iddri  estate  in  North  Arcot  District,  Madras 
Presidency.  Area,  523  square  miles.  Population  (1881)  72,143,  namely, 
36,377  males  and  35,766  females,  dwelling  in  i  town  and  68  villages, 
containing  15,271  houses.  Hindus  number  68,406;  Muhammadans, 
3598;  and  Christians,  139. 

The  estate  lies  above  the  ghats,  in  the  north-west  corner  of  the 
District.  Mysore  State  bounds  it  on  the  west.  Large  game  is 
abundant,  and  twenty-five  years  ago  (i86o)  elephants  were  found.     An 


excellent  breed  of  cattle  is  raised.  Granite,  lime,  and  iron-sand  are 
plentiful.  About  40,000  acres  are  under  cultivation,  9000  acres 
being  irrigated.  Sugar-cane  is  largely  cultivated.  Exports — raw  sugar, 
tamarinds,  grain,  and  jungle  produce.  Imports — salt  and  fine  cloths. 
The  tciliik  has  no  miles  of  road.  Income  (1880),  ^9410;  peshkash 
(permanent  rent),  ;£"6686. 

Punganiir. — Head-quarters  of  the  Punganiir  zaminddri  in  North 
Arcot  District,  Madras  Presidency;  situated  in  lat.  13°  21'  40"  n.,  and 
long.  78°  36'  -T^i  E.,  on  a  plateau  2000  feet  above  the  sea.  Popula- 
tion (1881)  7672,  dwelling  in  1603  houses.  Hindus  number  6306; 
Muhammadans,  1305;  and  Christians,  61.  Punganiir  was  one  of  the 
Cuddapah  (Kadapa)  Palayams,  and  possessed  considerable  importance 
at  one  time,  the  Palegar  having  5000  men  under  him.  In  1642  the 
country  was  taken  by  the  Marathas,  and  in  17 13  it  was  occupied  by 
the  Cuddapah  Nawab.  In  1755  the  Marathas,  and  in  1774  Haidar 
All,  subdued  the  Palegar.  After  various  vicissitudes,  the  family  was 
restored  by  the  British  in  1799.  One  of  the  Palegars  fell  at  the  battle 
of  Wandiwash.  The  town  is  prosperous,  and  contains  1603  good 
houses.  The  temperature  is  much  lower  than  in  other  parts  of  the 
District.  A  large  cattle  fair  is  held  in  April.  A  pair  of  Mysore 
bullocks  have  recently  fetched  here  so  high  a  price  as  jQdo.  The 
zam'mddr's  palace  has  accommodation  for  European  travellers.  In  the 
courtyard  are  stalls  for  a  menagerie ;  a  museum  ;  and  several  life-sized 
models  of  natives  of  different  castes  in  their  customary  dress  or 
undress.  A  mile  from  the  town  are  the  ruins  of  a  large  Roman 
Catholic  chapel,  bearing  date  1780.     School ;  post-office. 

Yym\^  {Panj-db,  'The  Five  Rivers ')•— Province  of  British  India, 
under  the  administration  of  a  Lieutenant-Governor;  lying  between 
27°  39'  and  35°  2'  N.  lat,  and  between  69°  35'  and  78'  35'  e.  long. 
Area  under  direct  British  administration,  106,632  square  miles. 
Population,  according  to  the  Census  of  1881,  18,850,437.  The  Native 
States  in  dependence  upon  the  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  Punjab 
(exclusive  of  Kashmir,  which  has  recently  been  separated  from  the 
Punjab,  and  placed  under  the  direct  superintendence  of  the  Govern- 
ment of  India)  have  an  estimated  area  of  35,817  square  miles,  with  a 
population  in  1881  of  3,861,683  persons.  The  total  area  of  the  Punjab 
(British  and  Native)  accordingly  amounts  to  142.449  square  miles,  and 
its  population  (1881)  to  22,712,120.  The  entire  Province,  with  its 
attached  Feudatory  States,  comprises  one-tenth  of  the  total  area,  and 
one-eleventh  of  the  total  population  of  the  Indian  Empire.  It  numbers 
among  its  inhabitants  one-fourth  of  the  Muhammadan,  one-twentieth 
of  the  Hindu,  and  eleven-twelfths  of  the  Sikh  subjects  of  the  Queen. 
Together  with  Kashmir,  which  lies  further  north,  it  occupies  the  extreme 
north-western  corner  of  the  Empire,  and  comprises  the  whole  of  British 

244  PUNJAB, 

India  north  of  Sind  and  Rajputana  and  west  of  the  river  Jumna.  The 
Punjab  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Kashmir  (Cashmere)  and  the  Hill 
States  of  Swat  and  Boner;  on  the  east  by  the  river  Jumna  (Jamuna), 
the  North-Western  Provinces,  and  the  Chinese  Empire ;  on  the  south 
by  Sind,  the  river  Sutlej  (Satlaj),  and  Rajputana;  and  on  the  west  by 
Afghanistan  and  Khelat  (Baluchistan).  The  capital  of  the  Punjab  is 
Lahore,  situated  in  about  the  centre  of  the  Province,  but  the  principal 
city  in  population  and  importance  is  Delhi,  the  ancient  metropolis  of 
the  Mughal  dynasty. 

The  table  on  pp.  245  and  246  shows  the  Divisions  and  Districts  of 
the  Punjab,  with  the  area  and  population  of  each  in  1881,  together 
with  the  Native  States. 

Physical  Aspects. — In  its  strict  etymological  sense,  the  Punjab,  or 
region  of  the  Five  Rivers,  comprises  only  the  tract  of  country  enclosed 
and  watered  by  the  confluent  streams  of  the  Sutlej  (Satlaj),  the  Beas 
(Bias),  the  Ravi,  the  Chexab  (Chinab),  and  the  Jehlam  (Jhelum). 
But  modern  territorial  arrangements  have  included  under  the  same 
designation  three  other  well-demarcated  tracts,  namely — the  Sind  Sagar 
Doab,  or  wedge  of  land  between  the  Punjab  Proper  and  the  Indus ; 
the  Derajat,  or  narrow  strip  of  country  west  of  the  Indus,  and 
stretching  up  to  the  Sulaiman  mountains  ;  and  the  cis-Sutlej  Districts, 
or  table-land  of  Sirhind,  between  the  Punjab  Proper  and  the  Jumna 
(Jamuna),  the  greater  part  of  which  belongs  historically  and  physi- 
cally to  the  North  -  Western  Provinces,  though  now  transferred  for 
administrative  purposes  to  the  Lieutenant-Governor  at  Lahore. 

As  stated  above,  the  Punjab  includes  two  classes  of  territory,  namely, 
32  British  Districts,  and  the  States  of  34  native  chiefs,  almost  all 
of  whom  pay  tribute  in  some  form  or  other,  and  all  of  whom  are 
subject,  more  or  less,  to  control  by  the  local  government.  Of  the 
107,010  square  miles  included  in  British  territory,  11,170  square 
miles  are  irrigated,  36,656  square  miles  are  cultivated,  36,706  square 
miles  more  are  classed  as  cultivable,  and  would  repay  the  labour  of 
the  husbandman  were  means  of  irrigation  available,  while  the  remain- 
ing 33,648  square  miles  consist  of  inhospitable  mountain -sides  or 
uncultivable  waste. 

The  dominions  of  the  34  native  chiefs  vary  in  size  and  importance, 
from  the  principalities  of  Patiala  and  Bahawalpur,  with  areas  of  5500 
and  17,300  square  miles,  and  populations  of  1,500,000  and  600,000 
respectively,  and  ruled  over  by  chiefs  subject  only  to  the  most  general 
supervision,  to  the  tiny  State  of  Darkuti,  with  an  area  of  4  square  miles 
and  a  total  population  of  590  souls,  whose  ruler  is  independent  in  htUe 
more  than  the  name.  They  may  be  grouped  under  three  main  classes. 
The  Hill  States,  lying  among  the  Punjab  Himalayas,  and  held  by  some 

\_Se7i  tejice  co?i  fin  tied  on  p.  247. 


























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PUNJAB.  247 

Sentefice  conttJiued from  /.  244.]  .     ,    ,     r-i       u 

of  the  most  ancient  Rajput  families  in  all  India,  mclude  Chamba, 
Mandi,  Suket,  and  the  twenty  Simla  States,  of  which  last  only 
four,  namely  Nahan,  Bilaspur,  Bashahr,  and  Nalagarh,  exceed  an  area 
of  250  square  miles,  or  a  population  of  17,500.  Along  the  western 
half  of  the  southern  border,  and  separated  from  British  territory  by  the 
Sutlej,  lies  the  Muhammadan  State  of  Bahawalpur,  consistmg  ot  the 
left  Sutlej  valley  and  a  broad  strip  of  the  Rajputana  desert.  Ihe 
remaining  States,  including  the  possessions  of  all  the  great  bikti 
feudatories,  lie  wholly  east  of  Lahore,  and,  with  insignificant  exceptions, 
occupy  the  centre  of  the  eastern  plains  of  the  Province. 

Monufain  Systems.-^h^  mountain  regions  of  the  Punjab  naturally 
fall  under  four  separate  groups.  To  the  north-east  of  the  Province 
lies  the  Himalavan  system  of  the  Punjab  Proper,  with  the  fringing 
ran^e  of  the  Siwdliks  at  its  foot.  In  the  south-eastern  corner  of  the 
Punjab  the  Aravalli  system  sends  out  insignificant  outliers  which  run 
across  Gurgaon  and  Delhi  Districts,  and  strike  the  Jumna  at  Delhi 
The  lower  portion  of  the  western  frontier  is  constituted  by  the  great 
Sulaiman  chain ;  while  the  north-western  corner  of  the  Province  lies 
among  and  within  a  tangled  series  of  peaks  and  ranges,  marking  the 
point  of  junction  of  the  Himalayas  of  Kashmir,  the  Safed  Koh,  and  the 
Sulaimans,  and  is  cut  off  by  the  Salt  Range  and  its  trans-Indus  con- 
tinuation from  the  great  plains  which  lie  to  the  east  and  south.  Ihe 
first  and  last  of  these  four  groups  are  separated  by  Kashmir  territory, 
which,  from  the  Himalayan  State  of  Chamba  on  the  east  to  the  Jehlam 
on  the  west,  stretches  down  to  and  includes  the  foot  of  the  mountain 

ranches.  , 

The  Sulaimdns.-The  Sulaiman  mountains  run  almost  due  north 
and  south  along  the  western  border  of  the  Province  for  between  300 
and  400  miles.  They  consist  of  several  parallel  ranges  of  barren 
mountains,  between  which  lie  valleys  that  are  fertile  only  by  comparison 
The  frontier  of  British  India  runs  sometimes  at  the  foot  and  sometimes 
along  the  crest  of  the  easternmost  of  these  ranges  ;  and  the  mountain, 
themselves,  which  are  inhabited  by  independent  or  semi-independent 
tribes  of  Pathans  and  Baliichis,  belong  to  the  Punjab  m  litUe  more 
than  a  cjeo2;raphical  sense.  ^       ,  ^  ^u^ 

T>^  Ar^vallis.-Th^  Aravallis,  which  run  through  Gurgaon  and  the 
south  of  Delhi  District,  consist  of  low  ranges  of  'f '8"'*^=^"'  ^;;  ^ 
covered  with  brushwood,  and  are  interesting  chiefly  from  a  geological 
point  of  view,  as,  with  the  exception  of  the  isolated  peak  of  l^;"""^ J" 
Jhan..,  they  form  the  northernmost  extremity  of  the  peninsular  rock 
system,  so  distinct  from  the  later  formations  of  the  ""^'^^y^^- 

T/te  Himalayan  System.-1\.^  mountain  system  of  the  H.mdlajas, 
so  far  as  it  concerns  the  Punjab,  consists  of  three  great  range. 

248  PUNJAB, 

running  in  a  generally  north-westerly  direction  from  the  head-waters  of 
the  Sutlej  to  the  Indus, — the  Western  Himalayas  or  Zanskar  or  Bara 
Lacha  range,  the  mid-Himalayas  or  Pir  Panjal  range,  and  the  outer  or 
sub-Himalayas.  From  these  three  great  ranges  spring  numerous 
minor  ranges  as  ribs  from  a  backbone,  the  whole  forming  a  confused 
system  of  mountain  chains  and  valleys,  the  breadth  of  which  is  some 
90  miles  at  its  eastern  extremity,  from  Lahul  to  the  Siwaliks  of 
Hoshiarpur,  and  some  150  miles  measured  at  its  western  extremity 
across  Kashmir. 

The  Western  Himalayas. — The  Western  Himalaya  or  Zanskar  or 
Bara  Lacha  range  separates  the  valley  of  the  Upper  Indus  which  lies 
to  its  north  from  the  mountain-basins  of  the  five  Punjab  rivers.  It 
runs  from  the  sources  of  the  Sutlej  along  the  northern  borders  of 
Kanawar  in  Bashahr,  Spiti,  Lahul,  Pangi  (in  Chamba)  and  the  Kashmir 
valley,  till  pierced  by  the  Indus  at  the  base  of  the  mighty  Nanga 
Parbat.  Thence  it  passes  on  to  join  the  Pamir  and  Hindu  Kiish  near 
the  sources  of  the  Kuner  and  Gilghit  rivers.  It  separates  the  Ar^^ans 
of  India  from  the  Bhotias  of  Tibet,  and  the  cold,  dry,  treeless  steppes 
of  Central  Asia  from  the  luxuriant  humidity  of  India.  The  average 
height  is  19,000  feet,  or  greater  than  that  of  the  Andes;  the  average 
height  of  the  peaks  being  20,770  feet,  and  that  of  the  passes  15,700 
feet.  The  snow-line  lies  at  18,500  feet  on  the  southern  and  at  19,000 
feet  on  the  northern  face. 

The  Mid-Himalayas. — The  mid-Himalaya  or  Pir  Panjdl  range  divides 
the  valleys  of  Spiti,  Lahul,  and  Kashmir  on  the  north  from  those  of 
Kiilu,  Plach,  and  Chamba  on  the  south,  and  terminates  on  the  Indus 
at  the  Hazara  border  in  the  celebrated  peak  of  Mahaban,  though  the 
Swat  range  may  perhaps  be  considered  its  trans-Indus  continuation. 
Its  general  direction  is  north-west,  and  it  is  divided  into  three  well- 
marked  sections  by  the  great  rivers  which  pierce  its  chain.  The 
easternmost  or  Bashahr  range  is  an  offshoot  of  the  Western  Himalayas, 
and  extends  for  a  distance  of  60  miles  from  Jamnotri  to  the  Sutlej 
below  Ghatul.  Beyond  the  Sutlej  it  is  continued  by  the  Lahul  range, 
which  runs  for  160  miles  to  the  great  southward  sweep  of  the  Chenab 
in  Kishtwar  (Kashmir).  Thence  the  Pir  Panjal  runs  for  about  180 
miles  to  the  great  southward  sweep  of  the  Jehlam  at  Muzaffarabad,  and 
across  Jehlam  and  Hazara  Districts  to  the  Indus  at  Darband.  The 
average  height  of  its  peaks  is  19,000,  of  its  passes  15,520,  and  of  the 
chain  17,000  feet  in  the  Bashahr  and  Lahul  sections.  The  Pir  Panjal 
range  is  probably  some  5000  feet  lower.  The  snow-line  is  at  16,000 
feet  on  the  northern,  and  17,000  feet  on  the  southern  face. 

The  Outer  Himalayas. — The  outer  or  sub-Himalayas  stretch  in  a 
north-westerly  direction,  through  Suket  and  Mandi  and  between  Kangra 
and  Chamba,  for  a  distance  of  some  300  miles,  and  terminate  on  the 

PUNJAB.  249 

Indus  at  the  Hazara  border  in  the  well-known  peak  of  Gandgarh. 
Starting  from  the  bend  of  the  Beas  (Bias)  at  Mandi,  they  are  pierced 
by  the  Ravi,  Chenab,  Punch,  and  Jehlam  rivers,  which  divide  them 
into  five  distinct  sections.  The  easternmost  section  is  the  precipitous 
range  of  the  Dhaola  Dhar  or  White  Mountains,  which,  lying  between 
the  Beas  and  the  Ravi,  form  the  natural  boundary  between  Kulu  and 
Mandi  and  between  Kangra  and  Chamba,  and  is  the  highest  portion 
of  the  range,  reaching  an  average  of  15,000  feet.  Its  length  is  some 
80  miles,  and  it  includes  the  hill  stations  of  Dharmsala  and  Dalhousie. 
The  second  portion,  about  55  miles  in  length,  hes  between  the  Ravi 
and  Chenab,  and  shuts  in  Chamba  and  Badrawar  (Kashmir)  to  the 
south.  Its  average  height  may  be  put  at  12,000  feet.  The  central 
portion  of  the  range  is  known  as  the  Ratan  Panjal ;  it  stretches  from 
the  Chenab  to  the  southern  bend  of  the  Punch  river,  for  a  distance  of 
about  80  miles,  and  ranges  in  height  between  7700  and  11, coo  feet. 
The  fourth  section,  about  25  miles  in  length,  runs  from  the  Punch 
river  to  Dhangali,  the  ancient  Ghakkar  capital  on  the  Jehlam.  The 
westernmost  division  of  the  range  runs  for  70  miles  between  the  Jehlam 
and  the  Indus,  and  attains  a  height  of  above  17,000  feet.  The  outer 
Himalayas  have  no  perpetual  snow. 

The  Hills  of  Simla  and  Hazara.— A\\  those  great  Himalayan  chains 
terminating  on  the  Indus  at  or  about  the  Hazara  border  are  bound 
together  by  two  considerable  ranges  which,  springing  from  the  western 
extremity  of  the  Western  Himalayas,  run  southwards  down  either  side 
of  the  Kagan  valley  and  Hazara  District,  the  more  eastern  striking 
the  Jehlam  and  following  its  course  to  merge  with  the  Murree  hills ; 
while  the  niore  western,  which  separates  the  Himalayas  from  the 
Hindu  Kiish,  terminates  on  the  Indus  where  it  meets  the  Hazara 
border.  At  the  opposite  or  eastern  extremity  of  the  system,  the  cis- 
Sutlej  Himalayas,  in  which  the  sanitarium  of  Simla  is  situated,  occupy 
a  corresponding  position,  running  in  a  generally  south-westerly  direction, 
and  separating  the  head-waters  of  the  Sutlej  from  those  of  the  Jumna 
and  Ganges. 

The  Siwdliks.—i:\\Q  Siwaliks  are  an  insignificant  range  of  low  hills 
which,  rising  abruptly  from  the  plains,  skirt  the  foot  of  the  Himalayas 
from  the  Ganges  to  the  Beas.  At  the  widest  part,  as  they  approach 
the  Sutlej,  they  are  above  10  miles  broad.  Between  them  and  the 
Himalayas  proper  lie  a  series  of  fertile  valleys  known  as  dims ;  and 
the  hills  themselves  are  clothed  with  forest  timber  of  some  value,  save 
at  their  western  extremity,  where  they  degenerate  into  little  more  than 

The  Salt  Pange  and  the  Peshawar  Hills.  —  The  connecting  link 
between  the  Sulaimans  on  the  west  and  the  Himalayas  on  the  north 
still   remains   to  be  described.      The    outer  Himalayas,    crossing  the 

250  PUNJAB. 

Jehlam,  run  up  the  eastern  boundary  of  Rawal  Pindi  District. 
There  they  and  the  mid-Himalayas  meet  on  the  banks  of  the  Indus 
in  a  confused  mass  of  mountains,  among  which  lies  Hazara  District, 
and  the  Kagan  valley  stretches  out,  like  a  huge  arm,  to  where  the 
Indus  pierces  the  Western  Himalayan  range  at  the  foot  of  Nanga 
Parbat.  The  curved  ranges  which  connect  the  extremities  of  the  mid- 
Himalayas  and  of  the  Safed  Koh  enclose  to  the  north  the  plain  which 
constitutes  Peshawar  District;  while  the  northern  continuation  of 
the  Sulaimans  runs  up  the  western  border  of  Bannu  and  Kohat  to 
meet  the  Safed  Koh,  and  throws  out  eastwards  a  series  of  parallel  spurs 
which  cover  the  whole  of  Kohat  District.  The  circuit  is  completed 
by  the  Salt  Range,  which,  starting  from  opposite  the  point  where 
the  mid-Himalayas  abut  upon  the  Jehlam,  runs  first  along  the  right 
bank  of  the  river,  then  westwards  across  Shahpur  and  Dera  Ismail 
to  the  Indus,  where  it  turns  down  the  right  bank  of  that  river  through 
Bannu  District,  and  follows  the  boundary  between  Bannu  and  Dera 
Ismail  till  it  joins  the  Sulaimans.  Rising  abruptly  from  the  river 
and  the  great  desert  w^hich  lies  to  the  south  of  it  as  a  steep  rocky 
range  of  from  2000  to  5000  feet  in  height,  the  Salt  Range  of  Jehlam 
and  Shahpur  falls  away  imperceptibly  to  the  north  into  a  great  table- 
land enclosed  by  the  range  itself,  the  Hazara  hills,  and  the  Indus 
river,  crossed  in  every  direction  by  chains  of  low  hills,  and  cut  up  by 
the  streams  which  issue  from  them  into  innumerable  ravines.  It  is  this 
table-land  which  constitutes  the  Districts  of  Jehlam  and  Rawal  Pindi. 

The  River  System. — The  Himalayas,  which  stretch  from  Northern 
Punjab  and  Kashmir  far  away  into  Tibet,  give  birth  to  seven  great 
rivers,  which,  after  pursuing  their  courses  lor,  in  some  cases,  many 
hundreds  of  miles  among  snow-clad  mountain  ranges,  debouch  on  to 
the  plain  country,  and  traverse  the  Punjab  in  a  southerly  direc- 
tion on  their  way  to  the  ocean.  The  hills  once  fairly  left  behind, 
their  fall  seldom  exceeds  2  feet  in  the  mile,  and  their  course  is  in 
consequence  exceedingly  inconstant,  varying,  often  considerably,  from 
year  to  year.  Thus  in  the  process  of  time  each  stream  has  cut  for 
itself  a  wide  riverain  lying  well  below  the  level  of  the  surrounding 
plains,  the  banks  of  which  mark  on  either  side  the  extreme  limits  of 
the  river's  excursions.  Within  these  low  lands,  over  the  whole  of  which 
the  stream  has  at  some  time  or  other  flowed,  the  river  winds  its  way 
in  a  narrow  and  ever-shifting  channel.  In  the  winter  the  stream  is 
comparatively  small ;  but  as  the  mountain  snows  melt  under  the 
approach  of  the  Indian  summer,  the  waters  rise  and  overflow  the 
surrounding  country,  often  to  a  distance  of  several  miles  on  either 
bank.  As  the  cold  returns  at  the  close  of  the  rainy  season,  the  waters 
recede,  leaving  \vide  expanses  of  fertile  loam  or  less  fertile  sand,  moist 
for  the  hand  of  the  cultivator. 

PUNJAB.  251 

The  Jumna. — The  Jumna  and  its  tributary,  the  Tons,  form  the 
greater  portion  of  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  Province,  along  which 
they  flow  almost  due  north  and  south  for  about  220  miles. 

The  Watershed. — A  few  miles  west  runs  the  watershed  between  the 
Indian  Ocean  and  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  which  forms  the  backbone  of  extra- 
peninsular  India.  West  again  of  this  line  lies  a  peculiar  area  of  closed 
drainage  intermediate  between  the  basins  of  the  Jumna  and  Sutlej, 
into  which  the  Markanda,  Saraswati,  Ghaggar,  and  other  hill  streams 
pour  their  waters ;  while  the  last-named  river  affords  the  only  outlet, 
and  passing  away  westwards  into  Rajputana,  itself  gradually  dwindles 
and  finally  disappears  in  the  arid  wastes  of  that  tract.  All  to  the 
west  of  this  area,  as  well  as  the  whole  mountain  region  of  the  Punjab, 
belong  to  the  Indus  system. 

The  iTidus. — The  Indus  itself  enters  the  Province  at  Tarbela,  on  the 
Hazara-Peshawar  border,  cuts  off  the  hill  tract,  presently  to  be  described, 
of  Peshawar  and  Kohat  Districts  from  the  Punjab  Proper,  pierces  the 
Salt  Range  at  Kalabagh,  and  runs  almost  due  south  along  the  whole 
western  frontier  of  the  Province  at  a  distance  of  from  15  to  30  miles 
from,  and  parallel  with,  the  Sulaimans.  The  only  affluent  of  any 
importance  that  it  receives  within  the  Province  on  its  right  bank  is  the 
Kabul  river,  which,  with  its  tributaries,  the  Swat  and  Bara,  drains  the 
Peshawar  valley ;  for  the  scanty  rainfall  of  the  Sulaimans  is  insufficient 
to  feed  anything  more  than  hill  torrents  of  intermittent  flow.  From 
the  east,  however,  it  receives  the  combined  waters  of  the  Jehlam, 
Chenab,  Ravi,  Beas,  and  Sutlej,  the  five  great  rivers  which  give  the 
Punjab  (ypafij  db,  or  'five  waters')  its  name,  and  which  traverse  its 
plains,  lying  in  that  order  from  west  to  east. 

The  Sutlej.— "WiQ  Sutlej,  rising  in  Chinese  Tartary,  enters  the 
Province  in  the  State  of  Bashahr,  and  flowing  through  the  territories 
of  hill  feudatories,  debouches  on  the  plains  at  Riipar  in  Ambala 
District.  Thence  it  flows  due  west  for  120  miles  as  far  as  Firoz- 
pur,  where  it  receives  the  waters  of  the  Beas,  and  thence  south- 
west for  about  270  miles,  till,  joined  by  the  combined  Ravi, 
Chenab,  and  Jehlam,  it  pours  the  united  waters  of  the  five  rivers 
into  the  Indus  opposite  Mithankot,  about  70  miles  above  the  Sind 

The  Chenab.— T\\Q  Chenab  takes  at  once  its  name  and  its  origin 
from  the  twin  streams  of  the  Chandra  and  Bhaga,  which  drain  the 
Himalayan  valley  of  Lahul.  Traversing  Chamba  and  south-eastern 
Kashmir,  with  a  generally  western  course,  it  re-enters  the  Punjab  at  the 
middle  point  of  its  northern  border,  just  below  the  town  of  Jamu. 
Thence  it  runs,  first  to  the  south-west,  but  gradually  changing  to  the 
south,  for  some  300  miles  to  join  the  Sutlej  about  40  miles  above  the 
confluence  of  the  later    with  the  Indus,  receiving  the   waters  of  the 

252  PUNJAB. 

Jehlam  at  about  the  midway  point  of  its  course  in  the  plains,  and  those 
of  the  Ravi  about  50  miles  lower  down. 

The  Beas  and  Ravi. — Between  the  Sutlej  and  Chenab  flow  the  smaller 
streams  of  the  Beas  and  the  Ravi.  The  former  rises  in  the  Kiilu 
Himalayas,  runs  westwards  through  Mandi  and  Kangra,  enters  the 
plains  at  the  north-western  extremity  of  Hoshiarpur  District,  and  joins 
the  Sutlej  after  a  south-western  course  of  about  70  miles.  The  latter 
rises  in  Chamba,  enters  the  plains  about  15  miles  west  of  the  Beas,  and 
flows  260  miles  to  the  south-west,  to  join  the  Chenab  about  90  miles 
above  the  confluence  of  that  river  with  the  Sutlej. 

The  Jehlam. — Finally,  the  Jehlam,  rising  in  Kashmir,  flows  due  south 
along  the  boundary  between  that  State  and  Hazara  District  for  a 
distance  of  100  miles,  and  enters  the  plains  at  the  town  of  Jehlam, 
whence  it  flows  south-west  for  100  miles,  as  far  as  Shahpur,  and  then 
70  miles  farther  in  a  southerly  direction  till  it  joins  the  Chenab  150 
miles  above  its  confluence  with  the  Sutlej. 

The  Pimjab  Plains. — South  of  the  great  Himalayas  stretch  the  great 
plains  which  constitute  by  far  the  larger  portion  of  the  Province.  If  we 
except  the  Himalayan  and  Salt  Range  tracts,  the  Punjab  presents,  from 
the  Jumna  in  the  east  to  the  Sulaimans  in  the  west,  one  vast  level, 
unbroken  save  by  the  wide  eroded  channels  within  which  the  great 
rivers  ever  shift  their  beds,  by  the  insignificant  spurs  of  the  Aravalli 
mountain  system  in  the  south-eastern  corner  of  the  Province,  and  by 
the  low  hills  of  Chiniot  and  Karana  in  Jhang.  From  the  watershed  of 
the  Jumna  the  slope  is  uniformly  westwards  towards  the  Indus  basin, 
broken  locally  by  the  successive  steps  which  part  the  catchment-basins 
of  the  Punjab  rivers,  and  which,  often  almost  imperceptible  to  the  eye, 
always  lie  close  to  the  right  bank  of  the  channel.  From  the  foot  of  the 
hills  the  plain  country  slopes  southwards  till  it  approaches  the  southern 
border  of  the  Province,  when  it  begins  to  rise  again  towards  the 
peninsular  area.  The  lowest  contour  runs  from  Delhi  west  by  north, 
a  little  south  of  Rohtak  and  Hissar,  and  bifurcates  between  Hissar  and 
Sirsa,  the  northern  branch  going  north-north-west  along  the  Himalayan 
spill  to  the  south  of  Lahore,  while  the  southern  branch  curves  to  the 
south-west  along  the  Aravalli  spill  to  the  west  of  Bikaner.  The 
combined  result  of  these  two  slopes  is  a  fall  in  a  south-westerly  direction, 
at  right  angles  to  the  mountain  ranges  and  parallel  with  the  general 
course  of  the  rivers ;  but  this  fall  is  exceedingly  gentle,  seldom  exceeding 
two  or  three  feet  in  the  mile. 

The  whole  of  these  vast  plains  are  of  alluvial  formation.  Stones  are 
unknown,  save  at  the  immediate  foot  of  the  hills ;  micaceous  river-sand 
is  to  be  found  everywhere  at  varying  depths ;  and  the  only  mineral  is 
nodular  accretions  of  limestone  (kankar)  which  are  produced  in  situ. 
The  soil  is  a  singularly  uniform  loam ;  true  clay  is  almost  unknown ; 

PUNJAB.  253 

and  the  quality  is  determined  chiefly  by  the  greater  or  smaller  propor- 
tion of  sand  present.  In  the  local  hollows  and  drainage  lines  the 
constant  deposit  of  argillaceous  particles  has  produced  a  stiff  tenacious 
soil,  singularly  adapted  to  rice  cultivation  ;  while  in  the  beds  of  the 
great  rivers,  and  on  the  wind- fretted  watersheds,  pure  sand  is  commonly 
found.  The  great  thai  which  lies  between  the  Jehlam-Chenab  and  the 
Indus,  bordered  on  the  south  by  the  Ra'Jputana  desert,  and  on 
either  side  by  the  two  large  rivers,  consists  of  a  series  of  rolling  sand- 
hills formed  by  the  wind,  which  run  parallel  to  the  great  breakwater  of 
the  Salt  Range,  and  are  separated  by  valleys  in  which  the  original 
surface  is  exposed.  In  parts,  and  especially  where  local  conditions 
raise  the  level  of  the  water,  the  salts  natural  to  the  soil  have  been 
concentrated  on  the  surface  by  continuous  evaporation,  and  have  covered 
the  ground,  often  for  miles  together,  with  a  saline  efflorescence  known 
as  reh^  which  is  fatal  to  vegetable  life.  But  where  neither  reh  nor  sand 
is  present,  the  soil  is  uniformly  fertile,  if  only  the  rainfall  be  sufficient, 
or  means  of  irrigation  be  available.  Throughout  the  greater  part  of  the 
western  plains  of  the  Punjab,  however,  neither  of  these  conditions  is 
satisfied,  and  wide  steppes  of  intrinsically  fertile  soil,  locally  known  as 
A/r,  are  useful  only  as  grazing  grounds  for  herds  of  camels  and  cattle. 
The  depth  of  water  beneath  the  surface  varies  greatly.  Throughout  the 
broad  riverains  and  immediately  below  the  hills  it  ranges  between  10 
and  30  feet ;  but  the  depth  increases  with  the  distance  from  the  rivers 
and  the  hills,  and  in  many  parts  of  the  Province  is  as  much  as  150  to 
200  feet,  while  the  water,  when  reached,  is  often  so  brackish  as  to 
be  harmful  to  both  animal  and  vegetable  life. 

Physically,  the  eastern  plains  form  an  arable  tract  of  moderate  rainfall 
and  almost  without  rivers,  save  along  their  northern  and  eastern  edges ; 
while  the  western  plains  consist  of  arid  pastures  with  scanty  rainfall, 
traversed  by  five  great  rivers,  of  which  the  broad  valleys  alone  are 
cultivable.  Ethnographically,  the  distinction  between  the  people  of 
the  two  tracts  is  in  a  large  measure  that  between  the  Hindu  inhabitants 
of  India  and  the  Musalman  peoples  of  the  trans-Sulaiman  country. 
But  the  difference  is  not  merely,  or  even  chiefly,  one  of  religion.  The 
tribal  organization,  the  structure  of  society,  the  customs  of  daily  life, 
and  even  the  tenures  of  land,  present  a  very  marked  contrast  in  the  two 
tracts ;  and  perhaps  the  distinctions  may  be  best  summed  up  by  saying 
that,  to  the  east  the  caste,  and  to  the  west  the  tribe,  is  the  social  unit. 
Within  the  hills  and  in  the  submontane  zone  which  skirts  them,  the 
same  distinction  is  to  be  found.  But  the  line  which  separates  the 
eastern  from  the  western  type,  lies  much  farther  to  the  west  than  in  the 
plains,  and  may  be  said  roughly  to  pass  through  the  point  where  the 
Salt  Range  leaves  the  Himalayas. 

The  Himdlayaji    Tract. — Within    the    great    network    of  mountain 

254  PUNJAB. 

ranges  which  fringe  the  central  system  of  the  Himalayas  are  situated 
the  States  of  Chamba,  Mandi,  and  Suket,  together  with  Nahan,  Bashahr, 
and  the  eighteen  smaller  States  which  are  under  the  charge  of  the 
Superintendent  of  Hill  States  at  Simla,  the  hill  station  of  Simla,  and  the 
great  Kangra  District,  the  latter  including  the  Kiilu  valley,  which 
stretches  up  to  the  mid-Himalayas,  and  the  cantons  of  Lahul  and  Spiti, 
which,  situated  beyond  the  mid-Himalayas,  belong  geographically  to 
Ladakh  and  Tibet,  rather  than  to  India.  This  mountainous  tract 
includes  an  area  of  about  19,840  square  miles,  much  of  which  is  wholly 
uninhabited,  and  a  scanty  population  of  about  1,539,000,  living 
scattered  about  the  remaining  area  in  tiny  hamlets  perched  on  the  hill- 
sides or  nestling  in  the  valleys,  each  surrounded  by  its  small  patches  of 
terraced  cultivation,  irrigated  from  the  streams  which  run  down  every 
gully,  or  fertilized  by  the  abundant  rainfall  of  the  hills. 

The  people  chiefly  consist  of  hill  Rajputs,  including  Thakars,  Rathis, 
and  Rawats,  and  of  Kanets,  Ghiraths,  Brahmans,  and  the  Dagis  or 
menials  of  the  hills.  But  it  is  probable  that  only  the  very  highest 
classes  among  the  Brahmans  and  Rajputs  have  preserved  the  purity  of 
their  blood.  It  is  certain  that  the  Aryan  and  aboriginal  stocks  have 
mingled  with  unusual  freedom ;  and  all  between  the  very  highest  and 
the  very  lowest  form  a  practically  continuous  series,  within  which 
it  is  difficult  to  draw  any  definite  lines  of  demarcation.  The  hill  people 
are,  whether  by  origin  or  by  long  isolation  from  their  neighbours  of  the 
plains,  very  distinct  from  the  latter  in  most  respects ;  and  they  speak 
dialects  peculiar  to  the  hills,  though  belonging  to  the  Hindi  group, 
except  in  the  trans-Himalayan  cantons  where  Tibetan  is  spoken.  They 
are  almost  exclusively  Hindus,  but  curiously  strict  as  regards  some,  and 
lax  as  regards  others,  of  the  ordinances  of  their  religion.  The  nature 
of  the  country  prevents  the  growth  of  large  towns ;  trade  is  confined  to 
the  litde  that  crosses  the  high  passes  leading  into  Tibet ;  and  the 
people  are  almost  wholly  rural,  supplementing  the  yield  of  their  fields 
by  the  produce  of  numerous  flocks  of  sheep  and  goats,  and  by  rude 
home  manufactures  with  which  they  occupy  themselves  during  the 
long  winter  evenings.  They  keep  very  much  to  themselves,  m.igration 
being  almost  confined  to  the  neighbouring  mountains  and  low  hills. 

The  Submontane  Tract. — Skirting  the  base  of  the  hills,  and  including 
the  low  outlying  range  of  the  Siwaliks,  runs  the  narrow  submontane 
zone,  with  an  average  breadth  of  25  to  30  miles  measured  from  the 
foot  of  the  Himalayas  proper.  This  tract,  secure  in  an  ample  rainfall 
and  traversed  by  streams  from  the  neighbouring  hills,  has  an  area 
of  about  6680  square  miles,  comprises  some  of  the  most  fertile  and 
thickly-peopled  portions  of  the  Province,  and  is  inhabited  by  a  popula- 
tion of  about  2,998,000,  who  occupy  an  intermediate  position  in 
regard  of  race,  religion,  and  language  between  the  peoples  of  the  hills 

PUNJAB.  255 

and  of  the  plains.  iMuhammadanism  being  less  prevalent,  Hindi  more 
generally  spoken,  and  Rajputs  and  hill  menials  more  numerous  than 
among  the  latter.  The  Gujars  form  a  special  feature  of  this  zone. 
The  tract  has  only  one  town,  Sialkot,  of  more  than  22,000  inhabit- 
ants ;  its  trade  and  manufactures  are  insignificant,  and  its  population 
is  almost  entirely  agricultural,  and  in  the  low  hills  pastoral. 

The  Eastern  Plains. — Turning  to  the  plain  portions  of  the  Punjab, 
we  find  that  east  of  Lahore  the  rainfall  is  everywhere  so  far  sufficient 
that  cultivation  is  possible  without  irrigation  in  fairly  favourable 
seasons.  But  over  the  greater  portion  of  this  area,  the  margin  is  so 
slight  that,  save  where  the  crops  are  protected  by  artificial  irrigation, 
any  material  reduction  in  the  supply  entails  distress,  if  not  actual 
famine.  Thus,  while  the  eastern  plains,  comprising  only  a  quarter  of 
the  area  of  the  Province,  include  half  its  cultivation,  nearly  half  its 
population,  and  almost  all  its  most  fertile  portions,  they  also  include 
all  those  parts  which,  by  very  virtue  of  the  possibility  of  unirrigated 
cultivation,  are  peculiarly  liable  to  disastrous  failure  of  crops. 

The  eastern  plains  may  be  roughly  divided  into  four  separate 
regions.  A  broad  strip  parallel  to  the  submontane  zone  partakes  in  a 
lower  degree  of  its  ample  rainfall.  It  is  traversed  by  the  Upper  Sudej, 
the  Beas,  the  Ravi,  the  Bari  Doab  Canal,  and  many  smaller  streams, 
which  bring  down  with  them  and  deposit  fertilizing  loam  from  the  lower 
hills;  irrigation  from  wells  is  everywhere  easy;  and  the  tract  is  but 
little  inferior  in  fertility,  security  of  produce,  and  populousness  to 
the  submontane  zone  itself.  Its  width  varies  from  20  to  30  miles ;  its 
area  is  some  8600  square  miles;  and  its  population  about  4,035,000. 

The  next  most  fertile  strip  is  that  running  along  the  eastern  border 
of  the  Province,  parallel  to  the  Jumna  riven  It  enjoys  a  fair  average 
rainfall;  it  includes  the  low  riverain  tract  along  the  Jumna  itself, 
where  well-irrigation  is  easy ;  the  Saraswati  and  its  tributaries  inundate 
a  considerable  area,  and  much  of  it  is  watered  by  the  Agra  and 
Western  Jumna  Canals,  so  that  it  is  for  the  most  part  well  protected 
against  famine.  It  has  an  average  breadth  of  about  35  or  40  miles  ; 
its  area  is  about  4870  square  miles ;  and  its  population  about 

A  large  part  of  the  southern  border  of  the  eastern  plains  skirts  the 
great  Rajputana  desert.  The  soil  here  is  often  inferior;  the  rainfall  is 
always  scanty  and  precarious  ;  while,  except  in  the  south-eastern  corner, 
where  alone  can  wells  be  profitably  worked,  irrigation  is  almost  unknown, 
save  where  the  Western  Jumna  Canal  enters  Hissdr,  and  the  Sutlej 
borders  Sirsa  District.  Its  width  is  from  40  to  50  miles,  its  area  about 
11,570  square  miles,  and  its  population  about  1,665,000.  This  and 
the  central  portion,  next  to  be  described,  together  constitute  the  great 
area  of  closed  drainage  already  mentioned,  and  are  the  parts  of  the 

256  PUNJAB. 

Punjab  where  famine  is  most  to  be  dreaded.  The  Sirhind  Canal, 
the  main  line  of  which  was  opened  in  1882,  will,  however,  protect  a 
large  part  of  the  central,  and  some  portion  of  the  southern  tract. 

The  remaining  or  central  portion  of  the  eastern  plains  includes  the 
larger  part  of  the  Sikh  States.  Its  area  is  about  9980  square  miles,  and 
its  population  about  2,810,000.  It  occupies  an  intermediate  position 
in  respect  of  fertility  between  the  two  preceding  tracts,  the  rainfall 
generally  being  highest  and  the  soil  best  to  the  east,  west,  and  north,  in 
the  direction  of  the  Jumna,  the  Sutlej,  and  the  hills,  and  lowest  and 
worst  in  the  centre  and  south ;  while  to  the  north-east  the  Ghaggar 
system  of  hill  streams  inundates  a  certain  area,  and  well -irrigation  is 
practised  along  the  Sutlej  and  the  northern  border. 

The  eastern  plains  include  all  the  most  fertile,  wealthy,  and 
populous  portions  of  the  Province,  and  may  be  called  the  granary 
of  the  Punjab.  Within  them  lie  the  three  great  cities  of  Delhi, 
Amritsar,  and  Lahore,  besides  a  very  large  proportion  of  the  larger 
towns ;  and  the  population  is,  by  comparison  w^ith  that  of  the  western 
punjab,  largely  urban.  Trade  and  manufactures  flourish,  while,  with 
the  exception  of  the  south-westward  portions,  where  flocks  and  herds 
pasture  in  extensive  jungles,  the  greater  part  of  the  cultivable  area  is 
under  the  plough. 

The  Western  Plains.  —  The  great  plains  lying  to  the  west  of  the 
Lahore  meridian  present  a  striking  contrast  with  those  to  the  east  of 
that  line.  They  form  the  common  terminus  of  the  two  Indian  mon- 
soons, which  have  exhausted  themselves  of  their  vapour  before  they 
reach  their  goal ;  and  the  rainfall,  heaviest  in  the  north  and  east, 
and  decreasing  towards  the  west  and  south,  is  everywhere  so  scanty 
that  cultivation  without  irrigation  is  absolutely  impossible.  But  in 
this  very  circumstance  they  find  their  security  against  famine  or 
distress  from  drought,  for  their  cultivation  is  almost  independent 
of  rain,  a  failure  of  which  means  nothing  worse  than  a  scarcity  of 
grass,  in  itself  a  sufficiently  serious  calamity.  Rain  is,  of  course, 
needed  here  as  elsewhere ;  but  its  absence  means  only  a  diminished 
yield,  and  not,  as  in  the  eastern  plains,  no  yield  at  all ;  and  so  little 
is  sufficient  if  the  fall  comes  at  the  right  time,  and  absolute  drought 
occurs  so  seldom,  that  the  crops  may  be  said  never  to  fail  from  this 
cause.  Indeed,  more  danger  is  to  be  anticipated  from  excessive  flood 
than  from  deficient  rainfall.  The  tract  is  traversed  throughout  its 
length  by  five  great  rivers,  the  Sutlej,  Ravi,  Chenab,  Jehlam,  and 
Indus ;  and  along  either  side  of  each  of  these  runs,  at  a  distance  of  a 
few  miles,  a  more  or  less  distinctly  marked  bank  w^hich  defines  the 
excursions  of  the  river  within  recent  times  as  it  has  shifted  from  side 
to  side  in  its  course.  These  banks  include  between  them  strips  of 
low-lying  land  which  are  periodically  inundated    by  the  rising  floods 

PUNJAB.  257 

as  the  winter  snows  of  the  Himalayas  melt  under  the  summer  sun 
or  in  which  the  nearness  of  subsoil  water  makes  well-irrigation  easy. 
All  outside  these  narrow  boundaries  is  a  high  arid  plain.  Beyond 
the  Indus,  and  between  the  Sutlej  and  the  Jehlam  and  its  continua- 
tion in  the  Chenab,  it  consists  of  soil  which,  wherever  water  is  avail- 
able, is  sufficiently  fertile,  save  where,  north  of  the  Sutlej,  saline 
efflorescence  clothes  the  surface  for  miles  together  like  a  recent  fall 
of  snow.  But  between  the  Indus  and  the  Jehlam-Chenab,  and  south 
of  the  Sutlej,  it  is  covered  by  great  i)arallel  lines  of  rolling  sand, 
separated  by  narrow  hollows,  in  which  the  original  soil  is  exposed. 

Numerous  streams,  for  the  most  part  of  intermittent  flow,  which  run 
down  from  the  Sulaiman  mountains  to  join  the  Indus,  and  innumerable 
small  inundation  canals  carried  out  from  the  Sutlej,  the  Lower  Chenab, 
the  Upper  Jehlam,  and  the  Lower  Indus,  across  the  zone  of  well-irriga- 
tion into  the  edges  of  the  central  steppes,  render  cultivation  possible 
along  their  courses;  while  wells  sunk  in  the  long  hollows  of  the  thai  or 
sandy  desert,  and  the  drainage  of  the  bdr^  or  stiff  loam  uplands,  collected 
in  local  depressions,  perform  a  similar  office.  But  though  some  of  the 
finest  wheat  in  the  world  is  grown  on  land  irrigated  from  the  wells  of 
the  western  thal^  the  proportion  of  the  area  thus  brought  under  the 
plough  is  insignificant.  The  remainder  of  the  tract  is  covered  by  low, 
stunted  bush  and  salsolaceous  plants,  and  with  short  grass  in  good 
seasons.  Over  this  range  great  herds  of  camels,  which  thrive  on  the 
saline  herbage,  and  of  cattle,  sheep,  and  goats.  They  are  tended  by  a 
nomad  population  which  moves  with  its  flocks  from  place  to  place  as 
the  grass  is  consumed  and  the  scanty  supply  of  water  afforded  by  the 
local  hollows  exhausted,  or  in  search  of  that  change  of  diet  which 
camels  love  and  the  varying  local  floras  afford.  The  area  of  the  tract  is 
about  60,870  square  miles,  or  more  than  two-fifths  of  that  of  the  whole 
Province;  while  its  population,  numbering  about  4,885,000,  includes 
little  more  than  one-fifth  of  the  people  of  the  Punjab,  and  it  comprises 
not  one-quarter  of  the  total  cultivated  area.  Miiltan  is  the  only  town 
of  more  than  23,000  inhabitants;  and  the  population  is  very  markedly 
rural.  There  is  no  manufacture  of  importance,  and  the  great  traffic 
between  India  and  the  countries  to  the  west  only  passes  through  the 
tract  on  its  way  to  the  commercial  centres  of  Hindustan.  Pastoral 
pursuits  occupy  a  more  important  position  than  in  the  rest  of  the 

Natural  Divisiojis  of  the  Western  Plains.  —  It  is  the  fashion  to 
describe  the  Punjab  Proper  as  marked  off  by  its  rivers  into  six  great 
dodbs^  which  constitute  the  natural  divisions  of  the  Province.  This 
description  is  true  in  a  sense,  but  the  sense  in  which  it  is  true  possesses 
but  little  significance,  and  its  chief  merit  seems  to  be  that  it  can  easily  be 
verified  by  reference  to  a  map.    To  the  east  of  the  Lahore  meridian  such 

VOL.  XI.  R 

258  PUNJAB. 

rivers  as  there  are  lie  close  together  within  the  submontane  tract,  the  whole 
of  the  country  between  and  the  area  of  closed  drainage  beyond  them  is 
comparatively  populous,  and  there  are  no  natural  boundaries  of  any 
great  importance.  But  west  of  that  meridian,  or  throughout  the  greater 
portion  of  the  Punjab  Proper,  the  real  obstacles  to  intercommunication, 
the  real  barriers  which  separate  the  peoples  one  from  another  are,  not  the 
rivers,  easily  crossed  at  any  time  and  often  fordable  in  the  cold  weather, 
but  the  great  arid  steppes  which  lie  between  those  rivers.  The  advance 
of  the  agricultural  tribes  has  followed  almost  invariably  the  courses  of 
the  great  rivers,  the  new-comers  having  crept  along  both  banks  of  the 
streams  and  driven  the  nomads  from  either  side  into  the  intermediate 
dodbs,  where  they  have  occupied  the  portions  nearest  the  river  lands 
from  which  they  had  been  ejected,  leaving  the  median  area  of  greatest 
aridity  as  an  indefinite  but  very  effectual  line  of  separation. 

The  Salt  Range  Tract. — There  still  remains  to  be  described  the 
north-western  corner  of  the  Punjab,  situated  in  the  angle  where  the 
Safed  Koh  from  the  west  and  the  Sulaimans  from  the  south  meet  the 
Himalayas  from  the  east,  and  separated  from  the  rest  of  the  Province 
by  the  Salt  Range  and  the  Upper  Jehlam.  It  includes  the  Peshawar 
Division  and  the  Districts  of  Rawal  Pindi,  Jehlam,  and  Pannu.  It 
presents  in  almost  every  respect  the  strongest  possible  contrast  with  the 
Punjab  Proper,  and,  indeed,  as  already  remarked,  can  hardly  be  said  to 
belong  to  India,  save  by  mere  geographical  position. 

The  physical  configuration  of  the  Salt  Range  is  so  broken  and  con- 
fused, that  it  is  impossible  without  going  into  great  detail  to  separate  it 
into  parts,  each  of  which  shall  be  even  approximately  homogeneous. 
The  mountainous  tracts  of  Hazara,  and  the  Murree  and  Kahiita 
tahsils  of  Rawal  Pindi  District,  with  their  ample  rainfall,  and  the 
less  favoured  District  of  Kohat,  cover  an  area  of  6520  square  miles, 
and  contain  a  population  of  about  715,000. 

The  remainder  of  this  tract  has  an  area  of  about  14,500  square 
miles,  and  a  population  of  about  2,209,000,  Except  immediately 
imder  the  hills,  the  rainfall,  while  quite  sufficient  in  ordinary  years, 
leaves  little  margin  as  protection  against  distress  in  unfavourable 
seasons ;  while,  save  in  Peshawar  and  the  riverain  portions  of  Bannu, 
irrigation  is  almost  unknown. 

With  the  exception  of  Peshawar  and  Rawal  Pindi,  the  Salt  Range 
includes  no  town  of  more  than  20,000  inhabitants.  But  the  whole 
trade  with  Central  Asia  and  Kabul,  except  the  traffic  of  Dera  Ismail 
Khan,  passes  through  Peshawar ;  and  the  Salt  Range  supplies  almost 
the  whole  of  the  salt  used  in  the  Punjab.  The  silk  and  cotton  fabrics 
of  Peshawar  are  the  only  manufactures  of  importance  ;  and  the  mass  of 
the  population  follows  agricultural,  and  in  the  mountain  ranges  pastoral, 


Flora  and  Fauna. — Throughout  the  Punjab,  except  upon  the  hills, 
wood  is  scarce.  The  uplands  arc  generally  covered  with  grass,  shrubs, 
or  low  junL'le  of  mimosa.  Clumps  of  trees,  however,  especially  palms, 
pipals,  and  banyans,  cluster  around  the  village  sites  ;  the  mango  grows  in 
the  south-east  Punjab  ;  and  in  the  Derajat  large  areas  are  covered  with 
date  trees.  Government  has  done  much  to  encourage  arboriculture,  both 
by  forest  conservation  and  by  planting  groves  round  cantonments  and 
public  buildings,  or  along  roads  and  canals. 

The  fauna  of  the  Province  includes  tis^ers,  leopards,  hy?enas,  lynxes, 
wolves,  bears,  jackals,  and  foxes;  fiilgdis,  antelopes,  and  deer;  wild 
boar,  porcupines,  monkeys,  and  bats;  parrots,  jungle-fowl,  pheasants, 
])artridges,  quails,  pelicans,  eagles,  vultures,  and  many  other  birds  ; 
crocodiles,  cobras,  and  many  poisonous  snakes.  Camels  thrive  on 
the  hot  southern  plains ;  herds  of  buffaloes  revel  in  the  muddy  pools 
and  water-side  meadows ;  and  excellent  horses  are  bred  in  the  north- 
western pasture  lands,  for  the  use  of  the  chiefs  and  gentlemen,  who 
pride  themselves  upon  their  equestrian  habits.  The  Hissar  breed  of 
cattle  and  the  sheep  of  the  Salt  Range  are  also  famous. 

History. — No  part  of  India  possesses  greater  or  more  varied  historical 
interest  than  the  Punjab.  The  earliest  Aryan  settlers  entered  the 
Peninsula  by  this  Province.  Its  eastern  plains  include  the  Brdhina- 
shidesa.  or  Land  of  Divine  Sages — the  very  cradle  of  Hinduism.  The 
story  of  the  Mahabhdrata  centres  around  Thaneswar  in  Ambala 
District,  and  the  surrounding  country  known  as  the  Kurukshetra.  The 
city  of  Indraprastha,  on  the  site  of  the  modern  Delhi,  was  founded  by 
the  five  Pandavas,  Yudisthira  and  his  brethren,  in  an  unknown  period, 
conjectured  to  be  as  remote  as  the  15th  century  B.C.  Arriving  from 
the  yet  more  ancient  capital  of  Hastinapur  on  the  Ganges,  the  fair- 
skinned  colonists  expelled  the  dark  Naga  aborigines,  cleared  the  land 
of  forest,  and  founded  a  great  dynasty,  whose  conflict  with  their  kins- 
men, the  Kauravas,  forms  the  main  subject  of  the  Hindu  Iliad.  The 
Salt  Range  and  other  portions  of  the  north-western  hills  are  rich  in 
legends  of  the  mythical  Pandava  age.  The  obscure  chronology  of  the 
Purdnas  alone  sheds  a  glimmering  ray  of  light  upon  the  intervening 
period,  until  the  time  of  Alexander's  invasion  in  327  B.C.  By  that  date 
the  Aryan  race  seems  to  have  spread  its  ascendancy  over  Northern 
India,  either  subjugating  or  absorbing  the  aboriginal  tribes.  The 
Brahmans  already  appear  as  the  highest  caste,  and  their  religion  as  the 
national  creed  of  the  people. 

The  Macedonian  conqueror  entered  India  from  Bactria,  crossed  the 
Indus  near  Taxila,  identified  by  General  Cunningham  with  the  ruins 
of  Shah-dheri,  in  Rawal  Pindi  District,  and,  after  receiving  the 
adhesion  of  Mophis  or  Taxiles,  king  of  that  city,  proceeded  with  little 
resistance  to  the  banks  of  the  Hydaspes  or  Jehlam  (Jhelum).     Effecting 

26o  PUNJAB.  m 

the  passage  of  the  river  at  Jalalpur,  in  Jehlam  District,  he  encoun- 
tered the  army  of  Porus  (Purusha)  at  Mono,  in  Gujrat,  and  completely 
defeated  the  Indian  monarch,  with  a  loss  of  12, coo  slain.  Porus  him- 
self was  taken  prisoner,  but  restored  by  Alexander  to  his  entire 
kingdom.  The  conqueror  halted  for  a  month  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  the  Hydaspes,  and  founded  two  cities,  Nikaia  and  Bukephala ;  after 
which  he  overran  the  whole  Punjab,  as  far  as  the  Hyphasis  or  Sutlej, 
on  its  south-western  border.  East  of  that  river,  in  the  now  barren 
cis-Sutlej  tract,  lay  a  powerful  and  fertile  kingdom,  which  Alexander 
was  most  eager  to  attack;  but  the  refusal  of  his  troops  to  proceed 
any  farther  from  home  compelled  him  to  fall  back  once  more  upon 
the  Hydaspes.  Here  he  embarked  on  board  a  fleet  wnth  which  he 
intended  to  sail  down  the  Indus;  and  he  met  with  no  opposition, 
except  at  the  hands  of  the  Mallae,  who  occupied  the  modern  District  of 
MuLTAN.  At  the  siege  of  their  capital,  which  probably  stood  upon  the 
same  site  as  the  modern  city,  Alexander  received  a  severe  wound,  in 
revenge  for  which  he  put  every  person  within  the  walls  to  the  sword. 
After  navigating  the  great  river  to  its  mouth,  he  despatched  Nearchus 
to  explore  the  Persian  Gulf,  while  he  himself  returned  by  the  deserts  of 
Baluchistan  to  Susa. 

The   succeeding   Indo- Bactrian    dynasty,   founded    by  Alexander's 

military  successors,  spread  its  sway  over  a  considerable  portion  of  the 

Punjab,  and  coins  or  other  remams  of  Hellenic  origin   occur  among 

almost  all    the  ruined  cities  throughout  the  Province.     Shortly  after 

the  retirement  of  Alexander,  however,  Chandragupta,  King  of  Magadha, 

added  the  whole  Punjab  to  his  dominions  (303  B.C.).     A  century  later, 

the  tide  of  Greek  conquest  again  set  eastward,  and  a  Bactrian  kingdom 

once  more  spread  over  North-Western  India.     Between  264-223  B.C., 

the   empire  of  Asoka,  the  great  Buddhist  ruler  of  Upper  India,  and 

grandson   of  Chandragupta,    extended    over  the    country    of  the  Five 

Rivers ;  and  his  rock  edicts  are  found  as  far  north  as  the  Yusafzai  valley 

in  Peshawar.     Under  this  monarch.  Buddhism  appears  to  have  been 

the   dominant   religion   throughout  the  whole  Punjab,    where    it   still 

remained,  though  in  a  somewhat  decadent  condition,  at  the  period  of 

Hiuen  Tsiang's  pilgrimage  in  the  7th  century  a.d.     No  record  exists 

of  the  restoration  of  the  earlier  Hindu  faith  ;  the  ruins  of  the  Buddhist 

temples   and    monasteries    are    often    rebuilt    into    Brahman    shrines 

and    Muhammadan   mosques.      But   the   undisturbed    ascendancy   of 

Brahmanism,  between  the  downfall  of  Buddhism  and  the  advent  of 

Islam,  was  of  short  duration  in  the  Punjab. 

As  early  as  the  7th  century,  Musalman  invaders  from  the  west  are 
said  to  have  begun  to  devastate  the  Punjab.  In  68 2  a.d.,  according 
to  Firishta,  bands  from  Kerman,  who  had  even  then  embraced  the 
faith   of  Islam,  wrested   certain  possessions  from  the  Hindu  princes 

PUNJAB.  261 

of  Lahore.  It  was  not  till  975,  however,  that  Sabuktigin,  governor  of 
Khorasan,  and  father  of  the  great  Mahmiid,  advanced  beyond  the 
Indus,  to  plant  the  Muhammadan  power  firmly  in  the  heart  of  the 
Punjab.  Jaipal,  Raja  of  Lahore,  whose  dominions  extended  from 
Kashmir  (Cashmere)  to  Miiltan,  for  a  while  successfully  opposed  the 
invader.  But  the  Raja  unfortunately  ventured  to  imprison  the  ambas- 
sadors whom  Sabuktigin,  now  Sultan  of  Ghazni,  had  sent  to  Lahore  to 
receive  a  promised  ransom.  On  hearing  of  this  insult,  the  Ghaznevide 
monarch,  says  Firishta,  *  like  a  foaming  torrent  hastened  towards 
Hindustan,'  defeated  the  perfidious  Raja,  and  compelled  him  to  retreat 
to  his  capital,  where  the  vanquished  prince  burned  himself  to  death  in 

His  successor,  Anangpal,  formed  a  strong  confederacy  against  the 
Musalman  invaders,  whom  he  succeeded  during  his  lifetime  in  holding 
at  bay.  In  1022,  however,  during  the  reign  of  a  second  Jaipal, 
Mahmiid  of  Ghazni,  son  of  Sabuktigin,  marched  suddenly  down  from 
Kashmir,  seized  Lahore  without  opposition,  and  drove  the  Hindu 
prince  to  take  refuge  in  Ajmere.  Under  Modud,  1045  a.d.,  the 
Hindus  laid  siege  to  Lahore,  the  Musalman  capital,  but  after  six- 
months  of  vain  attempts,  retired  without  success.  'Thus,'  says  Al 
Biriini,  '  the  sovereignty  of  India  became  extinct,  and  no  descendant 
remained  to  light  a  fire  upon  the  hearth.' 

Under  the  early  Ghaznevide  princes,  the  Punjab  was  governed  by  a 
viceroy  at  Lahore ;  but  Masaiid  iii.,  having  lost  most  of  his  dominions 
in  Iran  and  Turan  to  the  Seljak  Tiirks,  transferred  his  capital  to  the 
banks  of  the  Ravi  early  in  the  T2th  century.  From  Lahore,  the  seat 
of  empire  was  removed  to  Delhi  by  Muhammad  Ghori,  founder  of  the 
second  Muhammadan  dynasty,  circ.  1193.  Throughout  the  period  of 
Pathan  rule  in  Upper  India  the  Punjab  Proper  was  governed  by 
imperial  deputies,  though  the  capital  of  the  Musalman  power  lay  always 
either  at  Agra,  in  the  North-Western  Provinces,  or  at  Delhi,  within  the 
limits  of  the  modern  Province.  Lahore  itself  formed  the  focus  of  the 
Tartar  as  opposed  to  the  Afghan  party,  and  the  country  as  a  whole  was 
overrun  both  by  the  hordes  of  Chengiz  Khan  {circ,  1245)  and  of  Timiir 
(1398).  The  other  principal  historical  events  of  this  epoch  comprise 
the  rise  of  the  Ghakkar  power  in  Rawal  Pindi,  and  the  gradual  coloniza- 
tion of  the  tract  between  the  Sulaiman  mountains  and  the  Indus  by 
tribes  of  Baluchi  or  Afghan  descent. 

In  1524,  the  Mughal  prince  Babar  invaded  India,  on  the  invitation 
of  Daulat  Khan  Lodi,  governor  of  Lahore,  and  succeeded  in  conquer- 
ing the  whole  Punjab,  as  far  as  Sirhind.  Two  years  later,  he  again 
swept  down  from  Kabul  upon  Hindustan,  defeated  the  Afghan  army  in 
a  decisive  battle  at  Panipat,  entered  Delhi  as  a  conqueror,  and  founded 
the   dynasty   known   to    Europeans    as  that   of   the  'Great  Mughal.' 

262  PUNJAB, 

Under  that  magnificent  line,  the  chief  seats  of  the  imperial  family  were 
at  Lahore,  Delhi,  and  Agra ;  and  the  Punjab  formed  the  stronghold  of 
the  Mughal  party  against  the  reactionary  Pathan  house  of  Sher  Shah. 
During  the  most  flourishing  age  of  the  Mughals,  however,  a  power 
was  slowly  and  unobtrusively  arising  in  the  Punjab,  which  was  destined 
in  the  end  to  supplant  the  imperial  sway,  and  to  raise  up  a  great 
independent  monarchy  in  the  valley  of  the  Five  Rivers. 

This  power  was  the  Sikhs,  originally  a  mere  religious  sect,  founded 
by  Baba  Nanak,  who  was  born  near  Lahore  in  the  latter  half  of  the 
15th  century,  and  who  died  at  Dera  Nanak,  on  the  Ravi,  in  1539.  A 
full  account  of  the  sect  will  be  found  in  Prinsep's  History  of  the  Punjab 
(2  vols.,  1846),  and  Cunningham's  History  of  the  Sikhs  (2nd  ed.,  1853), 
to  which  w^orks  the  reader  is  referred  for  a  complete  or  detailed  narra- 
tive. Baba  Nanak  was  a  disciple  of  Kabir,  and  preached  as  a  new 
religion  a  pure  form  of  monotheism,  eagerly  accepted  by  the  peasantry 
cf  his  neighbourhood.  Tie  maintained  that  devotion  was  du3  to  God, 
but  that  forms  were  immaterial,  and  that  Hindu  and  Muhammadan 
worships  were  the  same  in  the  sight  of  the  Deity.  His  tenets  were 
handed  down  by  a  succession  of  Gurus  or  spiritual  leaders,  under  whom 
the  new  doctrine  made  steady  but  peaceful  progress.  Ram  Das,  the 
fourth  Guru,  obtained  from  the  Emperor  Akbar  a  grant  of  land  on  the 
spot  now  occupied  by  the  city  of  Amritsar  (Umritsur),  the  metropolis 
of  the  Sikh  fa  th.  Here  he  dug  a  holy  tank,  and  commenced  the 
erection  of  a  temple  in  its  midst.  His  son  and  successor,  Arjun  Mall, 
comoleted  the  temple,  and  lived  in  great  wealth  and  magnificence, 
besides  widely  increasing  the  numbers  of  his  sect,  and  thus  exciting  the 
jealousy  of  the  Mughal  Government.  Becoming  involved  in  a  quarrel 
with  the  Imperial  Governor  of  Lahore,  Arjun  was  imprisoned  in  that 
city,  where  he  died,  his  followers  asserting  that  he  had  been  cruelly  put 
to  death. 

'This  act  of  tyranny,'  writes  Elphinstone,  'changed  the  Sikhs  from 
inoffensive  quietists  into  fanatical  warriors.  They  took  up  arms  under 
Har  Govind,  the  son  of  their  martyred  pontiff,  who  inspired  them  with 
his  own  spirit  of  revenge  and  of  hatred  to  their  oppressors.  Being  now 
open  enemies  of  the  Government,  the  Sikhs  were  expelled  from  the 
neighbourhood  of  Lahore,  which  had  hitlierto  been  their  seat,  and  were 
constrained  to  take  refuge  in  the  northern  mountains.  Notwithstanding 
dissensions  which  broke  out  among  themselves,  they  continued  their 
animosity  to  the  Musalmans,  and  confirmed  their  martial  habits  until 
the  accession,  in  1675,  ^^  Guru  Govind,  the  grandson  of  Har  Govind, 
and  the  tenth  spiritual  chief  from  Nanak.  This  leader  first  conceived 
the  idea  of  forming  the  Sikhs  into  a  religious  and  military  common- 
wealth, and  executed  his  design  with  the  systematic  spirit  of  a 
Grecian  lawgiver.' 

PUNJAB.  263 

But  their  numbers  were  inadequate  to  accomplish  their  plans  of  resist- 
ance and  revenge.  After  a  long  struggle,  Guru  Govind  saw  his  strong- 
holds taken,  his  mother  and  his  children  massacred,  and  his  followers 
sUin,  mutilated,  or  dispersed.  He  was  himself  murdered  in  1708  by  a 
pr^•ate  enemy  at  Nandair  in  the  Deccan.  The  severities  of  the  Musal- 
mais  only  exalted  the  fanaticism  of  the  Sikhs,  and  inspired  a  spirit  of 
vengeance,  which  soon  broke  out  into  fury.  Under  Guru  Govmd's 
priiripal  disciple,  Banda,  who  had  been  bred  a  religious  ascetic,  and 
who  combined  a  most  sanguinary  disposition  with  bold  and  darmg 
counsels,  they  broke  from  their  retreat,  and  overran  the  east  of  the 
Punab,  committing  unheard  of  cruelties  wherever  they  directed  their 
steps.  The  mosques  were  destroyed  and  the  mullds  killed  ;  but  the 
rage  of  the  Sikhs  was  not  restrained  by  any  considerations  of  religion, 
or  ty  any  mercy  for  age  or  sex.  Whole  towns  were  massacred  with 
wan-on  barbarity,  and  even  the  bodies  of  the  dead  were  dug  up  and 
thrown  out  to  the  birds  and  beasts  of  prey.  The  principal  scene  of 
these  atrocities  was  Sirhind,  which  the  Sikhs  occupied,  after  defeating 
the  Governor  in  a  pitched  battle  ;  but  the  same  horrors  marked  their 
route  through  the  country  eastward  of  the  Sutlej  and  Jumna,  mto 
which  they  penetrated  as  far  as  Saharanpur.  They  at  length  received  a 
check  from  the  local  authorities,  and  retired  to  the  country  on  the 
upper  course  of  the  Sutlej,  between  Ludhiana  and  the  mountams. 
This  seems  at  that  time  to  have  been  their  principal  seat ;  and  it  was 
well  suited  to  their  condition,  as  they  had  a  near  and  easy  retreat 
from  it  when  forced  to  leave  the  open  country.  Their  retirement  on 
the  present  occasion  was  of  no  long  continuance  ;  and  on  their  next 
incursions  they  ravaged  the  country  as  far  as  the  neighbourhood  of 
Lahore  on  the  one  side,  and  of  Delhi  itself  on  the  other. 

The  Emperor  himself,  Bahadur  Shah,  was  compelled  to  return  from 
the  Deccan  in  order  to  proceed  against  the  Sikhs  in  person.  He 
shut  them  up  in  their  hill  fort  at  Daber,  which  he  captured  after  a 
desperate  siege ;  the  leader  Banda  and  a  few  of  his  principal  followers 
succeeding  by  a  desperate  sally  in  effecting  their  escape  to  the  moun- 
tains. The  death  of  Bahadur  Shah  in  17 12  probably  prevented  the 
extermination  of  the  sect.  During  the  dissensions  and  confusion  which 
followed  that  event,  the  Sikhs  were  allowed  to  recruit  their  strength,  and 
they  again  issued  from  their  mountain  fastnesses  and  ravaged  the 
country.  In  17 16,  however,  Abdul  Samad  Khan,  Governor  of  Kashmir, 
was  despatched  against  them  at  the  head  of  a  large  army  by  the  Emperor 
Farukh  Siyyar.  He  completely  defeated  the  Sikhs  in  several  actions, 
took  Banda  prisoner,  and  sent  him  to  Delhi,  where  he  was  barbarously 
put  to  death  along  with  several  other  of  the  Sikh  chieftains.  An  active 
persecution  ensued,  and  for  some  time  afterwards  history  narrates  little 
of  the  new  sectaries. 

264  PUNJAB, 

In  1738,  Nddir  Shdh's  invading  host  swept  over  the  Punjab  hke  a 
flooded  river,  'furious  as  the  ocean,'  defeated  the  Mughal  army  at 
Karnal  in  1739,  and  sacked  the  imperial  city  of  Delhi.  Though  Nadir 
retired  from  India  in  a  few  months  with  his  plunder,  he  had  given  tte 
death-blow  to  the  weak  and  divided  empire.  The  Sikhs  once  more 
gathered  fresh  courage  to  rebel,  and  though  again  defeated  and  massaced 
in  large  numbers,  '  the  religion '  gained  new  strength  from  the  blood  of 
the  martyrs.  The  next  great  disaster  of  the  Sikhs  was  in  1762,  when 
Ahmad  Shah  Durani,  the  Afghan  conqueror  of  the  Marathas  at  Paripat 
in  the  preceding  year,  routed  their  forces  completely,  and  pursued  tiem 
across  the  Sutlej.  On  his  homeward  march  he  destroyed  the  towi  of 
Amritsar,  blew  up  the  temple,  filled  the  sacred  tank  with  mud,  and 
defiled  the  holy  place  by  the  slaughter  of  cows.  But,  true  to  their  fiith, 
the  Sikhs  rose  once  more  as  their  conquerors  withdrew,  and  they  now 
initiated  a  final  struggle,  which  resulted  in  the  secure  establishment  of 
their  independence. 

By  this  time  the  religion  had  come  to  present  very  different  features 
from  those  of  Baba  Nanak's  peaceful  theocracy.  It  had  grown  into  a 
loose  military  organization,  divided  among  several  misls  or  confeder- 
acies, with  a  common  meeting-place  at  the  holy  city  of  Amritsar.  The 
Mughals  had  nominally  ceded  the  Punjab  to  Ahmad  Shah ;  but  the 
Durani  Emperors  never  really  extended  their  rule  to  the  eastern  portion, 
where  the  Sikhs  established  their  authority  not  long  after  1763.  The 
Afghan  revolution  in  1809  facilitated  the  rise  of  Ranjit  Singh,  a  Sikh 
adventurer,  w^ho  had  obtained  a  grant  of  Lahore  from  Zaman  Shah,  the 
Durani  ruler  of  Kabul,  in  1799.  Gradually  the  able  chieftain  spread  his 
power  over  the  greater  part  of  the  Punjab,  and  even  in  1808  attacked 
the  small  Sikh  principalities  on  the  east  or  left  bank  of  the  Sutlej.  {See 
Cis-SuTLEj  States.)  These  principalities  sought  the  protection  of  the 
British — now  masters  of  the  North-Western  Provinces,  with  a  pro- 
tectorate over  the  royal  family  of  Delhi ;  and  an  agreement  was  effected 
in  1809  by  which  the  States  obtained  the  powerful  aid  of  the  British 
Government,  and  Ranjit  Singh  entered  into  an  engagement  to  preserve 
friendship  with  the  British  Government,  and  not  to  encroach  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  Sutlej,  on  condition  of  his  sovereignty  being  recognised 
over  all  his  conquests  north  of  the  Sutlej — a  treaty  which  he  scrupu- 
lously respected  till  the  close  of  his  life. 

In  1818,  Ranjit  Singh  stormed  Miiltan,  and  extended  his  dominions 
to  the  extreme  south  of  the  Punjab ;  and  in  the  same  year  he 
crossed  the  Indus,  and  conquered  Peshawar,  to  which,  shortly  after, 
he  added  the  Derajat,  as  well  as  Kashmir.  He  had  thus  succeeded 
during  his  own  lifetime  in  building  up  a  splendid  power,  embracing 
almost  the  whole  of  the  present  Punjab  Province,  together  with 
the  Native  State  of  Kashmir.     On  his  death  in  1839,  his  son  Kharak 

PUNJAB,  265 

Singh  succeeded  to  the  throne  of  Lahore,  but  died,  not  without 
suspicion  of  poison,  in  the  following  year.  A  state  of  anarchy  ensued, 
during  which  the  Sikhs  committed  depredations  on  British  territory, 
resulting  in  what  is  known  as  the  first  Sikh  war.  The  Sikh  leaders 
having  resolved  on  war,  their  army,  60,000  strong,  with  150  guns, 
advanced  towards  the  British  frontier,  and  crossed  the  Sutlej  m 
December  1845.  The  details  of  the  campaign  are  sufficiently  known. 
On  the  1 8th  December  the  first  action  was  fought  at  Miidki,  in  which 
the  Sikhs  attacked  the  British  troops  in  position,  but  were  defeated  with 
heavy  loss.  Three  days  afterwards  followed  ihe  toughly  contested 
battle  of  Firozshah ;  on  the  22nd  January  1846,  the  Sikhs  were  again 
defeated  at  Ali'wal ;  and  finally,  on  the  loth  February,  the  campaign 
was  ended  by  the  capture  of  the  Sikh  entrenched  position  at  Sobraon. 
The  British  army  marched  unopposed  to  Lahore,  which  was  occupied 
on  the  22nd  February,  and  terms  of  peace  were  dictated. 

These  terms  were,  briefly,  the  cession  in  full  sovereignty  to  the 
British  Government  of  the  territory  lying  between  the  Sutlej  and  the 
Beas  rivers,  and  a  war  indemnity  of  i^  millions  sterling.  As  the  Lahore 
Darbar  was  unable  to  pay  the  whole  of  this  sum,  or  even  to  give  satis- 
factory security  for  the  payment  of  one  million,  the  cession  was  arranged 
of  all  the  hill  country  between  the  Beas  and  the  Indus,  including 
Kashmir  and  Hazara ;  arrangements  were  made  for  the  payment  of  the 
remaining  half  million  of  war  indemnity ;  for  the  disbandment  of  the 
Lahore  army,  and  its  reorganization  on  a  reduced  scale.  The  other 
terms  included  the  cession  of  the  control  of  both  banks  of  the  Sutlej ; 
the  recognition  of  the  independent  sovereignty  of  Maharaja  Ghulab 
Singh  of  Jamu  ;  a  free  passage  through  Sikh  territory  for  British  troops  ; 
and  the  establishment  of  a  British  Resident  at  Lahore.  In  addition, 
at  the  request  of  the  Lahore  Government,  it  was  settled  that  a  British 
force  should  remain  at  Lahore  for  a  time  to  assist  in  the  reconstitution 
of  a  satisfactory  administration.  Simultaneously,  a  treaty  was  executed 
with  Maharaja  Ghulab  Singh  by  which  the  English  made  over  to  him 
in  sovereignty  the  Kashmir  territory  ceded  by  the  Lahore  Government, 
in  consideration  of  a  payment  of  three-quarters  of  a  million  sterling. 
Shortly  afterwards,  difficulties  arose  regarding  the  transfer  of  Kashmir, 
which  the  Sikh  Governor,  instigated  by  Lai  Singh,  the  chief  of  the 
Lahore  Darbar,  resisted  by  force  of  arms.  Lai  Singh  was  deposed  and 
exiled  to  British  India;  and  in  December  1846  a  fresh  treaty  was  con- 
cluded, by  which  the  affairs  of  the  State  were  to  be  carried  on  by  a 
Council  of  Regency,  under  the  direction  and  control  of  the  British 
Resident,  during  the  minority  of  the  young  Maharaja,  Dhulip  Singh. 

For  a  time,  the  work  of  reorganizing  the  shattered  government  of  the 
country  proceeded  quietly  and  with  every  prospect  of  success.  But 
besides  many  minor  causes  of  discontent  among  the  people,  such  as  the 

266  PUNJAB. 

withdrawal  of  the  prohibition  against  the  killing  of  kine,  and  the  restored 
liberty  of  the  much  hated  and  formerly  persecuted  Muhammadans,  the 
villages  were  filled  with  the  disbanded  soldiery  of  the  old  Sikh  army, 
who  were  only  waiting  for  a  signal  and  a  leader  to  rise  and  strike  another 
blow  for  the  power  they  had  lost.  At  length,  in  April  1848,  the  rebellion 
of  the  ex-Diwan  Miilraj  at  Miiltan,  and  the  murder  of  two  British  officers 
in  that  city,  roused  a  general  revolt  throughout  the  Sikh  kingdom. 
Multan  city  was  invested  by  hastily  raised  frontier  levies,  assisted  after- 
wards by  British  troops  under  General  Whish  ;  the  siege,  however,  had 
to  be  temporarily  raised  in  September,  owing  to  the  rapid  spread  of 
disaffection  among  the  Sikh  troops.  The  two  rebellious  Sardars, 
Chattar  Singh  and  Sher  Singh,  invoked  the  aid  of  the  Amir  of  Kabul, 
Dost  Muhammad,  who  responded  by  seizing  Peshawar,  and  sending  an 
Afghan  contingent  to  assist  the  Sikhs. 

In  October  1848,  the  British  army  under  the  command-in-chief  of 
General  Gough,  assumed  the  offensive,  and  crossed  the  Sutlej.  Proceed- 
ing from  Firozpur  across  the  Punjab  at  an  angle  to  the  Sikh  line  of 
march,  it  came  up  with  Sher  Singh  at  Ramnagar,  and  there  inflicted  on 
him  a  severe  check.  The  Sikh  army,  consisting  of  30,000  men  and  60 
guns,  made  a  stand  at  Chilianwala,  where  an  indecisive  and  sanguinary 
battle  was  fought  on  the  13th  January  1849.  'i'^^'O  or  three  days  after 
the  action,  Sher  Singh  was  joined  by  his  father  Chattar  Singh,  bringing 
with  him  Sikh  reinforcements,  and  a  thousand  Afghan  horse.  General 
Gough  awaited  the  arrival  of  the  column  under  General  Whish  (set  free 
by  the  fall  of  Multan  on  the  28th  January),  and  then  followed  up  the 
Sikhs  from  Chilianwala  to  Gujrat,  where  the  last  and  decisive  battle 
was  fought  on  the  22nd  February,  the  Sikhs  being  totally  defeated  with 
the  loss  of  60  guns.  The  Afghan  garrison  of  Peshawar  were  chased 
back  to  their  hills,  the  Amir  Dost  Muhammad  himself  narrowly  escaping 
capture.  The  remnants  of  the  Sikh  army  and  the  rebel  Sardars 
surrendered  at  Rawal  Pindi  on  the  14th  March,  and  henceforth  the 
entire  Punjab  became  a  Province  of  British  India. 

The  formal  annexation  was  proclaimed  at  Lahore  on  the  29th  March 
1849,  on  which  day  terms  were  offered  to,  and  accepted  by,  the  young 
Maharaja  Dhulip  Singh,  he  himself  receiving  in  return  an  annuity  of 
^50,000  a  year.  The  following  were  the  terms  of  the  cession  : — '  ist. 
His  Highness  the  Maharaja  Dhulip  Singh  shall  resign  for  himself,  his 
heirs,  and  his  successors,  all  right,  title,  and  claim  to  the  sovereignty  of 
the  Punjab,  or  to  any  sovereign  power  whatever.  2nd.  All  the  property 
of  the  State,  of  whatever  description  and  wheresoever  found,  shall  be 
confiscated  to  the  Honourable  East  India  Company,  in  part  payment 
of  the  debt  due  by  the  State  of  Lahore  to  the  British  Government,  and 
of  the  expenses  of  the  war.  3rd.  The  gem  called  the  Koh-i-niir,  which 
was  taken  from  Shah  Shuja-ul-mulk  by  Maharaja  Ranjit  Singh,  shall  be 

PUNJAB.  267 

surrendered  by  the  Maharaja  of  Lahore  to  the  Queen  of  England.  4th. 
His  Highness  Dhulip  Singh  shall  receive  from  the  Honourable  East 
India  Company,  for  the  support  of  himself,  his  relatives,  and  the  servants 
of  the  State,  a  pension  of  not  less  than  four,  and  not  exceeding  five, 
lakhs  of  Company's  rupees  per  annum.  5th.  His  Highness  shall  be 
treated  with  respect  and  honour.  He  shall  retain  the  title  of  Maharaja 
Dhulip  Singh,  Jkihadiir,  and  he  shall  continue  to  receive  during  his  life 
such  portion  of  the  above-named  pension  as  may  be  allotted  to  himself 
personally,  provided  he  shall  remain  obedient  to  the  British  Govern- 
ment, and  shall  reside  at  such  place  as  the  Governor-General  of  India 
may  select.'  His  Highness  has  for  long  resided  in  England,  where 
he  has  purchased  estates,  married,  and  settled  down  as  an  English 

The  Punjab,  after  being  annexed  in  1849,  was  first  governed  by  a 
Board  of  Administration.  It  was  subsequently  made  a  Chief  Com- 
missionership,  divided  into  Districts  upon  the  ordinary  English  model. 
After  the  Mutiny  it  was  erected  into  a  Lieutenant-Governorship,  the 
head-quarters  of  the  Lieutenant-Governor  being  fixed  at  Lahore. 

The  Mutiny.— Ax  the  time  of  the  outbreak  of  the  Mutiny  at  Delhi  in 
1857,  there  were  in  the  Punjab  the  following  troops  :— Hindustanis, 
35,000;  Punjabi  Irregulars,  13,000;  Europeans,  10,000;  there  were 
also  9000  military  police.  The  Europeans  consisted  of  12  regiments, 
of  whom  no  less  than  7  were  either  at  Peshawar  or  in  the  hills  noith  of 
Ambala,  leaving  only  5  regiments  to  hold  the  country  from  the  Indus 
to  the  Sutlej.  The  news  of  tlie  massacre  at  Delhi  reached  Lahore  on 
the  1 2th  of  May.  The  Chief  Commissioner  was  absent  at  Rawal 
Pindi,  and  Mr.  (now  Sir  R.)  Montgomery  was  the  chief  civil  officer 
present.  There  had  not  been  wanting  premonitory  signs  that  the 
sepoys  were  disaffected  and  likely  to  rise ;  and  accordingly,  on  the  13th 
May,  3000  Native  troops  were  successfully  disarmed  at  Mian  Mir.  At 
the  same  time  European  troops  were  thrown  into  the  forts  of  Govind- 
garh  and  Phillaur,  the  first  important  as  commanding  Amritsar,  the 
second  as  containing  a  large  arsenal  from  which  subsequently  were 
served  the  munitions  of  war  for  the  siege  of  Delhi.  On  the  14th  May 
the  arsenal  at  Firozpur  was  secured ;  the  sepoys  here  mutinied  on  the 
following  day,  and  escaped  without  punishment.  On  the  21st  of 
the  same  month  the  55th  Native  Infantry  rose  at  Marddn  and  fled  to 
independent  territory ;  many  were  killed  in  pursuit,  and  the  remainder 
were  destroyed  by  the  hillmen.  On  the  7th  and  8th  of  June  the 
Native  troops  at  Jalandhar  broke  and  escaped  to  Delhi.  In  the  first 
week  of  July,  the  sepoys  at  Jehlam  and  Sialkot  mutinied  ;  they  were 
destroyed,  as  were  the  26th  Native  Infantry,  who  rose  at  Lahore  on  the 
30th  July,  and  the  51st  Native  Infantry,  who  mutinied  at  Peshawar  on 
the  28th  Au2;ust. 

^^^  PUNJAB, 

Simultaneously  with  the  vigorous  suppression  of  open  mutiny,  13,000 
Native  troops  were  disarmed  without  resistance  during  June  and  July. 
While  the  Hindustani  troops  were  thus  disposed  of,  the  despatch  of 
remforcements  to  Delhi,  an  object  of  paramount  importance,  proceeded 
without  a  break.  About  the  17th  of  May  it  had  become  apparent  that 
the  Punjab  did  not  sympathize  with  the  movement  in  Hindustan,  and 
that  a  good  spirit  prevailed  in  the  Punjabi  troops.  It  was  therefore 
safe  to  augment  them;  and  18  new  regiments  were  raised  in  the 
Province  during  the  later  months  of  the  year.  As  these  forces  were 
being  enrolled  to  supply  the  place  of  those  who  marched  down  to 
Delhi,  the  stream  of  reinforcements  was  steadily  maintained.  Four 
regiments  from  the  European  garrison  of  the  Punjab  formed  the 
greater  portion  of  the  force  that  first  marched  upon  Delhi.  Next 
followed  two  wings  of  European  regiments  of  infantry.  Then  a  con- 
siderable force  of  Native  troops  was  despatched,  including  the  Guides, 
two  regiments  of  Punjab  cavalry,  a  body  of  Punjab  horse,  two 
regiments  of  Punjab  infantry,  and  a  body  of  1200  pioneers  raised  from 
the  Mazbi  Sikhs ;  7000  men,  forming  the  contingent  of  the  cis-Sutlej 
chiefs  of  Patiala,  Jind,  and  Nabha,  accompanied  the  regular  troops 
to  the  siege.  An  irregular  force  of  1000  men  was  also  detached 
to  clear  the  western  part  of  the  Delhi  territory.  Waggon  trains  were 
organized  from  Miiltan  and  Firozpur  via  Ambala  to  Delhi.  Siege 
trains,  treasure,  stores,  and  transport  animals  were  poured  down  from 
the  Punjab  for  the  besieging  force. 

Finally,  in  August  one  last  effort  was  to  be  made  to  send  reinforce- 
ments, in  spite  of  the  risk  run  in  denuding  the  Province  of  Europeans 
and  loyal  troops.  The  need  for  aiding  the  force  at  Delhi  was, 
however,  imperative;  it  was  therefore  resolved  to  send  Brigadier- 
General  John  Nicholson  with  the  moveable  column  and  every 
European  who  could  be  spared.  Two  half  regiments  of  European 
infantry,  the  52nd  Foot,  and  three  regiments  of  Punjab  infantry  were 
despatched.  These  were  followed  by  a  siege  train  from  Firozpur,  a 
wing  of  the  ist  Baliich  Regiment  arrived  from  Sind,  and  a  condngent 
2000  strong  from  the  Maharaja  of  Kashmir.  There  then  remained 
only  4500  Europeans  (including  sick)  to  hold  the  Punjab. 

The  crisis  had  now  come.  If  Delhi  were  taken  speedily,  all  was 
well ;  if  Delhi  were  not  taken  without  delay,  there  would  be  a  struggle 
for  European  dominion  and  existence  in  the  Punjab  itself.  The  next 
few  weeks  after  the  departure  of  Nicholson's  column  were  weeks  of 
anxious  suspense,  in  which  all  eyes  were  turned  to  Delhi.  The  first 
symptoms  of  the  wavering  faith  of  the  people  in  the  British  power 
appeared  in  local  outbreaks  at  Murree  in  the  north,  and  in  the  wild  and 
barren  tracts  south  of  Lahore,  between  the  Ravi  and  Sutlej.  Both 
were,   however,   soon   put  down,  and   the  fall  of  Delhi  on  the   14th 


PUNJAB.  269 

September  put  an  end  to  all  further  cause  for  apprehension.  The  first 
sign  that  the  mass  of  the  inhabitants  had  regained  confidence  was  that 
the  Sikhs  of  the  Manjha,  or  the  tract  between  the  Ravi  and  the  Sutlcj 
rivers,  who  had  hitherto  held  aloof,  came  forward  for  enlistment  in  the 
new  levies. 

The  loyal  action  of  the  chiefs  had  an  important  bearing  on  keeping 
the  population  steady  during  the  crisis.  The  Raja  of  Jind  was  actually 
the  first  man,  European  or  Native,  who  took  the  field  against  the 
mutineers;  and  his  contingent  collected  supplies  in  advance  for  the 
English  troops  marching  upon  Delhi,  besides  rendering  excellent 
service  during  the  siege.  The  Rajas  of  Patiala  and  Nabha  also  sent 
contingents  for  field  service ;  and  with  the  exception  of  the  Nawab  of 
Bahawalpur,  who  did  not  stir,  every  chief  in  the  Punjab,  so  far  as  he 
could,  aided  the  English  in  preserving  order  and  in  suppressing 
rebellion.  Rewards  in  the  shape  of  grants  of  territory  were  made  to 
the  chiefs  of  Patiala,  Jind,  and  Nabha,  and  a  large  zaminddri  estate 
in  Oudh  was  conferred  upon  the  Raja  of  Kapiirthala. 

Since  the   Mutiny,  the   Punjab   has    made  rapid  progress   in   com- 
mercial and  industrial  wealth.     The  first  year  after  the  suppression  of 
the  rebellion  is  remarkable  for  the  commencement  of  the  first  line  of 
railway  in  the  Punjab  from  Amritsar  to  Miiltan  (February  1859),  and 
for   the  admission   of  water  into  the   Pari    Doab    Canal.      With   the 
exception  of  punitive  military  expeditions  against  marauding  hill  tribes, 
the  history  of  the   Punjab   has   been  one   of  uninterrupted  progress. 
Canals   have   spread    irrigation   over  its  thirsty  fields  ;    railways   have 
opened  new  means    of  communication   for  its  surplus  produce;   and 
British  superintendence,  together  with  the  security  afforded  by  our  firm 
rule,  has  developed  its  resources  with  astonishing  rapidity.     In  January 
1876,  the  Prince  of  Wales  paid  a  visit  to  the  Punjab.     The  year  1877 
was  marked  by  the  Imperial  Assemblage,  and  the  gathering  of  all  the 
Punjab  feudatories  at  Delhi,  in  common  with  the  other  chiefs  of  India. 
During  the  late   Afghan   campaigns,  the  resources  of  the    Punjab 
were  fully  taxed,  as  it  formed  practically  the  base  of  operations  for  the 
armies  operating  in  Northern  Afghanistan.      In   the   earlier  phase  of 
the  war,   contingents  from    the   chiefs   of  Patiala,    Bahawalpur,   Jind, 
Nabha,  Kapurthala,  Faridkot,  and  Nahan  joined  the    British    forces, 
and  performed  excellent  service.      The  years  during  which  the  war 
lasted,  from  November  1878  to  the  end  of  1880,  were  years  of  some 
scarcity,  owing  to  deficient  rainfall ;  there  was  considerable  sickness, 
and  trade  towards  the  west  was  affected  by  the  war;  but  the  opera- 
tions in  the  field  called  everywhere  for  increased  labour,  high  profits 
were   made   by   many   sections    of    the    community,    and    the    simul- 
taneous  construction    of  the   railway  towards    Kohat   and   Peshawar, 
which  was  pushed  forward  with  much  energy,  afforded  ample  employ- 

2  70  PUNJAB. 

ment  to  the  needy ;  and  the  result  of  all  these  causes  was  the  general 
l)rosperity  of  the  people.  With  the  close  of  the  war,  the  Province 
resumed  its  normal  course,  and  has  prospered  without  interruption. 
The  most  important  features  of  this  period  are,  in  November  1882, 
the  opening  of  the  Sirhind  Canal,  which  is  destined  to  irrigate  a  vast 
extent  of  country ;  and  in  June  of  the  same  year,  the  completion  of 
direct  railway  communication  with  Peshawar. 

The  territories  now  under  the  administration  of  the  Lieutenant- 
Cxovernor  of  the  Punjab  comprise  : — (i)  The  Punjab  proper,  west  of  the 
Beas,  annexed  in  March  1849,  on  the  close  of  the  second  Sikh  war. 
(2)  The  Jalandhar  Doab  and  the  hill  District  of  Kangra,  which  were 
ceded  to  the  British  Government  by  the  treaty  of  Lahore  concluded 
in  March  1846,  after  the  termination  of  the  first  Sikh  war.  (3)  The 
country  east  of  the  river  Sutlej,  formerly  designated  the  cis-Sutlej 
States,  and  including — {a)  the  possessions  of  Maharaja  Dhulip  Singh  of 
Lahore,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Sutlej,  which  were  annexed  to  the 
British  territories  in  December  1845  ;  {b)  such  of  the  States  taken  under 
the  protection  of  the  British  in  1808-09  as  subsequently  lapsed  on 
the  death  of  their  chiefs  without  heirs,  or  were  confiscated  and 
brought  under  British  administration  in  January  1847,  in  consequence 
of  the  misconduct  of  their  chiefs  in  the  first  Sikh  war;  {c)  the  hill  Dis- 
trict of  Simla,  a  portion  of  which  was  acquired  after  the  Gurkha  war  of 
1 8 14-16,  and  the  remainder  subsequently  obtained  by  lapse,  purchase, 
or  exchange  for  other  territory.  (4)  The  Delhi  territory  west  of  the 
river  Jumna,  which  was  transferred  from  the  Government  of  the  North- 
western Provinces  to  that  of  the  Punjab  in  February  1858,  and 
separated  into  the  two  Divisions  of  Delhi  and  Hissar. 

Form  of  Administra/ion. — On  the  annexation  of  the  Punjab  in  March 
1849,  ^  Board  of  Administration  for  its  affairs  was  constituted,  to  which 
the  Commissioners  of  the  trans-Sutlej  and  cis-Sutlej  States  were  also 
made  subordinate.  The  Board  w^as  abolished  in  February  1853,  and 
its  powers  and  functions  were  vested  in  a  Chief  Commissioner,  subordi- 
nate to  whom  a  Judicial  Commissioner  and  a  Financial  Commissioner 
were  appointed.  After  the  transfer  of  the  Delhi  territory  from  the 
North-Western  Provinces,  the  Punjab  and  its  dependencies  were  con- 
stituted a  Lieutenant-Governorship  from  the  ist  January  1859, — Sir 
John  Lawrence,  who  had  hitherto  been  the  Chief  Commissioner,  being 
appointed  the  first  Lieutenant-Governor.  The  succeeding  Lieutenant- 
Governors  have  been,  Sir  R.  Montgomery,  Sir  D.  M'Leod,  Sir  H. 
Durand,  Sir  H.  Davies,  Sir  R.  Egerton,  and  Sir  C.  U.  Aitchison,  the 
present  (1886)  Lieutenant-Governor. 

In  1866,  a  Chief  Court,  consisting  of  two  judges,  a  barrister  and  a 
civilian,  was  substituted  for  the  Judicial  Commissioner,  and  was  con- 
stituted the  final  appellate  authority  in  criminal  and  civil  cases,  with 

PUNJAB,  271 

powers  also  of  original  criminal  jurisdiction  in  cases  where  European 
British  subjects  are  charged  with  serious  offences,  and  of  original  civil 
jurisdiction  in  special  cases.  In  1869,  a  third  judge,  a  civilian,  was 
added  to  the  Court. 

Subordinate  to  the  Chief  Court  and  Financial  Commissioner,  as  the 
chief  judicial  and  revenue  authorities  of  the  Province,  are  the  ten 
Commissioners  of  Divisions,  the  Settlement  Commissioner,  the  Civil 
and  Sessions  Judge  of  Peshawar,  and  two  additional  Commissioners. 
Next  follows  the  District  staff  composed  of  thirty-two  Deputy  Com- 
missioners of  Districts,  with  a  varying  staff  of  Judicial  Assistants,  of 
Assistant  and  Extra-Assistant  Commissioners,  tahsildars^  Jiaib  tahsildars, 
and  viunsifs.  Each  District  is  divided  into  tahsils^  which  form  the 
territorial  unit  of  division  for  revenue  and  judicial  purposes. 

The  Punjab  Government  has  no  local  legislature.  Whenever  it 
appears  necessary,  the  Lieutenant-Governor  proposes  draft  Bills  for  the 
consideration  of  the  Legislative  Council  of  the  Governor-General  of 
Lidia,  or  submits  to  the  Governor-General  in  Council  drafts  of  Regula- 
tions for  the  peace  and  better  government  of  any  Districts  to  which  the 
provisions  of  Statute  33  Victoria,  chapter  3,  have  been  extended  by 
the  Secretary  of  State  for  India,  and  such  Regulations,  if  approved  by 
the  Governor-General  in  Council  and  duly  pubHshed,  have  the  force 
of  law.  At  present  the  Statute  has  been  extended  to  the  frontier  Dis- 
tricts comprised  in  the  Peshawar  and  Derajat  Divisions,  and  to  the 
pargand  of  Spiti,  a  remote  tract  among  the  Himalayan  ranges,  belonging 
to  the  District  of  Kangra. 

Populatio}i. — The  first  Census  of  the  Punjab  was  taken  in  1855,  and 
disclosed  a  total  population  over  the  area  comprising  the  British  Pro- 
vince, as  at  present  constituted,  of  15,161,321  persons.  A  second 
enumeration  in  1868  returned  the  total  population  at  17,609,518.  The 
last  Census  in  1881  showed  a  total  population  of  18,850,437.  On  the 
whole,  the  increase,  namely  3,689,116,  or  at  the  rate  of  24-3  per  cent., 
in  the  26  years  between  1855  and  1881,  is  not  nearly  so  large  as  might 
have  been  expected  in  a  country  not  long  rescued  from  something  very 
like  anarchy,  and  brought  under  civilised  rule.  The  increase  between 
the  first  and  the  second  enumerations  amounted  to  i6'i  per  cent., 
while  the  rate  of  increase  for  the  thirteen  years  ending  with  the  Census 
of  1 88 1  was  only  7'i  per  cent.  The  Census  of  1868  was  taken  after 
seven  years  of  exceptional  prosperity,  while  that  of  1881  followed  three 
years  of  sickness,  war,  and  agricultural  distress.  The  rate  of  increase 
has  been  highest  in  the  sparsely-peopled  and  thinly-cultivated  tracts  of 
the  south-west,  where  the  excavation  of  inundation  canals  has  attracted 
emigrants  from  the  more  populated  portions  of  the  Province  as  well  as 
from  States  and  Provinces  outside  the  Punjab.  The  population  of  the 
submontane  Districts,  too  dense  to  be  supported  in  comfort  from  the 

272  PUNJAB. 

produce  of  its  cultivated  lands,  has  actually  decreased ;  while  in  the 
Himalayas  the  statistics  have  undergone  little  or  no  change.  The 
Native  States  in  the  Punjab  were  enumerated  for  the  first  time  in  1881, 
and  returned  a  total  population  of  3,861,683,  giving  a  gross  population 
for  both  British  and  Feudatory  territory  of  22,712,120  persons. 

The  following  are  the  principal  Census  details  of  the  population 
of  the  32  British  Districts  comprising  the  Lieutenant  -  Governorship 
of  the  Punjab  in  1881.  Separate  statistics  for  each  District  have 
been  given  in  the  table  on  pp.  245,  246.  Area  of  the  Province, 
106,632  square  miles;  number  of  towns,  238  ;  and  of  villages,  34,086; 
number  of  houses,  3,517,008,  namely,  occupied,  2,706,914,  and 
unoccupied,  810,094.  Number  of  famiHes,  4,128,440.  Total  popula- 
tion, 18,850,437,  namely,  males  10,210,053,  and  females  8,640,384; 
proportion  of  males  in  total  population,  54-2  per  cent.  Average  density 
of  the  population  (excluding  the  little  tract  forming  Simla  District), 
177  persons  per  square  mile,  varying  from  47  in  Dera  Ismail  Khan  to 
597  in  Jalandhar  District.  The  population  is  most  dense  in  the 
Jumna  valley,  the  Jalandhar  Doab,  the  upper  portion  of  the  Bari 
Doab,  as  well  as  along  the  banks  of  the  great  rivers,  and  in  the 
submontane  tract.  It  grows  sparser  in  the  hilly  north-western  Dis- 
tricts, and  in  the  Derajat ;  while  the  central  plateaux  between  the  great 
rivers  of  the  western  plains  are  almost  uninhabited,  and  the  wild 
mountainous  glens  of  Spiti  and  Lahul  support  only  a  few  scattered 
families,  at  the  rate  of  one  or  two  persons  only  to  the  square  mile. 
Average  number  of  towns  and  villages,  -32  per  square  mile;  persons 
per  town  or  village,  549,  or  excluding  towns,  481.  Average  number 
of  occupied  houses,  25-4  per  square  mile;  persons  per  occupied 
house,  6*9. 

Classified  according  to  sex  and  age,  the  population  comprises — under 
15  years  of  age,  males  3,928,577,  and  females  3,314,065  ;  total  children, 
7,242,642,  or  38-4  per  cent,  of  the  population:  15  years  and  upwards, 
males  6,281,476,  and  females  5,326,319;  total  adults,  11,607,795,  or 
6 1 '6  per  cent. 

Religio7i. — The  Census  of  1881  thus  classifies  the  population  of  the 
32  British  Districts  of  the  Punjab,  according  to  religion— Muham- 
madans  number  10,525,150,  or  55*8  per  cent.;  Hindus,  7,130,528, 
or  37-8  per  cent.;  Sikhs,  1,121,004,  or  5-9  per  cent.;  Jains,  35,826; 
Christians,  33,420;  Buddhists,  2864;  Parsis,  462;  and  'others'  and 
unspecified,  1183. 

The  Muhammadans  are  most  numerous  in  the  Peshawar  Division, 
where  they  form  92*2  per  cent,  of  the  whole  population;  and  in  the 
Derajat,  Rawal  Pindi  and  Miiltan  Divisions,  which  are  largely  peopled 
by  tribes  of  Afghan  or  Baluchi  descent.  They  become  less  numerous 
in  the  eastern   Punjab,  and  form  a  very  small  element  in   the  tract 


PUNJAB.  273 

between  the  Siitlej  and  the  Jumna,  amounting  to  only  23  per  cent,  in 
Delhi  District,  and  14  per  cent,  in  Rohtak.  In  the  remote  Kangra 
valleys,  the  faith  of  Islam  is  professed  by  only  5  per  cent,  of  the 

Of  the  Punjab  Muhammadans  by  race,  as  distinguished  from 
religious  classification,  the  most  numerous  are  the  Pathans,  who 
were  returned  at  838,233  in  t88i.  Shaikhs  come  next  with  327,928; 
followed  by  Baliichis,  299,962;  Sayyids,  225,446;  Kashmiris,  178,124; 
and  Mughals,  95,361.  But  nearly  every  caste,  originally  Hindu,  now 
contains  a  more  or  less  large  Muhammadan  element,  the  result  of 
conversions  in  the  earlier  days  of  Musalman  invasion.  Even  among 
the  Brahmans,  3236  are  returned  as  Muhammadans.  But  the  bulk  of 
converted  Hindus  are  found  in  the  Jat  and  Rajput  tribes.  The 
Muhammadan  Jats,  who  form  the  most  numerous  class  in  the  Province, 
number  1,656,673,  while  the  Muhammadan  Rajputs  are  returned  at 
1,110,591.  The  remaining  Muhammadan  classes  and  tribes  include 
the  following  :  — Arain,  674,742;  Awan,  532,456;  Julaha,  51I5537; 
Cxiijar,  431,195;  Chiihra,  388,978;  Muchi,  321,650;  Kumbhar, 
269,760;  Tarkhan,  248,029;  Teli,  225,873;  Mirasi,  176,344;  Nai, 
172,467;  Lobar,  166,756;  Machhi,  144,116;  Kassab,  88,357; 
Jhinwar,  125,887;  Meo,  115,399  5  Dhobi,  96,118;  Fakir,  93,972; 
Khoja,  61,295;  Maniar,  56,852;  Dogar,  49^244  5  Barwala,  48,342; 
Mallah,  46,845  ;  and  Tanaoli,  41,388.  The  Ghakkars,  supposed  to 
be  an  aboriginal  tribe,  now  Muhammadans,  are  returned  as  numbering 
25,788,  principally  in  Rawal  Pindi,  where  they  compose  the  gentry 
of  the  hill  population. 

The  Hindu  creed  musters  the  greatest  proportion  of  followers  in  the 
cis-Sutlej  Divisions  of  Delhi  and  Hissar,  and  among  the  primitive 
mountaineers  of  Kangra,  It  sinks  from  84  per  cent,  in  Rohtak  Dis- 
trict and  75  in  Delhi,  to  43  in  Jalandhar,  29  in  Amritsar,  and  21  in 
Lahore.  In  the  extreme  north-west  it  yields  entirely  to  the  Muham- 
madan element,  falling  as  low  as  10  per  cent,  in  Rawal  Pindi,  7  in 
Peshawar,  and  5  in  Kohat. 

The  Sikh  faith  forms  the  distinguishing  feature  of  the  central  and 
eastern  portions  of  the  Province  in  its  religious  aspect.  Though 
numerically  weak,  it  is  socially  and  politically  of  the  highest  import- 
ance, as  the  Sikhs  constituted  the  dominant  class  at  the  period  of 
annexation,  and  still  compose  the  mass  of  the  gentry  in  the  region 
between  the  Five  Rivers.  They  gather  most  thickly  around  the  sacred 
city  of  Amritsar,  in  which  District  they  amount  to  24  per  cent,  of 
the  people  ;  and  in  Jalandhar,  Lahore,  Ludhiana,  and  Firozpur,  where 
they  compose  from  11  to  26  per  cent.  The  number  is  much  smaller 
in  the  hilly  north-western  Districts  and  the  cis-Sutlej  tracts,  while 
the  Sikhs  almost  disappear  in  the  trans-Indus  Divisions  of  the  Derajat 

VOL.  XI.  s 

2  74  PUNJAB. 

and  Peshawar,  as  well  as  in  the  valley  of  the  Jumna.  Even  in  the 
southern  angle  of  the  Punjab  Proper,  around  Miiltan  and  Muzaffar- 
garh,  the  Sikh  element  forms  a  mere  fraction  in  the  population.  The 
Sikhs  are  famous  for  their  personal  bravery,  and  their  religion  prompts 
them  to  hold  life  of  little  importance,  one  of  their  strictest  sects  being 
known  as  Akali  or  'immortal.'  They  are  very  illiterate,  and  Ranji't 
Singh  could  neither  read  nor  write.  Their  sacred  books  bear  the  name 
of  the  Granth. 

Of  the  total  Hindu  and  Sikh  population  (including  Jains),  Brahmans 
number  815,459;  Rajputs,  325,216;  Khattris,  377,710;  and  Baniyas, 
316,282.  The  Hindu  Jats,  however,  form  the  most  numerous  sec- 
tion of  the  Hindu  population,  as  their  Muhammadan  brethren  do 
of  the  Muhammadan  population,  and  are  returned  in  the  Census 
Report  at  1,907,737.  The  other  castes  (Hindu  and  Sikh)  include — 
Chamar,  793.9^4  ;  Chiihra,  550,077  ;  Arora,  537,330  ;  Tarkhan, 
259,976;  Jhinwar,  241,890;  Ghirat,  157,726;  Kumbhar,  151,828; 
Saini,  139,245;  Giijar,  122,101;  Nai,  116,263;  Ahir,  112,512;  Sonar, 
105,518;    Lohar,  97,813;    Kanet,   74,552;   Rathi,  52,733;  and  Mali, 


The  Buddhists  of  the  Punjab  are  almost  entirely  confined  to  the 
Tibetan  tract  of  Spiti,  in  the  Kiilu  Sub-division  of  Kangra  District, 
where  they  number  2860,  out  of  a  total  returned  at  2864. 

The  Christian  population,  numbering  33,420,  comprises — European 
British  subjects,  10,761  ;  other  Europeans,  including  Americans, 
Australians,  and  Africans,  17,015;  Eurasians,  1821;  and  Natives, 
3823.  By  sect,  the  Church  of  England  numbers  18,911  adherents; 
Roman  Catholic  Church,  8021;  Presbyterian  Church  of  Scotland,- 
1619;  Baptists,  697;  Wesleyans,  361  ;  Episcopal  Church  of  Scotland, 
96;  Protestants  unspecified  by  sect,  1913;  Armenian  Church,  33; 
other  denominations,  and  unspecified,  1769. 

The  Punjab  presents  two  very  distinct  types  of  social  structure.  In 
the  eastern  plains  and  throughout  the  Himalayan  region  the  institution 
of  caste  obtains  in  its  proper  form,  distinctions  being  based  primarily  upon 
occupation,  and  among  the  land-owning  classes  upon  political  import- 
ance, and  the  tribe  being  a  mere  sub-division  of  the  caste.  Occupations 
are  by  presumption  hereditary,  and  different  castes  cannot  intermarry. 
But  throughout  the  western  plains  and  on  the  Indus  frontier,  tribe  and 
not  caste  is  the  social  unit  among  the  land-owning  classes ;  the  latter, 
in  the  widest  sense  of  the  term,  either  having  dwindled  to  a  mere 
tradition  of  origin,  or  being  a  mere  ethnic  distinction.  Here,  too,  the 
only  restriction  upon  occupation  is  that  springing  from  the  pollution 
attaching  to  certain  callings  ;  while  the  chief  restrictions  upon  inter- 
marriage depend  upon  social  position  rather  than  upon  tribe  or  caste. 
The  cis-Indus  Salt  Range  occupies  an  intermediate  position  between 

PUNJAB.  275 

these  two  types.  The  distinction  between  them  is  not  merely  due  to  the 
difference  of  religion  which  marks  the  great  mass  of  the  population  in 
the  east  and  west ;  for  in  the  eastern  portion  of  the  Province,  Islam  has, 
if  anything,  tended  to  tighten  the  bonds  of  caste,  and  the  convert 
retains  unimpaired  the  standing,  name,  and  prejudices  of  his  caste, 
while  thoughout  the  Punjab  the  life  of  the  people  is  regulated  by  tribal 
and  social  rule  and  custom  rather  than  by  any  prescriptions  of  religion. 
The  explanation  must  be  sought  in  the  fact  that  while  the  society  in  the 
Eastern  Punjab  is  modelled  upon  the  type  which  prevails  throughout 
the  greater  part  of  India,  the  people  of  the  west  have  already  followed 
the  example  of  the  frontier  nations  with  whom  they  are  in  contact, — 
nations  whose  tribal  and  social  restrictions  are  far  more  loose  than 
those  of  the  inhabitants  of  India. 

The  32  British  Districts  of  the  Punjab  contained,  in  i88r,  21  towns 
with  a  population  exceeding  20,000,  namely — (i)  Delhi,  the  ancient 
capital  of  the  Mughal  Empire,  173,393;  (2)  Amritsar  (Umritsur),  the 
metropolis  of  the  Sikh  religion,  151,896;  (3)  Lahore,  the  modern  seat 
of  Government  for  the  Province,  149,369  ;  (4)  Peshawar,  the  chief 
station  on  the  north-western  frontier,  79,982  ;  (5)  Multan  (Mooltan), 
the  principal  commercial  centre  of  the  southern  Punjab,  68,674  ;  (6) 
Ambala  (Umballa),  67,463  ;  (7)  Rawal  Pindi,  52,975  ;  (8)  Jalandhar 
(JuUunder),  52,119;  (9)  Sialkot,  45,762;  (10)  Ludhiana,  44,163; 
(11)  FiRozpuR  (Ferozepore),  39,570;  (12)  Bhiwani.  33,762;  (13) 
Panipat,  25,022;  (14)  Batala,  24,281;  (15)  RiwARi,  23,972;  (16) 
Karnal,  23,133  ;  (17)  GujRANWALA,  22,884  ;  (iS)  Dera  Ghazi  Khan, 
22,309;  (19)  Dera  Ismail  Khan,  22,164;  (20)  Hushiarpur,  21,363; 
and  (21)  Jehlam,  21,107. 

The  Census  also  returns  1 1 1  towns  with  a  population  between 
5000  and  20,000;  and  106  smaller  towns,  either  as  civil  stations, 
cantonments,  or  municipalities.  The  total  urban  population  of 
these  238  towns  and  stations  amounts  to  2,431,357,  or  12-9  per 
cent,  of  the  population  of  British  territory  in  the  Punjab.  The 
Province  contained  202  municipalities  in  1883-84,  of  which  8  are  of 
the  first,  20  of  the  second,  and  174  of  the  third  class.  Total  municipal 
income  (1883-84),  ^305,559,  or  an  average  of  2s.  ii|d.  per  head  of  the 
population  (2,144,379)  within  municipal  limits.  Simla,  population 
13,258,  the  summer  capital  of  India,  stands  on  an  isolated  patch  of  British 
territory  among  the  mountains  of  the  north-eastern  border ;  and  Marri 
(Murree),  in  Rawal  Pindi  District,  population  2489,  forms  the  great 
hill  sanitarium  for  the  western  half  of  the  Province ;  while  between 
them,  the  hill  stations  of  Dharmsala  in  Kangra  and  Dalhousie  in 
Gurdaspur,  are  favourite  resorts  during  the  summer  months. 

Of  the  34,324  towns  and  villages  in  British  territory  in  1881,  the  Census 
returns  11,937  as  containing  less  than  two  hundred  inhabitants;    11,879 

276  PUNJAB. 

from  two  to  five  hundred  ;  6348  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand  ;  2954 
from  one  to  two  thousand  ;  693  from  two  to  three  thousand ;  349 
from  three  to  five  thousand;  115  from  five  to  ten  thousand;  20  from 
ten  to  fifteen  thousand;  8  from  fifteen  to  twenty  thousand;  13  from 
twenty  to  fifty  thousand  ;  while  8  contain  upwards  of  fifty  thousand 

The  Punjab  '  Village:— i:\iQ  'village'  of  the  Census  Report  includes, 
as  regards  British  territory,  all  the  population  living  wdthin  the  area 
of  the  mauzd,  or  village  unit  of  revenue  administration.  Throughout 
the  greater  part  of  the  Province  this  is  a  perfectly  natural  and 
homogeneous  unit,  and  embraces  the  lands  owned  and  cultivated  by 
the  members  of  a  single  village  community  who,  with  their  attendant 
traders,  priests,  and  menials,  live  in  one  main  homestead,  though  they 
occasionally  occupy  also  one  or  more  small  hamlets  situated  in  the 
outlying  fields,  where  certain  families  or  parts  of  families  live  more  or 
less  permanently  for  the  convenience  of  being  close  to  their  work. 

But  on  the  great  pasture  lands  of  the  Miiltan  Division  and  in  the 
sandy  plains  of  the  Sind-Sagar  dodb,  the  large  and  compact  village 
communities  of  the  Eastern  Punjab  are  almost  unknown.  The  people 
here  have  only  lately  abandoned  a  nomad  life,  and  are  still  largely 
pastoral  in  their  habits.  Much  of  the  land  has  been  brought  under 
cultivation,  often  since  the  introduction  of  our  rule,  by  local  notables 
holding  grants  from  Government  who  have  collected  cultivators  from 
diverse  sources  and  settled  them  here  and  there  in  small  bodies 
each  in  a  separate  homestead,  or  by  individuals  who  have  acquired 
property  by  breaking  up  waste  or  by  the  construction  of  irrigation  works  ; 
and  the  local  hollows,  in  which  alone  grass  and  water  or  cultivable  land 
are  in  many  parts  to  be  found,  are  occupied  by  small  communities 
consisting  each  of  only  a  few  families  and  living  at  great  distances  from 
each  other.  So  in  the  trans-Jehlam  and  frontier  tracts,  where  Pathans, 
Baluchis,  Ghakkars,  and  other  dominant  races  have  subjugated  but  not 
expelled  a  peaceful  agricultural  population,  the  latter  are  similarly 
scattered  over  the  country  in  small  detached  homesteads  surrounding 
the  central  stronghold  of  their  conquerors;  while  where  the  tribal 
organization  exists  in  full  vitality  and  the  land  is  held  and  cultivated  by 
the  dominant  race,  there  is  no  intermediate  step  between  the  clan  which 
occupies  a  considerable  tract  of  country,  and  its  constituent  families 
of  which  every  two  or  three  form  a  separate  group  and  inhabit  a  separate 

In  these  cases  the  hamlet  is  usually  too  small  to  be  recognised  as  a  unit; 
and  the  boundaries  of  the  '  village '  embrace  an  area,  often  enormous, 
over  which  a  scanty  population  is  widely  scattered  in  small  communities 
having  no  connection  with  one  another  beyond  the  mere  fact  of  their 
common  inclusion  in  an  artificial  unit  based  upon   considerations  of 

PUNJAB,  277 

administrative  convenience.  The  'village'  of  the  Census  tables 
is  in  many  cases  largest  where  the  unit  of  habitation  is  smallest. 
Thus,  there  are  in  Dera  Ismail  Khan  three  village  areas,  each  including 
a  population  of  more  than  5000,  but  of  which  the  inhabitants  live  in 
numerous  scattered  hamlets  no  one  of  which  contains  more  than  350 
souls.  So  again,  there  is  in  Bannu  a  '  village  '  of  2000  inhabitants  which 
is  split  up  into  not  less  than  43  distinct  hamlets,  and  covers  an  area  of 
loi  square  miles;  while  the  'town'  of  Lawain  Jehlam  includes  an  area  of 
141  square  miles  dotted  over  with  innumerable  tiny  hamlets  surrounding 
a  central  town,  and  containing  a  total  population  of  over  6000  souls  ; 
and  in  the  hills  even  more  striking  cases  occur.  There  are  in  the 
British  Districts  32  places  of  more  than  5000  inhabitants  which  have, 
by  reason  of  the  scattered  nature  of  their  population,  been  classed  as 
villas^es  and  not  as  towns. 

Occupatio7is  of  the  People. — The  adult  male  population  of  the  British 
Districts  of  the  Punjab  is  returned  in  the  Census  under  the  following 
seven  main  headings,  with  a  vast  number  of  sub-orders  too  numerous 
for  specification  here: — Class  i.  Professional,  including  all  persons 
engaged  in  the  administration  of  the  Province,  114,862  ;  army,  62,887  ; 
learned  professions,  literature,  art  or  science,  142,596  :  total,  320,345. 
Class  2.  Domestic  and  menial,  including  boarding  and  lodging  house 
keepers,  4827;  and  attendants,  domestic  servants,  menials,  etc., 
324,135  :  total,  328,962.  Class  3.  Commercial,  including  bankers, 
merchants,  and  traders,  76,021  ;  and  all  carriers,  messengers,  porters, 
etc.,  102,456:  total,  178,477.  Class  4.  Agricultural,  including  all 
cultivators,  fruit  and  market  gardeners,  and  flower  dealers,  also  graziers, 
3,074,183  ;  and  persons  engaged  about  animals,  such  as  horse,  cattle, 
and  sheep  breeders  and  dealers,  farriers,  hunters,  fishermen,  etc., 
22,056:  total,  3,096,239.  Class  5.  Commercial,  including  workers  in 
art  and  mechanical  productions.  37,833  :  workers  and  dealers  in  textile 
fabrics,  684,929  ;  workers  and  dealers  in  articles  of  food  and  drink, 
280,358;  workers  and  dealers  in  animal  substances,  such  as  hides, 
leather,  etc.,  34,481;  workers  and  dealers  in  vegetable  substances, 
such  as  oil-men,  carpenters,  workers  in  mat,  straw,  etc.,  217,458  ;  workers 
and  dealers  in  minerals,  203,420  :  total.  1,458,479.  Class  6.  Indefinite 
and  non-productive,  including  general  labourers,  270,380;  persons  of 
rank  and  property,  12,813;  and  of  no  true  occupation,  262,471  :  total, 
545,664.     Class  7.   Occupation  not  specified,  353,309- 

^Agriculture.— T\\^  tillage  of  the  Western  Punjab  extends  along  the 
foot  of  the  boundary  mountains,  and  stretches  in  long  strips  by  the 
side  of  the  great  arterial  rivers.  But  cultivation  is  more  extensive  in 
the  central  and  southern  portion  of  the  Eastern  Plains,  which,  while 
comprising  only  15  per  cent,  of  the  total  area  of  the  Province,  com- 
prise no  less  than  2  7  per  cent,  of  its  cultivated  area,  or  more  than  the 

278  PUNJAB. 

whole  of  the  Western  Plains,  with  their  rivers  and  canals.  Excluding 
Native  States,  and  the  semi-independent  possessions  of  the  Nawab  of 
Teri  in  Kohat,  and  the  Nawab  of  Tanawal  in  Hazara,  the  total  assessed 
area  of  the  32  British  Districts  in  the  Punjab  in  1883-84  is  returned 
at  64,139,592  acres,  of  which  23,518,686  acres  are  under  cultivation ; 
5,867,214  acres  are  grazing  lands  ;  20,488,941  acres  are  cultivable,  but 
still  untilled;  and  14,264,751  acres  are  absolutely  barren. 

The  agricultural  year  is  divisible  into  the  rahi  or  spring,  and  the  kharif 
or  autumn  harvest.  The  former  is  the  more  important,  the  principal  crop 
being  wheat,  covering  an  area  in  1875  of  6,282,687  acres,  and  in  1883-84 
of  7,209,721  acres;  gram,  1,604,132  acres  in  1875,  and  1,853,769  acres 
in  1883-84;  barley,  1,818,433  ^^res  in  1875,  and  1,681,849  acres  in 
1883-84.  Oil -seeds  are  largely  grown,  occupying  594,309  ^^^^^ 
of  the  rabi  area  in  1883-84.  Peas  and  other  pulses  occupy  a  small 
area,  and  tobacco  and  vegetables  are  grown  on  garden  plots.  Tea 
cultivation  is  followed  with  success  chiefly  in  Kangra  District,  the  area 
having  extended  from  5623  acres  in  1875  to  9600  acres  in  1883-84.  The 
area  occupied  by  the  principal  rabi  crops  has  increased  from  10,961,257 
acres  in  1875  to  12,502,416  acres  in  1883-84.  Rice  cultivation,  which 
forms  the  chief  staple  of  the  kharif  oxo^,  has  decreased  of  late  years, 
having  fallen  from  802,014  acres  in  1875  to  569,808  acres  in  1883-84. 
Millets  {jodr  and  bdjra)  were  grown  on  4,613,720  acres  in  1875,  and 
459455850  acres  in  1883-84  ;  Indian  corn,  1,039,594  acres  in  1875,  and 
1,233,718  acres  in  1883-84;  and  pulses,  1,604,006  acres  in  1875,  and 
1,130,090  acres  in  1883-84.  Cotton  cultivation  increased  fi om  651,150 
acres  in  1875  to  802,534  acres  in  1883-84.  Sugar-cane  was  grown  on 
344,993  acres  in  1875,  and  348,141  acres  in  1883-84.  Total  area 
occupied  by  the  principal  kharif  crops,  9,610,166  acres  in  1875,  and 
9,994,749  acres  in  1883-84. 

The  methods  of  agriculture  still  retain  their  primitive  simplicity, 
scarcely  differing  from  those  in  use  during  the  Vedic  period.  Artificial 
irrigation  is  common,  and  is  rapidly  extending,  about  25  per  cent,  of 
the  cultivated  area  being  irrigated  either  from  Government  canals  or 
private  works.  The  Bari  Doab,  the  Western  Jumna,  and  the  Sutlej 
inundation  canals  supply  water  to  a  large  area;  while  the  Sirhind 
Canal,  the  main  line  of  which  was  opened  in  November  1882,  and  its 
branches  completed  in  1883-84,  has  already  added  greatly  to  the  fertility 
of  the  dry  cis-Sutlej  tract.  The  Swat  River  Canal  was  opened  in 
1884-85.  These  canals  will  be  more  fully  referred  to  in  a  subsequent 
paragraph.  Manure  is  applied  only  in  the  vicinity  of  villages,  and  to 
the  best  crops,  such  as  sugar-cane,  cotton,  and  rice,  when  grown  near 
wells.  Rotation  of  crops  is  confined  chiefly  to  manured  soils,  where, 
after  a  rich  crop,  poorer  and  poorer  staples  are  sown  successively  until 
the  manure  is  exhausted  ;  when  another  dressing  becomes  necessary, 

PUNJAB.  279 

followed  by  a  similar  cycle  of  crops.  For  example,  in  the  cis-Sutlej 
tract,  sugar-cane  is  succeeded  by  wheat,  and  wheat  by  cotton,  so  that 
the  manure  once  laid  down  suffices  for  three  years. 

Cultivation  is  steadily  and  quickly  advancing  in  the  Punjab.  The 
area  under  tillage  rose  from  20  to  23^-  millions  of  acres  in  the  fifteen 
years  ending  1883-84.  The  irrigation  by  Government  canals  rose 
during  the  same  period  from  ij  to  considerably  over  i|  millions  of 
acres  (increase  more  than  half  a  million) ;  irrigation  from  wells,  water- 
courses, and  other  private  works,  from  4I  to  5 J  millions  of  acres 
(increase,  say  J  million).  Total  increase  in  irrigation  during  fifteen 
years,  nearly  \\  million  acres,  or  about  17  per  cent.  Not  only  did  the 
general  area  under  tillage  increase,  but  the  area  under  the  more 
valuable  crops  increased  in  an  even  greater  ratio.  Thus  (in  round 
figures)  the  area  under  wheat  was  5  J  million  acres  in  1869,  and  7^ 
miUions  in  1883-84;  oil-seeds  in  1869  occupied  nearly  half  a  million 
acres,  and  in  1884  upwards  of  three-quarters  of  a  million  acres;  sugar- 
cane, which  in  1869  covered  325,831  acres,  in  1884  had  increased  to 
348,141  acres;  indigo  rose  within  the  same  period  from  32,444  to 
128,251  acres;  and  tea  from  5521  to  9600  acres.  The  selling  price  of 
land  rose  from  18  years'  purchase,  calculated  on  the  land  revenue 
demand  of  1869,  to  25 J  years'  purchase  in  1879.  The  average 
incidence  of  the  land  revenue  per  cultivated  acre  fell  during  the  same 
period  from  25  J  pence  to  23  pence. 

Rents  are  paid  both  in  money  and  kind,  and  the  following  return  of 
rent  rates  prevailing  in  1883-84  is  based,  in  the  latter  case,  on  an 
estimate  of  the  money  value  of  the  landlord's  share.  The  following 
statement  shows  the  average  rates  prevailing  throughout  the  Province 
for  lands  growing  different  descriptions  of  crops  : — Wheat  land 
(irrigated),  from  7s.  4d.  to  19s.  lod.  an  acre — unirrigated,  4s.  5jd.  to 
13s.  id.  an  acre;  inferior  grains  (irrigated),  4s.  ijd.  to  13s.  an  acre; 
rice,  from  7s.  9|d.  to  ^i,  2s.  8d.  an  acre  ;  cotton,  from  6s.  to  17s.  an 
acre;  sugar-cane,  from  19s.  8d.  to  ^2,  9s.  lod.  an  acre;  indigo,  from 
7s.  3d.  to  19s.  7d.  an  acre;  oil-seeds  (irrigated),  5s.  9id.  to  14s.  6|d. 
an  acre — unirrigated,  4s.  to  9s.  9jd.  an  acre.  The  av^erage  out-turn  of 
produce  throughout  the  Province  is  thus  returned : — Wheat,  659  lbs. 
per  acre;  rice,  730  lbs.  ;  barley,  677  lbs.;  bdjra,  345  lbs.  ;  jodr,  323 
lbs.;  cotton,  177  lbs.;  tobacco,  845  lbs.;  unrefined  sugar  {^ur)^  761 
lbs.  ;  and  tea,  202  lbs.  Wages  and  prices  have  both  risen  greatly 
through  the  action  of  railways.  The  average  prices  of  food-grains  ruled 
as  follows  on  the  ist  of  January  1884: — Wheat,  21 J  sers  per  rupee, 
or  5s.  2d.  per  cwt. ;  barley,  33!  sers  per  rupee,  or  3s.  4|d.  per  cwt. ; 
gram,  30 J  sers  per  rupee,  or  3s.  7^d.  per  cwt.;  bdjra^  27 J  sers  per 
rupee,  or  4s.  id.  per  cwt.  ;  jodr^  32  J  sers  per  rupee,  or  3s.  5M.  per 
cwt.  ;  rice,  7 J  sers  per  rupee,  or   15s.  per  cwt.      Wages   of  unskilled 

28o  PUNJAB. 

labour  range  from  3^d.  to  5|d.,  and  of  skilled  labour  from  Sd.  to  is.  2d. 
per  diem. 

Horse  and  cattle  breeding  are  carried  on  to  a  considerable  extent, 
both  by  Government  at  stud  depots  and  by  private  individuals.  The 
Government  Horse-Breeding  Department  maintained  in  1883-84,  190 
horse  and  167  donkey  stallions.  Horse  fairs  were  held  at  ten  towns 
in  the  Punjab  in  1883-84,  at  which  7675  animals  were  exhibited,  and 
prizes  to  the  extent  of  ;£^ii35  ^^^^  awarded.  Twelve  cattle  fairs  were 
held  in  the  same  year,  at  which  fees  to  the  extent  of  £,S^^'^  were 
levied,  in  return  for  an  expenditure  of  ;£"i329  on  prizes  and  for  other 
purposes.  The  demands  made  for  carriage  during  the  Afghan  cam- 
paign, a  succession  of  bad  seasons,  drought,  and  cattle  disease  for  a 
time  seriously  affected  the  number  of  cattle  and  beasts  of  burthen  in 
the  Province ;  and  although  a  return  of  better  seasons  has  occurred  of 
late  years,  the  last  return  of  agricultural  stock  still  shows  the  number  of 
horses,  cows,  and  bullocks  to  be  below  what  they  were  in  1868.  The 
figures  for  1883-84  return  —  Cows  and  bullocks,  6,707,904 ;  horses, 
86,228;  ponies,  38,456;  donkeys,  351,890;  sheep  and  goats,  4,906,883; 
pigs,  65,955  ;  and  camels,  174,753.     Carts  numbered  100,669. 

Forests. — The  Forest  Department  of  the  Punjab  administers  an  area 
of  4694  square  miles  in  British  territory,  or  in  Native  States  of  which 
the  forests  have  been  leased  to  Government.  The  latter,  which  are 
situated  principally  in  Chamba  and  Bashahr,  are  managed  in  accordance 
with  agreements  made  with  the  chiefs  of  those  States.  The  former  are 
subject  to  the  Forest  Act  (vii.  of  1878),  the  Hazara  Forest  Regulation 
(11.  of  1879),  and  in  a  few  cases  to  rules  for  the  conservancy  of  hill 
Districts,  which  were  published  in  1855.  A  further  area  of  13,000 
square  miles,  covered  more  or  less  with  inferior  forest  growth,  is  managed 
by  the  District  Deputy  Commissioners,  chiefly  as  grazing  ground. 
Efforts  have  been  made  to  secure  the  lease  of  a  larger